William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison Sr. was a United States military officer and politician who served as the ninth president of the United States in 1841. He died of paratyphoid fever 31 days into his term, he became the first president to die in office. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis regarding succession to the presidency, as the Constitution was unclear as to whether Vice President John Tyler should assume the office of President or execute the duties of the vacant office. Tyler claimed a constitutional mandate to carry out the full powers and duties of the presidency and took the presidential oath of office, setting an important precedent for an orderly transfer of presidential power when a president leaves office. Harrison was a son of Founding Father Benjamin Harrison V and the paternal grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd president, he was the last president born as a British subject in the Thirteen Colonies before the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775. During his early military career, he participated in the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, an American military victory that ended the Northwest Indian War.
He led a military force against Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname "Old Tippecanoe". He was promoted to major general in the Army in the War of 1812, in 1813 led American infantry and cavalry at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada. Harrison began his political career in 1798, when he was appointed Secretary of the Northwest Territory in 1798, in 1799 he was elected as the territory's delegate in the House of Representatives. Two years President John Adams named him governor of the newly established Indiana Territory, a post he held until 1812. After the War of 1812, he moved to Ohio where he was elected to represent the state's 1st district in the House in 1816. In 1824, the state legislature elected him to the United States Senate. Afterward, he returned to private life in Ohio until he was nominated as the Whig Party candidate for president in the 1836 election. Four years the party nominated him again with John Tyler as his running mate, the Whig campaign slogan was "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too".
They defeated Van Buren in the 1840 election. Harrison was 68 years, 23 days old at the time of his inauguration, the oldest person to have assumed office until Ronald Reagan in 1981 at 69 years, 349 days, Donald Trump in 2017 at 70 years, 220 days. Due to his brief tenure and historians forgo listing him in historical presidential rankings. However, historian William W. Freehling calls him "the most dominant figure in the evolution of the Northwest territories into the Upper Midwest today". Harrison was the seventh and youngest child of Benjamin Harrison V and Elizabeth Harrison, born on February 9, 1773 at Berkeley Plantation, the Harrison family home along the James River in Charles City County, Virginia, he was a member of a prominent political family of English descent whose ancestors had been in Virginia since the 1630s and the last American president born as a British subject. His father was a Virginia planter who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and who signed the Declaration of Independence.
His father served in the Virginia legislature and as the fifth governor of Virginia in the years during and after the American Revolutionary War. Harrison's older brother Carter Bassett Harrison represented Virginia in the House of Representatives. Harrison was tutored at home until age 14 when he entered Hampden–Sydney College, a Presbyterian college in Virginia, he studied there for three years, receiving a classical education which included Latin, French and debate. His Episcopalian father removed him from the college for religious reasons, he attended a boys' academy in Southampton County, Virginia before being transferred to Philadelphia in 1790, he boarded with Robert Morris and entered the University of Pennsylvania in April 1791, where he studied medicine under Doctor Benjamin Rush and William Shippen Sr. His father died in the spring of 1791, shortly, he was only 18 and Morris became his guardian. Governor Henry Lee III of Virginia was a friend of Harrison's father, persuaded Harrison to join the military.
