The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Carl Wilhelm Jessen
Carl Wilhelm Jessen was a Danish naval officer and Governor of St Thomas in the Danish West Indies. Carl Wilhelm Jessen was a Danish naval officer and the son of Councillor of State Nicolai Jacob Jessen, Jessen became a naval cadet in 1776. He was commissioned as a lieutenant in the navy in 1782, and was promoted senior lieutenant in 1789, commander in 1796, captain in 1803, senior captain in 1810. He left naval service as an admiral in 1822. He became Governor of the island of St Thomas in the Danish West Indies, immediately after his lieutenants examination, Jessen joined an expedition to the Caribbean with the small Lærken, where he participated in a successful battle against two English privateers. Between 1784 and 1786 Jessen participated in trading voyages with West India Company ships as first mate. In 1789 he was a tutor at the Naval Cadet Academy, in 1790, as captain of Makrellen, he performed reconnaissance for the squadron. During the period 1793–94 he was the deputy commander of the brig Lougen under Captain H.
Kaas and they operated in the Caribbean, where Jessen participated in battles against privateers. In 1795, Jessen was second-in-command of the frigate Thetis, for at least part of the period 1795 to 1799 Thetis was active in the Mediterranean protecting Danish shipping interests. Although Thetis was not present at the battle of 16 May 1797, she had been at Tripoli before – with a bribe for the Bey – and with a squadron. In 1799 and 1800 Jessen was second in command of the Naval Academy, as captain of Lougen he again sailed to the West Indies. There he had the schooners Iresine and Den Aarvaagne under his command, on 1 September 1800 he captured the British privateer Eagle, which had been molesting Danish merchant shipping for a long time. This was the ”Slaget ved Fugleklippen” or the Battle of West Kay, when the Danes surrendered the islands he had to hand over all three of his ships to the British. And sailed home with the occupiers, on his return to Copenhagen King Christian VII bestowed on him a gold sword in recognition of his fight against the British.
In 1803–1804 he was again in the Danish West Indies, this time as captain of the frigate Frederickssteen, part of his remit was to act for the government of the Danish West Indies on all questions of naval service and maritime defence. In December 1807 Jessen returned to Øresund with 200 of his crew on the sick list, on 22 March 1808 he met two smaller enemy warships, HMS Quebec and HMS Lynx, and to prevent them entering the Great Belt he kept a northerly course. The British ships-of-the-line off Hornbæk had meanwhile become aware of his departure, at 2 pm Prins Christian Frederick observed two British ships-of-the-line approaching from the east, and Jessen realised that a decisive battle was at hand. The British ships-of-the-line were Nassau and Stately, accompanied by the frigate Quebec, the wind was variable and failing, frustrating his plan
1859 in Denmark
Events from the year 1859 in Denmark. The Navys activities are moved to Nyholm while the Botanical Gardens relocate to their current site. 28 May – The poet Bernhard Severin Ingemann, a figure of the Danish Golden Age, turns 70. 20 September – Copenhagen Zoo is inaugurated,2 October – Illustreret Tidende, Denmarks first illustrated weekly, is published for the first time. 17 December – Frederiksborg Castle is devastated by fire but Frederiksborg Chapel is saved, house numbers are introduced in Copenhagen Albani Brewery is founded on the island of Funen
Frederick VI of Denmark
Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his fathers illness and was referred to as the Crown Prince Regent. For his motto he chose God and the just cause and since the time of his reign, Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Frederick belonged to the House of Oldenburg and his parents were King Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. He was born after 15 months of marriage, just a day before his fathers 19th birthday, as the eldest son of the ruling king, he automatically became crown prince at birth. On 30 January of the year, he was baptised at Christiansborg Palace by Ludvig Harboe. His godparents were King Christian VII, the dowager queen Juliana Maria and his half-uncle, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent and lover of Caroline Matilda, Fredericks mother. Both were ideologically influenced by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau, while Struensee was in power, young Frederick was raised at Hirschholm Palace following the educational approach advocated by Rousseau in his famous work Émile.
Instead of receiving direct instruction, Frederick was expected to learn everything through his own efforts through playing with two boys as per Struensees instructions. On 8 January 1772, after the revolt against Struensee, Fredericks 18-year-old half-uncle Hereditary Prince Frederick was made regent, the real power, was held by Hereditary Prince Fredericks mother, Queen Dowager Juliana Maria, aided by Ove Høegh-Guldberg. It is said that during the coup, he engaged in a fistfight with his half-uncle over the regency and he continued as regent of Denmark under his fathers name until the latters death in 1808. During the regency, Frederick instituted widespread liberal reforms with the assistance of Chief Minister Andreas Peter Bernstorff, crises encountered during his reign include disagreement with the British over neutral shipping. This resulted in two British attacks on Copenhagen, the Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 and the Battle of Copenhagen of 1807, the conflict continued in the Gunboat War between Denmark-Norway and the United Kingdom, which lasted until the Treaty of Kiel in 1814.
There was speculation that he was to marry a Prussian princess and they married in Gottorp on 31 July 1790 and had eight children. Their eldest daughter, Princess Caroline married her father’s first cousin, the youngest, Princess Wilhelmine, became the wife of the future Frederick VII of Denmark. None of Frederick VIs sons survived infancy and when he died, he was succeeded by his cousin Christian VIII of Denmark, Frederick became King of Denmark on 13 March 1808. When the throne of Sweden seemed likely to become vacant in 1809, Fredericks brother-in-law, Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenborg, was first elected to the throne of Sweden, followed by the French Marshal Bernadotte. During the Napoleonic Wars, he tried to maintain Danish neutrality, however after the British bombardment of Copenhagen, after the French defeat in Russia in 1812, the Allies again asked him to change sides but he refused
Carl Frederik Emanuel Larsen usually known as Emanuel Larsen was a Danish painter who specialized in marine painting. Larsen was admitted to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in January 1839 where he was a student of Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, under Eckersberg, he specialized in marine painting. In 1845, he exhibited his Morgen ved Sjællands Kyst which was purchased by the Statens Museum for Kunst. The same year, he travelled on a ship to the Faroe Islands and Iceland and from 1852–54 to England, Belgium, Paris. He was awarded the Neuhausen Prize in 1851 for Udsigt fra Langelinie mod Nyholm med Mastekranen, despite his interest in Dutch marine art, Larsen was probably the Danish artist who was least influenced by foreign works. The influential C. J. Thomsen praised Larssens work, commenting that his paintings showed he had an eye for the fresh, open life at sea, Larsen died in September 1859 after a short illness
Line Luplau was a Danish feminist and suffragist. She was the co-founder of the Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgretsforbund or DKV, Line Luplau was the daughter of the vicar Hans Christian Monrad and Ferdinandine Henriette Gieertsen and married the vicar Daniel Carl Erhard Luplau, in 1847. Luplau developed an early frustration over the fact that women was not recognized full rights as humans because of their sex and this interest is regarded to have developed from the public debate following the controversial novel Clara Raphael by Mathilde Fibiger. Her spouse served as a vicar in a parish in Slesvig-Holsten, in Varde, Luplau founded a charity organisation, and became the first woman in Denmark to speak at a national celebration. In 1872, Luplau became a member of the branch of the womens organisation Dansk Kvindesamfund alongside her spouse. Her interest in womens rights focused on suffrage and equal political rights. In 1888, she delivered a list of 1702 names in support to Fredrik Bajers motion in the parliament of women suffrage as the representative of the DK.
In 1885, she belonged to the supporters of the newly founded womens organisation Kvindelig Fremskridtsforening, a fraction of former DK- members, and served in the KF central comity in 1886. Line Luplau became one of the figures of the Danish women suffrage movement. In 1889, Line Luplau founded the Danish suffrage movement Kvindevalgretsforeningen together with Louise Nørlund, in 1891, she was forced to resign as chairperson of the KVF for health reasons. In 1917, her daughter Marie Luplau created a portrait painting for the Danish parliament depicting the notable members of the women suffrage movement