Governor of South Carolina
The Governor of the State of South Carolina is the head of state for the state of South Carolina. Under the South Carolina Constitution, the governor is the head of government, serving as the chief executive of the South Carolina executive branch; the governor is the ex officio commander-in-chief of the National Guard when not called into federal use. The governor's responsibilities include making yearly "State of the State" addresses to the South Carolina General Assembly, submitting an executive budget and ensuring that state laws are enforced; the 117th and current Governor of South Carolina is Henry McMaster, serving his first elected term. He assumed the office on January 24, 2017 as Nikki Haley resigned to become the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, he won the 2018 gubernatorial election. There are three legal requirements set forth in Section 2 of Article IV of the South Carolina Constitution. Be at least 30 years of age. Citizen of the United States and a resident of South Carolina for 5 years preceding the day of election.
The final requirement, "No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor who denies the existence of the Supreme Being," is of doubtful validity in light of the 1961 Supreme Court decision Torcaso v. Watkins, which reaffirmed that religious tests for public offices violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; this requirement, has still not been removed from the Constitution of South Carolina. Under Section 4 in Article IV of the South Carolina Constitution, the governor serves a four-year term in office beginning at noon on the first Wednesday following the second Tuesday in January following his election and ending at noon on the first Wednesday following the second Tuesday in January four years later. Section 3 of Article IV states that no person shall be elected governor for more than two successive terms. For clarification, a person can hold an unlimited amount of terms as governor as long as such person does not serve more than two consecutive terms. Since Henry McMaster assumed the office of governor after Nikki Haley resigned, he is eligible to serve the remainder of Haley's term and two consecutive four-year terms of his own.
According to the South Carolina Constitution, the Governor: Exercises "supreme executive authority." Appoints directors to 14 cabinet agencies, but most appointments are shared with the General Assembly. Serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the South Carolina National Guard. Serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the South Carolina State Guard, an auxiliary of the National Guard organized for in-state homeland defense. Commutes death sentences to life imprisonment. Calls the General Assembly to an extra session in "extraordinary circumstances." Adjourns the General Assembly as he shall think proper. Exercises veto and a Line-item veto power on bills. Declares a state of emergency and oversees relief in the event of a disaster. Declares public schools and government offices closed during civil or weather emergencies. Oversees all state departments. Serves as the ex officio chair of the board of trustees of all state universities. Submits a budget proposal to the General Assembly every January. Delivers a state of the state address, "from time to time," to the General Assembly.
Appoints United States Senators in cases of vacancy to serve until the next election. Appoints county Sheriffs in cases of vacancy to serve until the next election. If the incumbent governor is no longer able or permitted to fulfill the duties of the office of governor, the following line of succession will be followed: During impeachment or when the governor is temporarily disabled or absent from office, the lieutenant governor will have the powers of the governor. If the governor-elect is unable to fulfill the duties of the office of the governor, the lieutenant governor will become governor when the incumbent governor's term expires. If there is an incumbent governor beginning a new term, but a lieutenant governor-elect, if the incumbent governor is unable to fulfill the duties of the office of the governor, the incumbent lieutenant governor shall become governor until the inauguration date, the lieutenant governor-elect shall become governor on that date. "I do solemnly swear that I am duly qualified, according to the Constitution of this State, to exercise the duties of the office to which I have been elected, that I will, to the best of my ability, discharge the duties thereof, preserve and defend the Constitution of this State and of the United States.
So help me God." Main Article: South Carolina Governor's Mansion The Governor's Mansion, located at 800 Richland Street in Columbia, on Arsenal Hill, is the official residence of the Governor of South Carolina. It was built in 1855 and served as faculty quarters for The Arsenal Academy which together with the Citadel Academy in Charleston formed The South Carolina Military Academy; the South Carolina Constitution in Section 20 of Article IV requires that the governor is to reside where the General Assembly convenes. The South Carolina Constitution of 1776 specified for the governor to be chosen by the General Assembly. In 1778, the constitution was amended to change the title for the chief of the executive branch from president to governor. A new constitution was promulgated in 1865 following the capture of the state by the Union Army in the Civil War, it continued to limit the vote to white males. On O
Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that expanded suffrage to most white men over the age of 21, restructured a number of federal institutions. Originating with the seventh President Andrew Jackson, his supporters, it became the nation's dominant political worldview for a generation; this era, called the Jacksonian Era by historians and political scientists, lasted from Jackson's 1828 election as president until slavery became the dominant issue in 1854 and the political repercussions of the American Civil War reshaped American politics. It emerged when the long-dominant Democratic-Republican Party became factionalized around the 1824 election. Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party and his rivals John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay created the National Republican Party, which would afterward combine with other anti-Jackson political groups to form the Whig Party. Broadly speaking, the era was characterized by a democratic spirit and built upon Jackson's equal political policy.