He was commissioned as an ensign in the Army in the 1st Infantry Regiment within 24 hours of meeting Lee. He was assigned to Fort Washington, Cincinnati in the Northwest Territory where the army was engaged in the ongoing Northwest Indian War. Harrison was promoted to lieutenant after Major General "Mad Anthony" Wayne took command of the western army in 1792 following a disastrous defeat under Arthur St. Clair. In 1793, he learned how to command an army on the American frontier. Harrison was a signatory of the Treaty of Greenville as witness to Wayne, the principal negotiator for the U. S. Under the terms of the treaty, a coalition of Indians ceded a portion of their lands to the federal government, opening ⅔ of Ohio to settlement. Following his mother's death in 1793, Harrison inherited a portion of his family's Virginia estate
Jesse B. Thomas
Jesse Burgess Thomas was an American lawyer and politician who served as a delegate from the Indiana Territory to the tenth Congress and served as president of the Constitutional Convention which led to Illinois being admitted to the Union. He became one of Illinois' first two Senators, is best known as the author of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, although after his retirement from the U. S. Senate in 1829 he lived the rest of his life in Ohio. Thomas was born in Shepherdstown, Virginia, in part according to his 1850 census entry, although Appleton's Cyclopedia stated he was born somewhat east on what became the National Road in Hagerstown and that he was descended from Lord Baltimore, his family moved to Kentucky. He married Rebecca McKenzie of New York. Thomas studied law with his elder brother Richard Symmes Thomas in Bracken County, Kentucky along the Ohio River moved to nearby Mason County, where he served as the county clerk until 1803, he moved north of the Ohio River to Lawrenceburg in Indiana Territory, where he continued to practice law and became the territorial deputy attorney general in 1805.
In the same year, he began serving as a delegate to the Territorial House of Representatives, fellow delegates chose him as their speaker from 1805 to 1808. When Benjamin Parke resigned as the territorial delegate to Congress, Thomas was appointed to fill the vacancy from October 22, 1808 until March 3, 1809 when Thomas moved westward to the new Illinois Territory as discussed below. Jonathan Jennings succeeded him as Indiana's territorial delegate and would become the new state of Indiana's first U. S. representative and Indiana's Governor. Thomas moved westward to Kaskaskia, Illinois on the Mississippi River Cahokia and Edwardsville in Madison County, where Thomas would train his nephew, somewhat confusingly named Jesse B. Thomas, Jr. who would have a distinguished career as an Illinois lawyer and judge. When Illinois became a territory in 1809, President James Madison appointed Thomas judge of the United States court for the northwestern judicial district. Thomas exercised those duties from 1809 until 1818.
Voters from St. Clair County elected Thomas as Democratic-Republican to the Illinois State Constitutional Convention in 1818. Fellow delegates elected him to preside over the convention, which chose not to accept slavery in the new state. Upon the new state's admittance to the Union, fellow legislators elected Thomas to the U. S. Senate, in which he would serve for two terms. In 1820, Thomas proposed the Missouri Compromise to limit slavery above the southern border of Missouri. In 1823 he became a Crawford Republican, he served as chairman on the Committee on Public Lands in the 18th Congresses. He refused the nomination for a third term and moved to Mount Vernon, Ohio in 1829, where he lived the rest of his life. About two years after the death of his wife, Thomas committed suicide on May 2, 1853, having lived more than seven decades, he is buried in Mound View Cemetery. Thomas's nephew, Jesse B. Thomas, Jr. son of his brother Richard Symmes Thomas, served as Illinois Attorney General and on the Illinois Supreme Court.
United States Congress. "Jesse B. Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Governor of New York
The Governor of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces; the current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, who took office on January 1, 2011. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is the head of the state Executive Department; the officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office. The governor of New York is considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president.
Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States. Under the New York State Constitution, a person must be at least 30 years of age, a United States citizen, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years prior to being elected to serve as governor; the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office to three years, but the 1894 constitution reduced it to two years; the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The Constitution of New York has provided since 1777 for the election of a Lieutenant Governor of New York, who acts as President of the State Senate, to the same term. In the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governor's duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office.
Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate performs the duties of a lieutenant governor until the governor can take back the duties of the office, or the next election. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur. Should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession; the lieutenant governor nominated separately. Line of succession in full Lieutenant Governor Temporary President of the Senate Speaker of the Assembly Attorney General Comptroller Commissioner of Transportation Commissioner of Health Commissioner of Commerce Industrial Commissioner Chairman of the Public Service Commission Secretary of State Politics of New York Official website Governor's Office in the New York Codes and Regulations
Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that expanded suffrage to most white men over the age of 21, restructured a number of federal institutions. Originating with the seventh President Andrew Jackson, his supporters, it became the nation's dominant political worldview for a generation; this era, called the Jacksonian Era by historians and political scientists, lasted from Jackson's 1828 election as president until slavery became the dominant issue in 1854 and the political repercussions of the American Civil War reshaped American politics. It emerged when the long-dominant Democratic-Republican Party became factionalized around the 1824 election. Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party and his rivals John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay created the National Republican Party, which would afterward combine with other anti-Jackson political groups to form the Whig Party. Broadly speaking, the era was characterized by a democratic spirit and built upon Jackson's equal political policy.
Before the Jacksonian era began, suffrage had been extended to a majority of white male adult citizens, a result the Jacksonians celebrated. Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, while seeking to broaden the public's participation in government; the Jacksonians demanded elected judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms, they favored geographical expansion. There was a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided. Jackson's expansion of democracy was limited to Americans of European descent and voting rights were extended to adult white males only. There was little or no progress for the rights of African Americans and Native Americans during the extensive period of Jacksonian Democracy, spanning from 1829 - 1860. Jackson's biographer Robert V. Remini argues: stretches the concept of democracy about as far as it can go and still remain workable....
As such it has inspired much of the dynamic and dramatic events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in American history—Populism, the New and Fair Deals, the programs of the New Frontier and Great Society. William S. Belko in 2015 summarizes "the core concepts underlying Jacksonian Democracy" as: equal protection of the laws. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. in 1945 argues Jacksonian democracy was built on the following: Expanded suffrage – The Jacksonians believed that voting rights should be extended to all white men. By the end of the 1820s, attitudes and state laws had shifted in favor of universal white male suffrage and by 1856 all requirements to own property and nearly all requirements to pay taxes had been dropped. Manifest destiny – This was the belief that Americans had a destiny to settle the American West and to expand control from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and that the West should be settled by yeoman farmers. However, the Free Soil Jacksonians, notably Martin Van Buren, argued for limitations on slavery in the new areas to enable the poor white man to flourish—they split with the main party in 1848.
The Whigs opposed Manifest Destiny and expansion, saying the nation should build up its cities. Patronage – Also known as the spoils system, patronage was the policy of placing political supporters into appointed offices. Many Jacksonians held the view that rotating political appointees in and out of office was not only the right, but the duty of winners in political contests. Patronage was theorized to be good because it would encourage political participation by the common man and because it would make a politician more accountable for poor government service by his appointees. Jacksonians held that long tenure in the civil service was corrupting, so civil servants should be rotated out of office at regular intervals. However, patronage led to the hiring of incompetent and sometimes corrupt officials due to the emphasis on party loyalty above any other qualifications. Strict constructionism – Like the Jeffersonians who believed in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Jacksonians favored a federal government of limited powers.
Jackson said that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty". However, he was not a states' rights extremist—indeed, the Nullification Crisis would find Jackson fighting against what he perceived as state encroachments on the proper sphere of federal influence; this position was one basis for the Jacksonians' opposition to the Second Bank of the United States. As the Jacksonians consolidated power, they more advocated expanding federal power, presidential power in particular. Laissez-faire – Complementing a strict construction of the Constitution, the Jacksonians favored a hands-off approach to the economy as opposed to the Whig program sponsoring modernization, railroads and economic growth; the chief spokesman amongst laissez-faire advocates was William Leggett of the Locofocos in New York City. Opposition to banking – In particular, the Jacksonians opposed government-granted monopolies to banks the national bank, a central bank known as the Second Bank of the United States.
Jackson said: "The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" and he did so. The Whigs, who supported the
State legislature (United States)
A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U. S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 25 states, the legislature is called the Legislature, or the State Legislature, while in 19 states, the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly; every state except Nebraska has a bicameral legislature, meaning that the legislature consists of two separate legislative chambers or houses. In each case the smaller chamber is called the Senate and is referred to as the upper house; this chamber but not always, has the exclusive power to confirm appointments made by the governor and to try articles of impeachment. Members of the smaller chamber represent more citizens and serve for longer terms than members of the larger chamber four years. In 41 states, the larger chamber is called the House of Representatives.
Five states designate the larger chamber the Assembly and three states call it the House of Delegates. Members of the larger chamber serve for terms of two years; the larger chamber customarily has the exclusive power to initiate taxing legislation and articles of impeachment. Prior to United States Supreme Court decisions Reynolds v. Sims and Baker v. Carr in the 1960s, the basis of representation in most state legislatures was modeled on that of the U. S. Congress: the state senators represented geographical units while members of the larger chamber represented population. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court announced the one man, one vote standard and invalidated state legislative representation based on geography. Nebraska had a bicameral legislature like the other states, but the lower house was abolished following a referendum, effective with the 1936 elections; the remaining unicameral legislature is called the Nebraska Legislature, but its members continue to be called senators. As a legislative branch of government, a legislature performs state duties for a state in the same way that the United States Congress performs national duties at the national level.
The same system of checks and balances that exists at the Federal level exists between the state legislature, the state executive officer and the state judiciary, though the degree to which this is so varies from one state to the next. During a legislative session, the legislature considers matters introduced by its members or submitted by the governor. Businesses and other special interest organizations lobby the legislature to obtain beneficial legislation, defeat unfavorably perceived measures, or influence other legislative action. A legislature approves the state's operating and capital budgets, which may begin as a legislative proposal or a submission by the governor. Under the terms of Article V of the U. S. Constitution, state lawmakers retain the power to ratify Constitutional amendments which have been proposed by both houses of Congress and they retain the ability to call for a national convention to propose amendments to the U. S. Constitution. After the convention has concluded its business 75% of the states will be required to ratify what the convention has proposed.
Under Article II, state legislatures choose the manner of appointing the state's presidential electors. State legislatures appointed the U. S. Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the state's voters; the legislative bodies and their committees use either Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure or an amended form thereof. During official meetings, a professional parliamentarian is available to ensure that legislation and accompanying discussion proceed as orderly as possible without bias; the lawmaking process begins with the introduction of a bill in either the House of Representatives or the Senate. Bills may be introduced in either house, sometimes with the exception of bills increasing or decreasing revenue, which must originate in the House of Representatives; the order of business in each house provides a proper time for the introduction of bills. Bills are assigned consecutive numbers, given in the order of their introduction, to facilitate identification.
A bill cannot become enacted until it has been read on a certain number of days in each house. Upon introduction, a bill is read by its title only, constituting the first reading of the bill; because a bill is read by title only, it is important that the title give the members notice of the subject matter contained in the bill. As with other legislative bodies throughout the world, U. S. state legislatures operate through committees when considering proposed bills. Thus, committee action is the most important phase of the legislative process. Most bills cannot be enacted into law until it has been referred to, acted upon by, returned from, a standing committee in each house. Reference to committee follows the first reading of the bill; each committee is set up to consider bills relating to a particular subject. Standing committees are charged with the important responsibility of examining bills and recommending action to the Senate or House. On days when a legislature is not in session, the committees of each house meet and consider the bills that have been referred to them to decide if the assigned bills should be reported f
John Holmes (Maine politician)
John Holmes was an American politician. He served as a U. S. Representative from Massachusetts and was one of the first two U. S. Senators from Maine. Holmes was noted for his involvement in the Treaty of Ghent. Holmes was born in Kingston and attended public schools in Kingston. In 1796, he graduated from the College of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in Providence, Rhode Island. Holmes studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1799, opening a law practice in Alfred, Maine — a district of Massachusetts. At this time, he was engaged in literary pursuits. Holmes, a Democratic-Republican, was elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1802, 1803, 1812, he was elected to the Massachusetts State Senate in 1813 and 1814. In 1816, Holmes was one of the commissioners under the Treaty of Ghent to divide the islands of Passamaquoddy Bay between the United States and Great Britain, he was appointed by the legislature to organize state prisons and revise the Massachusetts criminal code. Holmes was elected as a United States Representative from Massachusetts in 1816, serving from March 4, 1817, to his resignation on March 15, 1820.
