1833 in science
- May 3 – The Entomological Society of London is inaugurated.
- Katherine Sophia Kane's The Irish Flora is published anonymously.
- probable date – Paul Gerwien proves the Bolyai–Gerwien theorem formulated by Farkas Bolyai: that any two simple polygons of equal area are equidecomposable.
- Henry Witham publishes The Internal Structure of Fossil Vegetables found in the Carboniferous and Oolitic deposits of Great Britain in Edinburgh.
Physiology and medicine
- William Beaumont publishes Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion.
- Charles Bell publishes The Hand: its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design, the fourth Bridgewater Treatise.
- Marshall Hall coins the term "reflex" for a muscular reaction.
- Jean Lobstein proposes use of the term arteriosclerosis.
- Johannes Peter Müller begins publication of his major physiology textbook Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen.
- Anselme Payen discovers diastase (the first enzyme identified).
- August 18 – The Canadian ship SS Royal William sets out from Pictou, Nova Scotia on a 25-day passage of the Atlantic Ocean largely under steam to Gravesend, Kent, England.
- Obed Hussey patents a reaper in the United States.
- Cornish engineer Adrian Stephens invents the steam whistle as a warning device at Dowlais Ironworks in Wales.
- Publication by Charles Knight of The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge begins in London.
- Copley Medal: Not awarded
- February 26 – Georges Pouchet (died 1894), French comparative anatomist.
- March 14 – Lucy Hobbs Taylor (died 1910), American dentist.
- March 23 – Carl Friedrich Otto Westphal (died 1890), German psychiatrist.
- March 25 – Fleeming Jenkin (died 1885), English engineer.
- May 5 – Ferdinand von Richthofen (died 1905), German geographer.
- June 29 – Peter Waage (died 1900), Norwegian chemist.
- October 9 – Eugene Langen (died 1895), engineer
- October 17 – Paul Bert (died 1886), French physiologist.
- October 21 – Alfred Nobel (died 1896), Swedish inventor.
- December 2 – Daniel von Recklinghausen (died 1910), pathologist.
- January 10 – Adrien-Marie Legendre (born 1752), mathematician.
- February 6
- February 14 – Gottlieb Kirchhoff (born 1764), chemist.
- April 22 – Richard Trevithick (born 1771), engineer and inventor.
- May 15 – Bewick Bridge (born 1767), mathematician.
- July 5 – Nicéphore Niépce (born 1765), inventor.
- October 31 – Johann Friedrich Meckel (born 1781), anatomist.
- Hyman, Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer. Oxford University Press. pp. 177–8. ISBN 978-0-19-858170-3.
- Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad (2006). "Cytokines in Atherosclerosis". Physiological Reviews. American Physiological Society. 86: 515–581. doi:10.1152/physrev.00024.2005. PMID 16601268. Archived from the original on 2013-07-13. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- "Obed Hussey". Ohio History Central: An Online Encyclopedia of Ohio History. 2005-07-01. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- Greeno, Follett L., ed. (1912). Obed Hussey, Who, of All Inventors, Made Bread Cheap. Archived from the original on 2013-01-19. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- "Adrian Stephens". Archived from the original on 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- Lee, Charles E. (1949). "Adrian Stephens, inventor of the steam whistle". Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 27: 163–73.