Before the Jacksonian era began, suffrage had been extended to a majority of white male adult citizens, a result the Jacksonians celebrated. Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, while seeking to broaden the public's participation in government; the Jacksonians demanded elected judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms, they favored geographical expansion. There was a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided. Jackson's expansion of democracy was limited to Americans of European descent and voting rights were extended to adult white males only. There was little or no progress for the rights of African Americans and Native Americans during the extensive period of Jacksonian Democracy, spanning from 1829 - 1860. Jackson's biographer Robert V. Remini argues: stretches the concept of democracy about as far as it can go and still remain workable....
As such it has inspired much of the dynamic and dramatic events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in American history—Populism, the New and Fair Deals, the programs of the New Frontier and Great Society. William S. Belko in 2015 summarizes "the core concepts underlying Jacksonian Democracy" as: equal protection of the laws. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. in 1945 argues Jacksonian democracy was built on the following: Expanded suffrage – The Jacksonians believed that voting rights should be extended to all white men. By the end of the 1820s, attitudes and state laws had shifted in favor of universal white male suffrage and by 1856 all requirements to own property and nearly all requirements to pay taxes had been dropped. Manifest destiny – This was the belief that Americans had a destiny to settle the American West and to expand control from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and that the West should be settled by yeoman farmers. However, the Free Soil Jacksonians, notably Martin Van Buren, argued for limitations on slavery in the new areas to enable the poor white man to flourish—they split with the main party in 1848.
The Whigs opposed Manifest Destiny and expansion, saying the nation should build up its cities. Patronage – Also known as the spoils system, patronage was the policy of placing political supporters into appointed offices. Many Jacksonians held the view that rotating political appointees in and out of office was not only the right, but the duty of winners in political contests. Patronage was theorized to be good because it would encourage political participation by the common man and because it would make a politician more accountable for poor government service by his appointees. Jacksonians held that long tenure in the civil service was corrupting, so civil servants should be rotated out of office at regular intervals. However, patronage led to the hiring of incompetent and sometimes corrupt officials due to the emphasis on party loyalty above any other qualifications. Strict constructionism – Like the Jeffersonians who believed in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Jacksonians favored a federal government of limited powers.
Jackson said that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty". However, he was not a states' rights extremist—indeed, the Nullification Crisis would find Jackson fighting against what he perceived as state encroachments on the proper sphere of federal influence; this position was one basis for the Jacksonians' opposition to the Second Bank of the United States. As the Jacksonians consolidated power, they more advocated expanding federal power, presidential power in particular. Laissez-faire – Complementing a strict construction of the Constitution, the Jacksonians favored a hands-off approach to the economy as opposed to the Whig program sponsoring modernization, railroads and economic growth; the chief spokesman amongst laissez-faire advocates was William Leggett of the Locofocos in New York City. Opposition to banking – In particular, the Jacksonians opposed government-granted monopolies to banks the national bank, a central bank known as the Second Bank of the United States.
Jackson said: "The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" and he did so. The Whigs, who supported the
William C. Preston
William Campbell Preston was a senator from the United States and a member of the Nullifier, Whig Parties. He was the cousin of William Ballard Preston, William Preston and Angelica Singleton Van Buren. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he was the son of Francis Preston, a well-to-do businessman, Sarah Buchanan Campbell, daughter of Gen. William Campbell. During his childhood he was educated by private tutors enrolled in Washington University in Lexington, Virginia, he transferred to and graduated from South Carolina College in Columbia in 1812, where he was a member of the Euphradian Society. After traveling and studying around Europe, Preston studied law at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, he sailed back to the States in 1819 and was admitted to the bar of Virginia in 1820. He practiced law there for two years, he moved to Columbia, South Carolina in 1822 and ran unsuccessfully for election to the Twenty-Second Congress. He was, elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives and served from 1828 to 1834.