During the 16th Congress, Holmes served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State. Holmes supported William H. Crawford, John Quincy Adams, he was opposed to Andrew Jackson. Holmes supported the Missouri Compromise, was praised by Thomas Jefferson for his pamphlet Mr. Holmes's Letter to the People of Maine. In the letter, Jefferson thanks Holmes for a copy of this pamphlet; this pamphlet defends Holmes's position on supporting the Missouri Compromise–the admission of Maine as a free state with the admission of Missouri as a slave state, an unpopular position in Maine. This letter is notable for being the first written attestation of the phrase "to have the wolf by the ear". Jefferson himself rejected the compromise: "But this momentous question, like a fire bell in the night and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union, it is hushed indeed for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence. A geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle and political, once conceived and held up to the angry passions of men, will never be obliterated.
An abstinence too from this act of power would remove the jealousy excited by the undertaking of Congress, to regulate the condition of the different descriptions of men composing a state. This is the exclusive right of every state, which nothing in the constitution has taken from them and given to the general government. Could congress, for example say that the Non-freemen of Connecticut, shall be freemen, or that they shall not emigrate into any other state? " Holmes was a delegate to the Maine Constitutional Convention. Upon separation from Massachusetts and the admission of Maine as a state, he was elected to the United States Senate and served from June 13, 1820, to March 3, 1827. Holmes was again elected to the Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Albion Parris, serving from January 15, 1829, to March 3, 1833. During the 17th Congress, Holmes served as chairman of the Committee on Finance. After leaving the Senate, Holmes resumed his law practice. From 1836 to 1837, he was a member of the Maine House of Representatives.
In 1841, Holmes was appointed as the United States Attorney for the District of Maine, a post he held until his death in Portland on July 7, 1843. Holmes was interred in a private tomb of Eastern Cemetery. In 1840, Holmes published The Statesman, Or a law book. "Acquiring Virginia's Treasures." University of Virginia, 12 April 2001. Https://web.archive.org/web/20021107202152/http://www.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/exhibits/mellon/acquiring.html Kestenbaum, Lawrence. Holmes, Political Graveyard. Http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/holmes.html Sen. John Holmes House United States Congress. "John Holmes". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Engraving of John Holmes from the Maine Memory Network
James Iredell Jr.
James Iredell Jr. was the 23rd Governor of the U. S. state of North Carolina between 1827 and 1828. Iredell was born in North Carolina, he was the son of well-known parents: his father, James Iredell, was a statesman and U. S. Supreme Court justice, his mother was the sister of former Governor Samuel Johnston. In 1806, young Iredell graduated from the College of New Jersey. On his way toward political prominence, Iredell commanded a company of volunteers during the War of 1812, practiced law in Chowan County, served in the state House of Commons, as a representative from Edenton, was appointed a Superior Court judge. Iredell kept a diary, rare among the North Carolina gentry at that time and provides researchers with a glimpse into the life of that time period. During his short term as governor, he pushed for education. Reacting to an interest of the day—horse-drawn railroad carriages—he suggested the construction of a trial railroad from Campbellton to Fayetteville. However, his brief time in office did not allow him to accomplish much.
He left office after a few months to serve in the U. S. Senate, a post he held from 1828 to 1831, he was completing the term of Nathaniel Macon. By that time, Iredell was a member of the Democratic Party. Iredell did not seek to be re-elected by the state General Assembly to a full term in the Senate, he moved to Raleigh, practiced law, served as court reporter for the North Carolina Supreme Court from 1840 to 1852. He is buried there in the Johnston Burial Ground. James Iredell Jr. at Find a Grave Congressional Biography