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On Translating Beowulf

"On Translating Beowulf" is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the difficulties faced by anyone attempting to translate the Old English heroic-elegiac poem Beowulf into modern English, it was first published in 1940 as a preface contributed by Tolkien to a translation of Old English poetry. In the essay, Tolkien explains the difficulty of translating individual words from Old English, noting that a word like eacen cannot be translated by the same word in each case, he notes the problem of translating poetic kennings such as sundwudu and that the language chosen by the poet was archaic at that moment. He explains that such terms had echoes and connotations of another world, an "unrecapturable magic"; the essay describes Old English metre, with each line in two opposed halves. The stressed syllables in each half contained alliterating sounds in six possible patterns, which Tolkien illustrates using modern English. Rhyme is used only such as to imitate waves beating on a shore; the essay ends with the observation that the whole poem is itself in two opposed halves, covering "Youth + Age.

J. R. R. Tolkien contributed "On Translating Beowulf" as a preface entitled "Prefatory Remarks on Prose Translation of'Beowulf'" to the 1940 edition of C. L. Wrenn's book Beowulf and the Finnesburg Fragment, A Translation into Modern English Prose, which had first been published in 1911 by John R. Clark Hall. Tolkien, the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at the University of Oxford, had himself attempted a prose translation of Beowulf, but abandoned it, dissatisfied; the preface was published under the title "On Translating Beowulf" in 1983, as one of the essays in The Monsters and the Critics, Other Essays edited by Christopher Tolkien. The essay is divided into the following sections: Tolkien comments on the risk of using a translation as a substitute for study with grammar and dictionary, calling it an abuse, writing that On the strength of a nodding acquaintance of this sort, one famous critic informed his public that Beowulf was'only small beer', yet if beer at all, it is a drink dark and bitter: a solemn funeral-ale with the taste of death.

He notes. The word implies, in fact, supernatural or superhuman power, like Beowulf's gift from God of "thirtyfold strength", and this is just an example, Tolkien points out, of a minor challenge to the translator. A second issue is the compactness of Old English words, which have no modern equivalents, phrases which are "inevitably weakened in prose by transference to our looser modern language". Another problem is posed by the kennings, which Tolkien calls "poetical devices...descriptive compounds". He gives the example of sundwudu for'ship'. Tolkien mocks "oddities" like "ten timorous trothbreakers together" as "reminiscent of the'two tired toads that tried to trot to Tutbury'", he does not approve, either, of choosing needlessly colloquial words: "Too notables and subalterns appeared instead of the more fitting, indeed more accurate, counsellors and young knights."Further, he points out that the language used by the Beowulf poet was archaic, the choice of words was at the time recognisably poetic.

Tolkien gives as an example beorn, which meant both'bear' and'warrior', but only in heroic poetry could it be used to mean'man'. He advises the translator to prefer'striking' and'smiting', to avoid'hitting' and'whacking', but on the other hand, he criticises William Morris for using the dead and unintelligible'leeds' for OE leode if antiquarians feel that the word ought to have survived. Tolkien does not accept the etymological fallacy either: mod means'pride', not'mood'; some terms present special problems. He argues that the translator need not avoid words from the Middle Ages that might suggest the age of chivalry: better the world of King Arthur than "Red Indians", in the case of words for armour and weapons, there is no choice. In the case of compound words, Tolkien observes that the translator has to hesitate between naming the thing denoted, resolving the combination into a phrase

Flint River Council

Flint River Council is a Boy Scouts of America council based in Griffin, Georgia. The council is divided into four districts Coweta, Fayette and Tussahaw; the council service center is in Georgia. The council is administratively divided into four districts: Coweta District serves Coweta County Fayette District serves Fayette County Ronotohatchi District serves Lamar, Pike and Upson counties Tussahaw District serves Butts and Henry counties Lawhorn Scouting Base is a 2,400 Scout camping facility located in Georgia's Pine Mountain Range. Referred to as "Lawhorn", the base is operated by the Flint River Council, Boy Scouts of America and has three activity centers: Camp Thunder, Flint River Adventure Area, Pine Mountain Backcountry. In 2009, the base had over 23,000 visitors; the Lawhorn Scouting Base is open year-round as a campground for non-profit groups. The base operates an activity outfitter that offers canoeing and tubing on the Flint River, rock climbing, ropes course, shooting activities.