He was elected in 1833 as a Nullifier to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy after the resignation of Stephen D. Miller. Preston was reelected as a Whig in 1837 and served until his resignation on November 29, 1842. During that time he served as the chairman for the Committee on the Library and the Committee on Military Affairs. After his resignation, Preston returned to practicing law and served as president of South Carolina College from 1845 until 1851, when he resigned due to poor health, he died in South Carolina. He was buried in the Trinity Episcopal Churchyard, he is the namesake of Lake Preston, in South Dakota. United States Congress. "William C. Preston". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William C. Preston at Find a Grave
Littleton Waller Tazewell
Littleton Waller Tazewell was a Virginia lawyer, plantation owner and politician who served as U. S. Representative, U. S. Senator and the 26th Governor of Virginia, as well as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. Tazewell, son of Henry Tazewell, his wife Dorothy Elizabeth Waller was born in Williamsburg in the Colony of Virginia shortly before Christmas, 1774, his father was clerk of the revolutionary conventions during the next two years. Although his mother died when he was a child, his maternal grandfather, lawyer Benjamin Waller, taught him Latin. Tazewell was tutored by John Wickham, he married Ann Stratton Nivison Tazewell and they had at least six daughters as well as two sons, although only four daughters would survive their mother. After studying law, Tazewell was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1796, commenced practice in James City County, Virginia, he was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing James City County from 1798 to 1800, when he resigned to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Marshall in the Sixth United States Congress, serving in the federal legislature from November 26, 1800, to March 4, 1801.
Politically, Tazewell was a Jeffersonian Republican, upon the fissure of that party he associated with the Jacksonian Democrats. Tazewell moved to Norfolk, Virginia in 1802, he represented Norfolk Borough in the General Assemblies of 1804-1805 and 1805-1806, but was replaced by William Newsum, Jr. in the Assembly of 1806-1806. Nonetheless, on July 5, 1807, he defused the impressment crisis involving the British HMS Leopard in Norfolk harbor and the USS Chesapeake and Norfolk mayor Richard E. Lee. Tazewell again represented James City County in the House of Delegates from 1809 until 1812. Norfolk voters elected him to represent the Borough again in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1816 to 1817. After the War of 1812, General Taylor, George Newton and others formed the Roanoke Commercial Company, designed to expand traffic through the Dismal Swamp Canal and allow goods from as far away as mountainous Bedford County to ship through Norfolk. Tazewell served as one of the commissioners of claims under the treaty with Spain which ceded Florida in 1821.
Virginia legislators elected Tazewell in 1824 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John Taylor. Re-elected in 1829, he served from December 7, 1824, to July 16, 1832, when he resigned to become Virginia's governor, as discussed below. While in the Senate, Tazewell was President pro tempore of the Senate during the Twenty-second United States Congress and chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, his principal published work is Review of the Negotiations between the United States and Great Britain Respecting the Commerce of the Two Countries. Tazewell served as Norfolk's delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention in 1829–1830; when the Whigs secured majorities in the Virginia Assembly for six years, they first elected the Old Republican as a Whig governor 1834–36, although he resigned a year before his term ended. During his two years as governor, Tazewell had to address abolitionism, although Nat Turner's revolt had occurred in 1831 while Tazewell was home from Washington.
He became an advocate of wholesale colonization, as Governor asked Virginia's legislature to formally request that Northern states suppress abolitionist groups and asked Congress to suppress delivery of such literature through the U. S. Post Office. Tazewell's governorship was marked by expansion of the James River Canal, to connect to the Kanawha Canal and thus the Ohio River. Under his leadership, the Assembly instructed Virginia's U. S. Senators to support internal improvements, protective tariffs, a national bank in support of Henry Clay's American System. Following his term as Governor, Tazewell retired from public life, but received 11 electoral votes for Vice-President in the election of 1840. Tazewell enslaved persons in the Hampton Roads area. In the 1830 U. S. Federal Census, his Norfolk household included a dozen slaves. Although Virginia state slave censuses are not available online, several federal census returns appear either missing or digitally misindexed, by 1860, his household included nine slaves in Norfolk, over 100 slaves across the Chesapeake Bay in Northampton County, Virginia.
Governor Tazewell died a widower in Norfolk, Virginia, on May 6, 1860. Interred with his wife on his estate on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, he was re-interred in 1866 at Elmwood Cemetery in Norfolk. Tazewell, Tazewell County and Tazewell County, Illinois are named in his honor, in his father's honor, as are the cities of Tazewell and New Tazewell, Tennessee. A plaque remembering him stands at the corner of Tazewell and Granby streets in Norfolk, near the Tazewell Hotel and Suites, where his two-story house was located, his house, known as the Boush-Tazewell House, was dismantled and re-erected in its present location about three miles from its original site around 1902. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Tazewell was the maternal grandfather of Littleton Waller Tazewell Bradford, a prominent Virginia politician, a founder of Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity. A building at the College of William and Mary is named in Tazewell's honor. Congressional biography Discourse on the Life and Character of the Hon. Littleton Waller Tazewell Hugh Blair Grig
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin was a Genevan-American politician, diplomat and linguist. He was an important leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, serving in various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades, he represented Pennsylvania in the Senate and the House of Representatives before becoming the longest-tenured United States Secretary of the Treasury and serving as a high-ranking diplomat. Born in Geneva in present-day Switzerland, Gallatin immigrated to the United States in the 1780s, settling in western Pennsylvania, he served as a delegate to the 1789 Pennsylvania constitutional convention and won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly. An opponent of Alexander Hamilton's economic policies, Gallatin was elected to the United States Senate in 1793. However, he was removed from office on a party-line vote after a protest raised by his opponents suggested he did not meet the required nine years of citizenship. Returning to Pennsylvania, Gallatin helped calm many angry farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion.
Gallatin returned to Congress in 1795 after winning election to the House of Representatives. He became the chief spokesman on financial matters for the Democratic-Republican Party, leading opposition to the Federalist economic program. Gallatin's mastery of public finance led to his choice as Secretary of the Treasury by President Thomas Jefferson, despite Federalist attacks that he was a "foreigner" with a French accent. Under Jefferson and James Madison, Gallatin served as secretary from 1801 until February 1814. Gallatin retained much of Hamilton's financial system, though he presided over a reduction in the national debt prior to the War of 1812. Gallatin served on the American commission that agreed to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. In the aftermath of the war, he helped. Declining another term at the Treasury, Gallatin served as Ambassador to France from 1816 to 1823, struggling with scant success to improve relations with the government during the Bourbon Restoration.
In the election of 1824, Gallatin was nominated for Vice President by the Democratic-Republican Congressional caucus. Gallatin never wanted the position and was humiliated when forced to withdraw from the race because he lacked popular support. In 1826 and 1827, he served as the ambassador to Britain and negotiated several agreements, such as a ten-year extension of the joint occupation of Oregon Country. After his tenure abroad, Gallatin settled in New York City, he became president of the National Bank's branch in New York City. In 1842, Gallatin joined with John Russell Bartlett to found the American Ethnological Society. With his studies of the languages of Native Americans, he has been called "the father of American ethnology." Gallatin was born on January 1761, in Geneva. His parents were Jean's wife, Sophie Albertine Rollaz. Gallatin's family had great influence in the Republic of Geneva, many family members held distinguished positions in the magistracy and the military. Jean Gallatin, a prosperous merchant, died in 1765, followed by Sophie in April 1770.
Now orphaned, Gallatin was taken into the care of Mademoiselle Pictet, a family friend and distant relative of Gallatin's father. In January 1773, Gallatin was sent to study at the elite Academy of Geneva. While attending the academy, Gallatin read in philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, along with the French Physiocrats. A student of the Enlightenment, he believed in human nature and that when free from social restrictions, it would display noble qualities and greater results, in both the physical and the moral world; the democratic spirit of the United States attracted he decided to emigrate. In April 1780, Gallatin secretly left Geneva with his classmate Henri Serre. Carrying letters of recommendation from eminent Americans that the Gallatin family procured, the young men left France in May, sailing on an American ship, "the Kattie", they reached Cape Ann on July 14 and arrived in Boston the next day, traveling the intervening thirty miles by horseback. Bored with monotonous Bostonian life and Serre set sail with a Swiss female companion to the settlement of Machias, located on the northeastern tip of the Maine frontier.
