1830 in Algeria
Events from the year 1830 in Algeria.
Arts and literature
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Events from the year 1830 in Algeria.
|This year in Africa article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Algeria – Algeria, officially the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999, Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a regional and middle power, the North African country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world, Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent, most of Algerias weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the countrys name derives from the city of Algiers. The citys name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāir, a form of the older Jazāir Banī Mazghanna. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found, neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques, tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian. The earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian and this industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb perhaps as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC and this life, richly depicted in the Tassili nAjjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a native population that came to be called Berbers. These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages, as Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, by the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. They succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthages North African territory, the Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars
2. 1830 – As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland. January 11 – LaGrange College began operation, becoming the first publicly chartered college in Alabama, february 3 – The London Protocol establishes the full independence and sovereignty of Greece from the Ottoman Empire as the final result of the Greek War of Independence. March 12 – Craig vs. March 26 – The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, March 28 – The Java War ends. April 6 – Joseph Smith and five others organize the Church of Christ, may 13 – Ecuador separates from Gran Colombia. May 28 – The United States Congress passes the Indian Removal Act, june 26 – William IV succeeds his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom. July 5 – France invades Algeria, July 17 – Barthélemy Thimonnier is granted a patent for a sewing machine in France, it chains stitches at 200/minute. July 18 – Uruguay adopts its first constitution, July 20 – Greece grants citizenship to Jews. July 27 – France, The July Revolution begins, august 9 – France, Louis Philippe becomes King of the French. August 13 – France, Duc de Broglie becomes Prime Minister, august 25 – The Belgian Revolution begins. August 31 – Edwin Beard Budding is granted a patent for the invention of the lawn mower, september 15 – The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opens, the worlds first intercity passenger railway operated solely by steam locomotives. September 27 – The Belgian Revolution ends by liberating Brussels from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, october 4 – The Provisional Government in Brussels declares the creation of the independent state of Belgium, in revolt against the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. October – Start of the Regeneration in Switzerland, more liberal constitutions adopted in most cantons, november 2 – France, Jacques Laffitte succeeds the Duc de Broglie as Prime Minister. November 8 – Ferdinand II becomes King of the Two Sicilies, november 22 – The Whig Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey succeeds Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. November 29 – The Polish insurrection begins in Warsaw against Russian rule, december 5 – Hector Berliozs most famous work, Symphonie fantastique, has its world premiere in Paris. December 20 – The independence of Belgium is recognized by the Great Powers,10,000 chests of opium are sold in China. Austins of Derry established in Northern Ireland, until closure in 2016, it was the worlds oldest independent department store. January 7 – Albert Bierstadt, German-American painter January 21 – Liu Kunyi, Chinese general January 23 – Gaston Alexandre Auguste, Marquis de Galliffet, French general January 31 – James G
3. Invasion of Algiers in 1830 – The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X, invaded and conquered the Ottoman Regency of Algiers. Algiers had been a province of the Ottoman Empire since the Capture of Algiers in 1529 by Hayreddin Barbarossa, a diplomatic incident in 1827, the so-called Fan Affair served as a pretext to initiate a blockade against the port of Algiers. Charles X was also in need of diverting attention from turbulent French domestic affairs that culminated with his deposition during the stages of the invasion in the July Revolution. The invasion of Algiers began on 5 July 1830 with a bombardment by a fleet under Admiral Duperré. The French quickly defeated the troops of Hussein Dey, the Ottoman ruler and this resulted in a protracted military campaign, lasting more than 45 years, to root out popular opposition to the colonisation. The so-called pacification was marked by resistance of such as Ahmed Bey, Abd El-Kader. The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria, in 1848, the territories conquered around Algiers were organised into three départements, defining the territories of modern Algeria. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Regency of Algiers had greatly benefited from trade in the Mediterranean, the Bourbon Restoration limited trading, while the Mediterranean was completely controlled by the British Royal Navy, and the rebuilding French Navy. This in turn led to the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War, the wide unpopularity of the Bourbon Restoration also made France unstable. In an attempt to distract his people from domestic affairs, King Charles X decided to engage in a colonial policy. In 1827, Hussein Dey, Algerias Ottoman ruler, demanded that the French pay a 28-year-old debt, the French consul Pierre Deval refused to give answers satisfactory to the dey, and in an outburst of anger, Hussein Dey touched the consul with his fly-whisk. Charles X used this as an excuse to initiate a blockade against the port of Algiers. The blockade lasted for three years, and was primarily to the detriment of French merchants who were unable to do business with Algiers, while Barbary pirates were still able to evade the blockade. When France in 1829 sent an ambassador to the dey with a proposal for negotiations, the French then determined that more forceful action was required. King Charles X decided to organise an expedition on the coasts of Algiers to punish the impudence of the dey. The naval part of the operation was given to Admiral Duperré and he was nevertheless given command of the fleet. The land part was under the orders of Louis Auguste Victor de Ghaisne, on 16 May, a fleet comprising 103 warships and 464 transports departed Toulon, carrying a 37, 612-man strong army. The ground was well-known, thanks to observations made during the First Empire, the vanguard of the fleet arrived off Algiers on 31 May, but it took until 14 June for the entire fleet to arrive
4. International Standard Book Number – The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker