1.
1819 in science
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The year 1819 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. Johann Franz Encke computes the orbit of Comet Encke, identifying it as periodic, july 1 – Johann Georg Tralles discovers the Great Comet of 1819. It was the first comet analyzed using polarimetry, by François Arago, Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier isolate the alkaloid brucine from Strychnos nux-vomica. October 15 – Desolation Island in the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic is discovered by Captain William Smith in the Williams, greenough publishes his book, A critical examination of the first principles of geology in a series of essays. August – René Laennec publishes De l’Auscultation Médiate ou Traité du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur in Paris, English physician John Bostock publishes the first account of allergic rhinitis. May 22 – SS Savannah leaves port at Savannah, Georgia on a voyage to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean, the ship arrives at Liverpool, England, on June 20. Invention of the M1819 breech-loading flintlock using interchangeable parts by Captain John H. Hall of Harpers Ferry Armory in the United States, Cambridge Philosophical Society founded as a scientific society at the University of Cambridge in England. Copley Medal, Not awarded May 3 – Nikolai Annenkov, botanist, June 5 – John Couch Adams, mathematician and astronomer. August 13 – George Gabriel Stokes, mathematician and physicist, september 18 – Léon Foucault, physicist. September 23 – Hippolyte Fizeau, physicist, january – Elsa Beata Bunge, Swedish botanist August 19 – James Watt, British inventor, mechanical engineer and mathematician. November 22 – John Stackhouse, English botanist
2.
1830 in science
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The year 1830 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. March 16 – Great Comet of 1830 first observed in Mauritius, johann Heinrich Mädler and Wilhelm Beer produce the first map of the surface of Mars. Charles Bell publishes his Nervous System of the Human Body, william Jackson Hooker commences publication of The British Flora. October 14 – HMS Beagle returns to England from her first voyage, Charles Lyell publishes the first volume of his Principles of Geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the Earths surface, by reference to causes now in operation. Thomas Southwood Smith publishes the standard textbook A Treatise on Fever in London, july 13 – John Ruggles is granted United States patent No. 1, for applying rack railway equipment to the Locomotive steam-engine for rail, august 31 – Edwin Budding is granted a United Kingdom patent for the lawnmower. Aeneas Coffey is granted a United Kingdom patent for a column still. Charles Babbage publishes Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, copley Medal, not awarded March 5 – Étienne-Jules Marey, physiologist. March 5 – Charles Wyville Thompson, marine biologist, april 21 – Clémence Royer, French anthropologist. May 10 – François-Marie Raoult, chemist, august 19 – Lothar Meyer, chemist. October 24 – Marianne North, botanist, november 20 – Sigismond Jaccoud, physician. March 2 – Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, physician, anatomist, paleontologist, March 29 – James Rennell, cartographer and oceanographer. May 16 – Joseph Fourier, mathematician
3.
1829 in architecture
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The year 1829 in architecture involved some significant events. The General Post Office building in St Martins-le-Grand in the City of London, work begins on the Travellers Club in London, designed by Charles Barry. Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Mexico, designed by Manuel Tolsá, is completed, the new building of the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland on Calton Hill, designed by Thomas Hamilton, is opened. Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, designed by John Haviland, is opened, St Peters Church, Hammersmith, London, designed by Edward Lapidge, is consecrated. The Oratory, Liverpool, England, designed by John Foster, is built, cromer Hall in England, designed by William Donthorne, is built. Sferisterio di Macerata in Italy, designed by Ireneo Aleandri, is completed, construction of Cisternoni of Livorno in Italy, designed by Pasquale Poccianti, begins. Kvitsøy Lighthouse in Norway is built, carrollton Viaduct on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, designed by James Lloyd, is completed. Grand Prix de Rome, architecture, Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux
4.
Science
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Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science
5.
Technology
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Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it. The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts, dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose
6.