At Machias, Gallatin operated a bartering venture, in which he dealt with a variety of goods and supplies. He enjoyed the natural environment surrounding him. Gallatin and Serre returned to Boston in October 1781 after abandoning their bartering venture in Machias. Friends of Pictet, who had learned that Gallatin had traveled to the United States, convinced Harvard College to employ Gallatin as a French tutor. Gallatin disliked living in New England, instead preferring to become a farmer in the Trans-Appalachian West, which at that point was the frontier of American settlement, he became the interpreter and business partner of a French land speculator, Jean Savary, traveled throughout various parts of the United States in order to purchase undeveloped Western lands. In 1785, he became an American citizen. Gallatin inherited a significant sum of money the following year, he used that money to purchase a 400-acre plot of land in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, he built. Gallatin co-founded a company designed to attract Swiss settlers to the United States, but the company proved unable to attract many settlers.
In 1789, Gallatin married Sophie Allegre, the daughter of a Richmond boardinghouse owner, but Allegre died just five months i
Gerrit Smith was a leading United States social reformer, abolitionist and philanthropist. Spouse to Ann Carroll Fitzhugh, Smith was a candidate for President of the United States in 1848, 1856, 1860, but only served 18 months in the federal government—in Congress as a Free Soil Party Representative, in 1853–4. Smith, a significant financial contributor to the Liberty Party and the Republican Party throughout his life, spent much time and money working towards social progress in the nineteenth-century United States. Besides making substantial donations of both land and money to create an African-American community in North Elba, New York, he was involved in the temperance movement and in life, the colonization movement. A staunch abolitionist, he was a member of the Secret Six who financially supported John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Brown's farm, in North Elba, was on land. Smith was born in Utica, New York to Peter Gerrit Smith and Elizabeth Smith, daughter of Col. James Livingston and Elizabeth Livingston.
Smith's maternal aunt, Margaret Livingston, was married to Judge Daniel Cady. Their daughter Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a founder and leader of the women's suffrage movement, was Smith's first cousin. Elizabeth Cady met her future husband, Henry Stanton an active abolitionist, at the Smith family home in Peterboro, New York. Established in 1795, the town had been founded by and named for Gerrit Smith's father, Peter Smith, who built the family homestead there in 1804. Gerrit Smith graduated from Hamilton College in 1818. In January 1819, he married Wealtha Ann Backus, daughter of Hamilton College's first President, Azel Backus D. D. and sister of Frederick F. Backus. Wealtha died in August of the same year. Returning home from college, Smith took on the management of the vast estate of his father, a long-standing partner of John Jacob Astor, increased the family fortune. In 1822, he married sister of Henry Fitzhugh, they had two children: Greene Smith. About 1828 Smith became an active temperance campaigner, in his hometown of Peterboro, he built one of the first temperance hotels in the country.
He became an abolitionist in 1835, after attending an anti-slavery meeting in Utica, broken up by a mob. In 1840, Smith played a leading part in the organization of the Liberty Party. In the same year, their presidential candidate James G. Birney married Elizabeth Potts Fitzhugh, Smith's sister-in-law. Smith and Birney travelled to London that year to attend the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. Birney, but not Smith, are recorded in the commemorative painting of the event. In 1848, Smith was nominated for the Presidency by the remnant of this organization that had not been absorbed by the Free Soil Party. An "Industrial Congress" at Philadelphia nominated him for the presidency in 1848, the "Land Reformers" in 1856. In 1840 and again in 1858, he ran for Governor of New York on an anti-slavery platform. On June 2, 1848, in Rochester, New York, Smith was nominated as the Liberty Party's presidential candidate. At the National Liberty Convention, held June 14–15 in Buffalo, New York, Smith gave a major address, including in his speech a demand for "universal suffrage in its broadest sense, females as well as males being entitled to vote."
The delegates approved a passage in their address to the people of the United States addressing votes for women: "Neither here, nor in any other part of the world, is the right of suffrage allowed to extend beyond one of the sexes. This universal exclusion of woman... argues, that, not as yet, is there one nation so far emerged from barbarism, so far Christian, as to permit woman to rise up to the one level of the human family." Reverend Charles C. Foote was nominated as his running mate; the ticket would come in fourth place in the election, carrying 2,545 popular votes, all from New York. By 1856 little of the Liberty Party remained after most of its members joined the Free Soil Party in 1848 and nearly of all what remained of the party joined the Republicans in 1854; the small remnant of the party renominated Smith under the name of the "National Liberty Party". In 1860, the remnant of the party was called the Radical Abolitionists. A convention of one hundred delegates was held in Convention Hall, New York, on August 29, 1860.
Delegates were in attendance from New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Ohio and Massachusetts. Several of the delegates were women. Smith, despite his poor health, fought William Goodell in regard to the nomination for the presidency. In the end, Smith was nominated for president and Samuel McFarland from Pennsylvania was nominated for vice president; the ticket won 171 popular votes from Ohio. In Ohio, a slate of presidential electors pledged to Smith ran with the name of the Union Party. Smith, along with his friend and ally Lysander Spooner, was a leading advocate of the United States Constitution as an antislavery document, as opposed to abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, who believed it was to be condemned as a pro-slavery document. In 1852, Smith was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Free-Soiler. In his address, he declared.
Willie Person Mangum
Willie Person Mangum was a U. S. Senator from the state of North Carolina between 1831 and 1836 and between 1840 and 1853, he was one of the founders and leading members of the Whig party, was a candidate for president in 1836 as part of the unsuccessful Whig strategy to defeat Martin Van Buren by running four candidates with local appeal in different regions of the country. He is, as of 2018, the only major-party presidential nominee to have been a North Carolinian at the time of his nomination. Mangum was born in North Carolina, to a family of the planter class, he was the son of William Person Mangum. In his youth, he attended the respected private school in Raleigh run by a free black, they had a long correspondence. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1815. Mangum entered politics, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1823 to 1826. After an interlude as a superior court judge, he was elected by the legislature as a Democrat to the Senate from North Carolina in 1830.
Mangum's stay in the Democratic Party was short. He opposed President Andrew Jackson on most of the major issues of the day, including the protective tariff and the Bank of the United States. In 1834, Mangum declared himself to be a "Whig", two years he resigned his Senate seat. Due to a lack of organizational cohesion in the new Whig Party during the 1836 election, the Whigs put forward four presidential candidates: Daniel Webster in Massachusetts, William Henry Harrison in the remaining Northern and Border States, Hugh White in the middle and lower South, Mangum in South Carolina; some optimistic Whigs foresaw the nomination of several candidates resulting in denying a majority of electoral votes to any one candidate and throwing the election into the House of Representatives, much like what occurred in 1824, where Whig representatives could coalesce around a single candidate. This possibility, did not come to fruition and Democratic candidate Martin Van Buren won the election with an outright majority of electoral votes.
The legislature of South Carolina gave Mangum its 11 electoral votes. After a four-year absence, Mangum served two more terms in the Senate, where he was an important ally of Henry Clay. In 1842, he succeeded Samuel L. Southard as president pro tempore of the Senate, during a vice presidential vacancy. Upon assuming office on May 23, he became next in succession to the presidency, remained so until the swearing in of George M. Dallas on March 4, 1845, a period which included President John Tyler's narrow escape from death in the USS Princeton disaster of 1844. In 1852, he refused an offer to be a candidate for vice president on the Whig national ticket. Realizing that he had little chance of being re-elected as the Whig Party broke up following the 1852 elections, Mangum retired in 1853 at the end of his second term. In 1856 he, like many ex-Whigs, joined the nativist American Party, but a stroke soon afterward ended his political career. Mangum died at his family estate in Red Mountain, an unincorporated area of Durham County, on September 7, 1861.
He was buried in the family cemetery on his estate. Mangum married Charity Alston Cain in 1819, they had five children. Their only son died in July 1861 at the First Battle of a month before his father, his plantation was known as Walnut Hall. A 1931 biography of John Chavis noted that Mangum had allowed his former teacher to be buried on his land; the gravesite was found in 1988 by the John Chavis Historical Society, is now marked as the "Old Cemetery" on maps of Hill Forest. United States Congress. "Willie Person Mangum". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Willie Person Mangum at Find Henry; the Papers of Willie Person Mangum. Raleigh, N. C.: North Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1950-1956. Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography, vol. 14, "Mangum, Willie Person". New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Schipke, Norman C. Mangum! Man from Red Mountain. North Charleston, South Carolina: CSI Publishing Platform, 2014