Several Scout weekends are held each year, including the popular Spookoree each October. In addition, the base hosts high adventure camp each year; the base was known as the Thunder Scout Reservation until 2007, when it was renamed for Gerald I. Lawhorn, a major donor for Scouting and CEO of PetroSouth, Inc. Camp Thunder is the original property founded in 1938. Located on the northeast corner of the Lawhorn Scouting Base, Camp Thunder was donated to the Boy Scouts after the property failed as a peach and cotton farm; the original property includes Thundering Springs, the 3rd most prolific springs in the state of Georgia. Structures in Camp Thunder include the Howard Lodge Administration Building, Camp Thunder Trading Post, Mitchell Shooting Sports Complex, 12 campsites. In 2010, new construction included the completion of a staff area shower and lounge and the Chandler Waterfront. At this time there are no scheduled construction projects in Camp Thunder, although staff cabins, shooting sports safety fencing, dining hall renovations, erosion controls are being proposed.

The primary program held in Camp Thunder is the annual Boy Scout summer camp. The Flint River Adventure Area was founded in 1988 as the Lawhorn Training Center, it was the first Boy Scout high adventure base in the BSA's Southern Region and focused on canoe trips down the Flint River, ropes course and climbing programs, mountaineering programs in north Georgia. When Thunder Scout Reservation was renamed in 2007, this camp was given the new FRAA title; the FRAA is located on the northwest corner of the Lawhorn Scouting Base. Structures in the Flint River Adventure Area include the Grand Pavilion, SkyWalk COPE Course, Eagle Mountain Climbing Center, River Experience Center, 9 campsites. In 2010, new construction included the completion of a Cub Scout Shooting Complex that includes BB ranges, pellet rifle ranges, archery ranges; this complex is not yet complete. The Rotary Club of Griffin is completing a renovation of the old ranger cabin to establish a new "Adventure Office and Health Center" with an estimated completion of February 2011.

In 2009, the adventure area's programs were re-written in an attempt to keep more programs on the property and limit the amount of transportation involved in activities. The caving and north Georgia programs were eliminated and replaced with a river trekking and backpacking expeditions; the camp ran 6 weeks of high adventure programs in 2010. For 2011, all the programs have been again rewritten. A new 10-day river and backpacking combination trek has been added; the Pine Mountain Backcountry consists of 2,000 acres and includes 16 campsites and 21-miles of trails. The local Order of the Arrow lodge has organized a Backcountry Development committee to revitalize campsites and increase promotion of the area; this project is headed by Keith Larson and is scheduled to run through 2013. Ini-To Lodge chartered in 1945 and still active. Name changed from Thundering Spring Lodge #324 in 1952. Coweta Echota Ronotohatchi Tussahaw Scouting in Georgia Lawhorn Scouting Base on Facebook Flint River Council

I Fighter Command

I Fighter Command was a United States Army Air Forces intermediate command responsible for command and control of the fighter operations within the First Air Force during World War II. The command was responsible for air defense of the northeastern United States until mid-1944, as well as training fighter units and personnel. Constituted on 26 May 1941 as I Interceptor Command, it was activated on 5 June 1941 at Mitchel Army Airfield controlling fighter operations within the First Air Force, under the command of Brigadier General John C. McDonnell; the command was based at Mitchel for the duration of its existence except for a brief stint in New York City from 27 December 1941 to 9 June 1942. Brigadier General John K. Cannon took command in March 1942. From August of that year to mid-1944 it included the Boston, New York and Philadelphia Fighter Wings. Cannon was replaced by Colonel Elwood R. Quesada about 29 September. Between April 1943 and around 14 April 1944 it was led by Brigadier General Glenn O. Barcus, replaced around 26 May by Brigadier General John R. Hawkins, its last commander.

The command provided air defense for the northeast coast of the United States until August 1944, when the prospect of air attack became remote, trained fighter units and personnel. After the end of the war it was inactivated on 21 March 1946 and disbanded on 8 October 1948. Constituted as: I Interceptor Command on 26 May 1941Activated on 5 June 1941. Redesignated I Fighter Command in May 1942. Inactivated on 21 March 1946 Disbanded on 8 October 1948. First Air Force, 26 May 1941 – 21 March 1946 Mitchel Field, New York, 5 June 1941 New York City, New York, 27 December 1941 Mitchel Field, New York, 9 June 1942 – 21 March 1946. Boston Fighter Wing, 11 August 1942 – July 1944 New York Fighter Wing, 6 August 1942 – 3 April 1946 Norfolk Fighter Wing, 8 August 1942 – 3 April 1946 Philadelphia Fighter Wing, 6 August 1942 – 3 April 1946 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II.

Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979

Dead Man's Handle

Dead Man's Handle is the title of a 1985 action-adventure/spy novel written by Peter O'Donnell. It was the eleventh and final full-length novel chronicling the adventures of O'Donnell's comic strip creation, Modesty Blaise. Although O'Donnell continued to write the comic strip, he did not write any further Modesty Blaise prose until the 1996 volume, Cobra Trap, which consisted of short stories; the headquarters of "The Hostel of Righteousness" is an old monastery on the small Greek island Kalivari. But this does not imply that the organisation is a holy one. On the contrary, Dr. Thaddeus Pilgrim and his followers are among the most unholy people you could have the misfortune of meeting. By chance, Willie Garvin and Modesty Blaise are targeted by Dr. Pilgrim, who has an obsession for creating "interesting scenarios". Dr. Pilgrim sends Sibyl and Kazim, his two top assassins, to England to capture Willie Garvin and bring him to Kalivari under heavy sedation. There Dr. Janos Tyl subjects Willie to the most diabolical brainwashing possible for him.

Willie is shown pictures of this she-devil Delilah, in reality pictures of Modesty Blaise. In other words, Willie is now programmed to kill Modesty on sight, at which point he will regain his memory, go insane when he realises what he has done. Modesty manages to pick up Willie's trail, she arrives at Kalivari, waiting until after dark to go ashore. Dr. Pilgrim has ensured that Modesty and Willie encounter each other in the old amphitheater seeing each other when the spotlights are switched on. Willie doesn't hesitate a moment, he throws it; the story does not end here, soon Dr. Pilgrim's obsession with interesting scenarios goes horribly wrong when Sibyl and Kazim are killed in gladiator-style duels and Dr. Janos Tyl is felled by a heavy round shield thrown frisbee-style by Willie, and the ungodly Dr. Pilgrim meets his fate at the hands of one of his own assassins; the plot element of Willie being programmed to kill Modesty on sight is a reversal of the scenario featured in the early 1970s comics strip "The Puppet Master" in which it is Modesty Blaise, kidnapped and programmed to kill Willie

26th Venice International Film Festival

The 26th annual Venice International Film Festival was held from 24 August to 6 September 1965. Carlo Bo Lewis Jacobs Nikolai Lebedev Jay Leyda Max Lippmann Edgar Morin Rune Waldekranz Golden Lion: Sandra Special Jury Prize: I Am Twenty Simon of the Desert Modiga mindre män Volpi Cup: Best Actor - Toshirô Mifune - Best Actress - Annie Girardot - Best First Work Vernost FIPRESCI Prize Simon of the Desert Gertrud OCIC Award Red Beard UNICRIT Award Twenty Hours Lion of San Marco Utek do vetru Tjorven, Båtsman och Moses The Snowy Day Enter Hamlet Best Film about Adolescence - The Searching Eye Best Documentary - Le isole incantante Best Documentary - Television - Philippe Pétain: Processo a Vichy Best Children's Film - Television - Charley Lion of San Marco - Grand Prize Jack Frost Silver Medal Daylight Robbery San Michele Award The Whacky Mixed-Up Carabiniers Official website Venice Film Festival 1965 Awards on IMDb