Isaac Holden
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Sir Isaac Holden, 1st Baronet was an inventor and manufacturer, who is known both for his work in developing the Square Motion wool-combing machine and as a Radical Liberal Member of Parliament. Holden was born in the village of Hurlet near Glasgow and he was largely self-educated, his formal education was often disrupted. He was apprenticed for a period as a draw boy for two hand weavers, but attended grammar schools run by the Old Radical John Fraser. He became a teacher and then sought to become a Wesleyan Minister, before teaching at schools in Slaithwaite. In 1829 Holden obtained a post at the Castle Academy in Reading and it was here that he developed a version of the Lucifer match, but his invention was superseded by John Walker of Stockton-on-Tees in 1827, who did not patent the invention. Transferring to the side and becoming a manager, he spent his time at seeking to improve the process of combing wool. Holden left Townsends in 1846 to set up a factory making Paisley Shawl middles at Pit Lane in Bradford, when the business failed two years later he formed a partnership with Samuel Lister. They worked together to develop the square motion wool-combing machine, which was patented by Lister in 1848, the origins of the machine became the subject of a lifelong dispute between the two men. In 1848, trading as Lister & Holden, Isaac Holden set up a factory at St Denis near Paris and he then set up factories in France, at Croix near Lille and at Reims, run by his nephews Isaac Holden Crothers and Jonathon Holden. In 1857 he bought out Lister and the firm was renamed Isaac Holden et Fils, in 1860 he and his sons, Angus and Edward, set up an experimental factory at Penny Oaks in Bradford and then in 1864 they opened the massive Alston Works at Bradford. By the 1870s Holdens factories in England and France had become the largest wool combers in the world and he celebrated his success by building a large Italianate mansion at Oakworth near Keighley in Yorkshire. As a leading Wesleyan, Holdens philanthropy was largely concentrated on building Wesleyan chapels and he pledged £5000 to build 50 chapels in London. In his political life he campaigned for reform, church disestablishment. In 1893, at the age of 86, he was created a Baronet, Holden died in August 1897, aged 90, and was buried in Undercliffe Cemetery, Bradford. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son Angus Holden and his daughter Margaret had married Alfred Illingworth who succeeded him as MP for Knaresborough. In 1908 his son was raised to the peerage as Baron Holden, Oakworth House burned down in 1907and in 1927 its grounds were given by the family to the people of Oakworth as a public park. Holdens Ghosts, The Life and Times of Sir Isaac Holden, Inventor, Woolcomber and Nonconformist Radical Liberal M. P
7.
Match
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A match is a tool for starting a fire. Typically, modern matches are made of wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface. Wooden matches are packaged in matchboxes, and paper matches are cut into rows. The coated end of a match, known as the head, consists of a bead of active ingredients and binder. There are two types of matches, safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface. Some match-like compositions, known as electric matches, are ignited electrically, historically, the term match referred to lengths of cord impregnated with chemicals, and allowed to burn continuously. These were used to fires and fire guns and cannons. Such matches were characterised by their burning speed i. e. quick match, depending on its formulation, a slow match burns at a rate of around 30 cm per hour and a quick match at 4 to 60 centimetres per minute. The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse, the original meaning of the word still persists in some pyrotechnics terms, such as black match and Bengal match. But, when friction matches became commonplace, they became the object meant by the term. The word match derives from Old French mèche referring to the wick of a candle, but an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire they burst into flame, one gets a little flame like an ear of corn. This marvellous thing was called a light-bringing slave, but afterwards when it became an article of commerce its name was changed to fire inch-stick. Another text, Wu Lin Chiu Shih, dated from 1270 AD, lists sulphur matches as something that was sold in the markets of Hangzhou, the matches were known as fa chu or tshui erh. Prior to the use of matches, fires were lit using a burning glass to focus the sun on tinder. Another, more common method was igniting tinder with sparks produced by striking flint and steel, early work had been done by alchemist Hennig Brandt, who discovered the flammable nature of phosphorus in 1669. Smoking tobacco was lit a number of different ways, another was to use a striker, a tool that looked like scissors, but with flint on one blade and steel on the other
8.
Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
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His father Johann Arnold Lejeune Dirichlet was the postmaster, merchant, and city councilor. His paternal grandfather had come to Düren from Richelette, a small community 5 km north east of Liège in Belgium, although his family was not wealthy and he was the youngest of seven children, his parents supported his education. They enrolled him in a school and then private school in hope that he would later become a merchant. The young Dirichlet, who showed a strong interest in mathematics before age 12, in 1817 they sent him to the Gymnasium Bonn under the care of Peter Joseph Elvenich, a student his family knew. In 1820 Dirichlet moved to the Jesuit Gymnasium in Cologne, where his lessons with Georg Ohm helped widen his knowledge in mathematics and he left the gymnasium a year later with only a certificate, as his inability to speak fluent Latin prevented him from earning the Abitur. Dirichlet again convinced his parents to further financial support for his studies in mathematics. In 1823 he was recommended to General Foy, who hired him as a tutor to teach his children German. In June 1825 he was accepted to lecture on his partial proof for the case n=5 at the French Academy of Sciences, an exceptional feat for a 20-year-old student with no degree. His lecture at the Academy had also put Dirichlet in close contact with Fourier and Poisson, as General Foy died in November 1825 and he could not find any paying position in France, Dirichlet had to return to Prussia. Fourier and Poisson introduced him to Alexander von Humboldt, who had called to join the court of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Humboldt also secured a letter from Gauss, who upon reading his memoir on Fermats theorem wrote with an unusual amount of praise that Dirichlet showed excellent talent. With the support of Humboldt and Gauss, Dirichlet was offered a position at the University of Breslau. However, as he had not passed a doctoral dissertation, he submitted his memoir on the Fermat theorem as a thesis to the University of Bonn, also, the Minister of Education granted him a dispensation for the Latin disputation required for the Habilitation. Dirichlet earned the Habilitation and lectured in the 1827/28 year as a Privatdozent at Breslau, while in Breslau, Dirichlet continued his number theoretic research, publishing important contributions to the biquadratic reciprocity law which at the time was a focal point of Gausss research. Alexander von Humboldt took advantage of new results, which had also drawn enthusiastic praise from Friedrich Bessel. Given Dirichlets young age, Humboldt was only able to get him a position at the Prussian Military Academy in Berlin while remaining nominally employed by the University of Breslau. The probation was extended for three years until the position becoming definitive in 1831, after moving to Berlin, Humboldt introduced Dirichlet to the great salons held by the banker Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy and his family. Their house was a gathering point for Berlin artists and scientists, including Abrahams children Felix and Fanny Mendelssohn
9.
Fourier series
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In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves. More formally, it decomposes any periodic function or periodic signal into the sum of a set of simple oscillating functions, the discrete-time Fourier transform is a periodic function, often defined in terms of a Fourier series. The Z-transform, another example of application, reduces to a Fourier series for the important case |z|=1, Fourier series are also central to the original proof of the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem. The study of Fourier series is a branch of Fourier analysis, the Mémoire introduced Fourier analysis, specifically Fourier series. Through Fouriers research the fact was established that a function can be represented by a trigonometric series. The first announcement of this discovery was made by Fourier in 1807. The heat equation is a differential equation. These simple solutions are now sometimes called eigensolutions, Fouriers idea was to model a complicated heat source as a superposition of simple sine and cosine waves, and to write the solution as a superposition of the corresponding eigensolutions. This superposition or linear combination is called the Fourier series, from a modern point of view, Fouriers results are somewhat informal, due to the lack of a precise notion of function and integral in the early nineteenth century. Later, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and Bernhard Riemann expressed Fouriers results with greater precision, in this section, s denotes a function of the real variable x, and s is integrable on an interval, for real numbers x0 and P. We will attempt to represent s in that interval as a sum, or series. Outside the interval, the series is periodic with period P and it follows that if s also has that property, the approximation is valid on the entire real line. We can begin with a summation, s N = A02 + ∑ n =1 N A n ⋅ sin . S N is a function with period P. The inverse relationships between the coefficients are, A n = a n 2 + b n 2 ϕ n = atan2 , when the coefficients are computed as follows, s N approximates s on, and the approximation improves as N → ∞. The infinite sum, s ∞, is called the Fourier series representation of s, both components of a complex-valued function are real-valued functions that can be represented by a Fourier series. This is the formula as before except cn and c−n are no longer complex conjugates. In particular, the Fourier series converges absolutely and uniformly to s whenever the derivative of s is square integrable, if a function is square-integrable on the interval, then the Fourier series converges to the function at almost every point
10.
Dirichlet kernel
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In mathematical analysis, the Dirichlet kernel is the collection of functions D n = ∑ k = − n n e i k x =1 +2 ∑ k =1 n cos = sin sin . It is named after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, the importance of the Dirichlet kernel comes from its relation to Fourier series. This implies that in order to study convergence of Fourier series it is enough to study properties of the Dirichlet kernel, of particular importance is the fact that the L1 norm of Dn diverges to infinity as n → ∞. One can estimate that ∥ D n ∥ L1 = O and this lack of uniform integrability is behind many divergence phenomena for the Fourier series. For example, together with the uniform boundedness principle, it can be used to show that the Fourier series of a function may fail to converge pointwise. See convergence of Fourier series for further details and we get the identity element for convolution on functions of period 2π. In other words, we have f ∗ = f for every function f of period 2π, the Fourier series representation of this function is 2 π δ ∼ ∑ k = − ∞ ∞ e i k x =. Therefore the Dirichlet kernel, which is just the sequence of sums of this series. Abstractly speaking it is not however an approximate identity of positive elements, the trigonometric identity ∑ k = − n n e i k x = sin sin displayed at the top of this article may be established as follows. First recall that the sum of a geometric series is ∑ k =0 n a r k = a 1 − r n +11 − r. In particular, we have ∑ k = − n n r k = r − n ⋅1 − r 2 n +11 − r, start with the series f =1 /2 + ∑ k =1 n cos . Multiply both sides of the above by 2 sin and use the identity cos sin = /2 to reduce the r. h. s. to sin . Bruckner, Brian S. Thomson, Real Analysis, classicalRealAnalysis. com 1996, ISBN 0-13-458886-X, S.620 Podkorytov, A. N. Asymptotic behavior of the Dirichlet kernel of Fourier sums with respect to a polygon. Journal of Soviet Mathematics,42, 1640–1646, a geometric construction of the Dirichlet kernel. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences,36, 640–643, doi,10. 1111/j. 2164-0947.1974. tb03023. x Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. Dirichlet kernel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 Dirichlet-Kernel at PlanetMath
11.
Function (mathematics)
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In mathematics, a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output. An example is the function that each real number x to its square x2. The output of a function f corresponding to a x is denoted by f. In this example, if the input is −3, then the output is 9, likewise, if the input is 3, then the output is also 9, and we may write f =9. The input variable are sometimes referred to as the argument of the function, Functions of various kinds are the central objects of investigation in most fields of modern mathematics. There are many ways to describe or represent a function, some functions may be defined by a formula or algorithm that tells how to compute the output for a given input. Others are given by a picture, called the graph of the function, in science, functions are sometimes defined by a table that gives the outputs for selected inputs. A function could be described implicitly, for example as the inverse to another function or as a solution of a differential equation, sometimes the codomain is called the functions range, but more commonly the word range is used to mean, instead, specifically the set of outputs. For example, we could define a function using the rule f = x2 by saying that the domain and codomain are the numbers. The image of this function is the set of real numbers. In analogy with arithmetic, it is possible to define addition, subtraction, multiplication, another important operation defined on functions is function composition, where the output from one function becomes the input to another function. Linking each shape to its color is a function from X to Y, each shape is linked to a color, there is no shape that lacks a color and no shape that has more than one color. This function will be referred to as the color-of-the-shape function, the input to a function is called the argument and the output is called the value. The set of all permitted inputs to a function is called the domain of the function. Thus, the domain of the function is the set of the four shapes. The concept of a function does not require that every possible output is the value of some argument, a second example of a function is the following, the domain is chosen to be the set of natural numbers, and the codomain is the set of integers. The function associates to any number n the number 4−n. For example, to 1 it associates 3 and to 10 it associates −6, a third example of a function has the set of polygons as domain and the set of natural numbers as codomain
12.
Nikolai Lobachevsky
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Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry. William Kingdon Clifford called Lobachevsky the Copernicus of Geometry due to the character of his work. He was one of three children and his father, a clerk in a land surveying office, died when he was seven, and his mother moved to Kazan. Lobachevsky attended Kazan Gymnasium from 1802, graduating in 1807 and then received a scholarship to Kazan University, at Kazan University, Lobachevsky was influenced by professor Johann Christian Martin Bartels, a former teacher and friend of German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Lobachevsky received a degree in physics and mathematics in 1811. He served in administrative positions and became the rector of Kazan University in 1827. In 1832, he married Varvara Alexeyevna Moiseyeva and they had a large number of children. He was dismissed from the university in 1846, ostensibly due to his health, by the early 1850s, he was nearly blind. He died in poverty in 1856, Lobachevskys main achievement is the development of a non-Euclidean geometry, also referred to as Lobachevskian geometry. Before him, mathematicians were trying to deduce Euclids fifth postulate from other axioms, Euclids fifth is a rule in Euclidean geometry which states that for any given line and point not on the line, there is one parallel line through the point not intersecting the line. Lobachevsky would instead develop a geometry in which the fifth postulate was not true and this idea was first reported on February 23,1826 to the session of the department of physics and mathematics, and this research was printed in the UMA in 1829–1830. The non-Euclidean geometry that Lobachevsky developed is referred to as hyperbolic geometry and he developed the angle of parallelism which depends on the distance the point is off the given line. In hyperbolic geometry the sum of angles in a triangle must be less than 180 degrees. Non-Euclidean geometry stimulated the development of geometry which has many applications. Hyperbolic geometry is referred to as Lobachevskian geometry or Bolyai–Lobachevskian geometry. Some mathematicians and historians have claimed that Lobachevsky in his studies in non-Euclidean geometry was influenced by Gauss. Gauss himself appreciated Lobachevskys published works very highly, but they never had personal correspondence between them prior to the publication, Lobachevskys magnum opus Geometriya was completed in 1823, but was not published in its exact original form until 1909, long after he had died. Lobachevsky was also the author of New Foundations of Geometry and he also wrote Geometrical Investigations on the Theory of Parallels and Pangeometry
13.
Non-Euclidean geometry
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In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry. In the latter case one obtains hyperbolic geometry and elliptic geometry, when the metric requirement is relaxed, then there are affine planes associated with the planar algebras which give rise to kinematic geometries that have also been called non-Euclidean geometry. The essential difference between the geometries is the nature of parallel lines. In hyperbolic geometry, by contrast, there are many lines through A not intersecting ℓ, while in elliptic geometry. In elliptic geometry the lines curve toward each other and intersect, the debate that eventually led to the discovery of the non-Euclidean geometries began almost as soon as Euclids work Elements was written. In the Elements, Euclid began with a number of assumptions. Other mathematicians have devised simpler forms of this property, regardless of the form of the postulate, however, it consistently appears to be more complicated than Euclids other postulates,1. To draw a line from any point to any point. To produce a straight line continuously in a straight line. To describe a circle with any centre and distance and that all right angles are equal to one another. For at least a thousand years, geometers were troubled by the complexity of the fifth postulate. Many attempted to find a proof by contradiction, including Ibn al-Haytham, Omar Khayyám, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī and these theorems along with their alternative postulates, such as Playfairs axiom, played an important role in the later development of non-Euclidean geometry. These early attempts did, however, provide some early properties of the hyperbolic and elliptic geometries. Another example is al-Tusis son, Sadr al-Din, who wrote a book on the subject in 1298, based on al-Tusis later thoughts and he essentially revised both the Euclidean system of axioms and postulates and the proofs of many propositions from the Elements. His work was published in Rome in 1594 and was studied by European geometers and he finally reached a point where he believed that his results demonstrated the impossibility of hyperbolic geometry. His claim seems to have based on Euclidean presuppositions, because no logical contradiction was present. In this attempt to prove Euclidean geometry he instead unintentionally discovered a new viable geometry, in 1766 Johann Lambert wrote, but did not publish, Theorie der Parallellinien in which he attempted, as Saccheri did, to prove the fifth postulate. He worked with a figure that today we call a Lambert quadrilateral and he quickly eliminated the possibility that the fourth angle is obtuse, as had Saccheri and Khayyam, and then proceeded to prove many theorems under the assumption of an acute angle
14.
Benjamin Guy Babington
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Benjamin Guy Babington was an English physician and epidemiologist. He was born on 5 March 1794, the son of the physician and mineralogist William Babington and his wife, Martha Elizabeth Babington. After serving as a midshipman and studying at Charterhouse School from 1803 to 1807 and then the East India Company College at Haileybury until 1812, he worked in government at Madras, returning to England, he studied medicine at Guys Hospital and Cambridge, receiving his doctorate in 1831. He then became Assistant Physician at Guys but resigned after a disagreement in 1855, during his career, he invented several medical instruments and techniques. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and he was Secretary to The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland and in March,1828 elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1834–1836 he was President of the Hunterian Society and he was a censor and Croonian Lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians. In 1850 he was elected the founding President of the Epidemiological Society of London, at least one authority refers to the founding as the beginning of modern epidemiology. In 1853–1855 he was president of the Pathological Society of London and 1863 was also president of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, Babington died on 8 April 1866. He wrote several papers, and translated others, including. Ernst, Baron von Feuchterslebens Principles of Medical Psychology, Babington was named after his fathers best friend Benjamin Fayle, and the fact that he was born in Guys Hospital. He married Fayles daughter Anna Mary, who gave him four children and he also became a director of B. Fayle and Co. together with his sister-in-law and his brother-in-law, Benjamin Guy Babingtons son - Stephen Piele Babington also became a director of B. Fayle & Co. Works by Benjamin Guy Babington at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Benjamin Guy Babington at Internet Archive Works by Benjamin Guy Babington at LibriVox
15.
Quaternary
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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. It follows the Neogene Period and spans from 2.588 ±0.005 million years ago to the present, the Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs, the Pleistocene and the Holocene. The informal term Late Quaternary refers to the past 0. 5–1.0 million years, the Quaternary Period is typically defined by the cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets driven by Milankovitch cycles and the associated climate and environmental changes that occurred. The term Quaternary was proposed by Giovanni Arduino in 1759 for alluvial deposits in the Po River valley in northern Italy and it was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of Frances Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks. The Quaternary Period follows the Neogene Period and extends to the present, the Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, and includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene. This places the start of the Quaternary at the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation approximately 2.6 million years ago, Quaternary stratigraphers usually worked with regional subdivisions. From the 1970s, the International Commission on Stratigraphy tried to make a single geologic time scale based on GSSPs, the Quaternary subdivisions were defined based on biostratigraphy instead of paleoclimate. This led to the problem that the base of the Pleistocene was at 1.805 Mya. The ICS then proposed to use of the name Quaternary altogether. The Anthropocene has been proposed as an epoch as a mark of the anthropogenic impact on the global environment starting with the Industrial Revolution. The Anthropocene is not officially designated by the ICS, however, the 2.6 million years of the Quaternary represents the time during which recognizable humans existed. Over this short period, there has been relatively little change in the distribution of the continents due to plate tectonics. The Quaternary geological record is preserved in detail than that for earlier periods. The climate was one of periodic glaciations with continental glaciers moving as far from the poles as 40 degrees latitude, there was a major extinction of large mammals in Northern areas at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch. Many forms such as saber-toothed cats, mammoths, mastodons, glyptodonts, others, including horses, camels and American cheetahs became extinct in North America. Glaciation took place repeatedly during the Quaternary Ice Age – a term coined by Schimper in 1839 that began with the start of the Quaternary about 2.58 Mya and continues to the present-day. In 1821, a Swiss engineer, Ignaz Venetz, presented an article in which he suggested the presence of traces of the passage of a glacier at a distance from the Alps. This idea was initially disputed by another Swiss scientist, Louis Agassiz, a year later, Agassiz raised the hypothesis of a great glacial period that would have had long-reaching general effects
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Philippe-Charles Schmerling
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Philippe-Charles or Philip Carel Schmerling was a Dutch/Belgian prehistorian, pioneer in paleontology, and geologist. He is often considered the founder of paleontology and it was the second discovery of a fossil of the genus Homo after the discovery of the Red Lady of Paviland in Wales in 1823. Philipus Carel, later Philippe-Charles, Schmerling was the son of Dutch parents, Jan Carel, a trader from s-Hertogenbosch, North Brabant, Schmerling studied medicine in Delft and Leiden. Afterwards he served as physician in the Dutch army between 1812 and 1816, on 17 October 1821 in Venlo he married Elizabeth Douglas. They had two daughters, in 1823 and 1825, in 1822, Schmerling and his wive moved to Liège at which university he continued his studies and became Doctor of Medicine in 1825. His doctoral dissertation was on the subject De studii psychologiae in medicina utilitate et necessitate, in 1829 he excavated a fossil man in a cave at Les Awirs, in the region of Flémalle, in the Meuse valley, between Liège and Huy. Schmerling investigated about sixty calcareous caves of the provinces of Liège and he became correspondent of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands in September 1836. II,1835, p.2,1835, p. 362-364, « Description des ossemens fossiles à létat pathologique, provenant des cavernes de la province de Liége » dans Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, t
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Neanderthal
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Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, however, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies also show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans. Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels. In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
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Patent
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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a technological problem and is a product or a process. Patents are a form of intellectual property, the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right and these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty, usefulness, and non-obviousness. Nevertheless, there are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country, the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means to lay open. More directly, it is a version of the term letters patent. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, and printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent usually refers to the granted to anyone who invents any new, useful. The additional qualification utility patent is used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents, the period of protection was 10 years. These were mostly in the field of glass making, as Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes. This led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries, by the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies, the Statute became the foundation for later developments in patent law in England and elsewhere. Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of property right. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand, in the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colonys legislature
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Accordion
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Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist, the concertina and bandoneón are related, the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open and these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instruments reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the manual. The accordion is widely spread across the world, nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibration. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals, each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to better project. The grille for the manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it, the different types have varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format, the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genres