Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma
Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma, was a naval officer and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. He was born in the Kingdom of Portugal, his family moved to Brazil two years later. After Brazilian independence in 1822, Inhaúma enlisted in the Brazilian navy. Early in his career during the latter half of the 1820s, he participated in the subduing of secessionist rebellions: first the Confederation of the Equator, the Cisplatine War, which precipitated a long international armed conflict with the United Provinces of the River Plate. Throughout the chaos that characterized the years when Emperor Dom Pedro II was a minor, Inhaúma remained loyal to the government, he helped quell a military mutiny in 1831 and was involved in suppressing some of the other rebellions that erupted during that troubled period. He saw action in the Sabinada between 1837 and 1838, followed by the Ragamuffin War from 1840 until 1844. In 1849, after spending two years in Great Britain, Inhaúma was given command of the fleet, instrumental in subduing the Praieira revolt, the last rebellion in imperial Brazil.
During the 1850s, Inhaúma held a series of bureaucratic positions. He entered politics in 1861 as a member of the Conservative Party, he was given the position of navy minister. Inhaúma became the first person to hold the Ministry of Agriculture portfolio, albeit briefly; the first professional firefighter corps in Brazil was formed during his tenure as agriculture minister. In late 1866, Inhaúma was appointed commander-in-chief of the fleet engaged in the Paraguayan War. During the fighting, he achieved the rank of the highest in the Brazilian armada, he was awarded a noble title being raised from baron to viscount. In 1868, he never assumed office. Although he prosecuted his operations in the war against Paraguay, Inhaúma's leadership was encumbered by his hesitating and procrastinating behavior. While in command in the war zone, he contracted an unknown disease. Ill, Inhaúma returned to the national capital in early 1869 and died shortly thereafter. Although historical works have not given much coverage to Inhaúma, some historians regard him among the greatest of the Brazilian navy officers.
Joaquim José Inácio was born in Kingdom of Portugal. Although the date on his birth certificate was 30 July 1808, his mother claimed that the correct birthdate was two days on 1 August, he affirmed that the date was accurate, as did his younger brother, his biographer. Regardless, some biographers, including Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Carlos Guilherme Haring, have persisted in citing the date mistakenly entered on the birth certificate. Joaquim Inácio's parents were Maria Isabel de Barros. In 1808, the Portuguese Royal family moved to Brazil the largest and wealthiest colony of Portugal. Two years on 10 July 1810, José de Barros arrived in the Brazilian capital, Rio de Janeiro; as a crew member of the frigate D. Carlota, he was charged with transporting what remained of the personal property of Prince Regent Dom João King Dom João VI to Brazil. José de Barros brought his family on the voyage, including Joaquim Inácio, one year and eight months old. Joaquim Inácio had an older sister named Maria and six younger siblings, among them Bento José de Carvalho and Antônio José Vitorino de Barros.
As was common at the time, Joaquim Inácio began his education at home and was enrolled in Seminário de São José and after that, in Seminário São Joaquim, which became Pedro II School in 1837. His teachers included Januário da Cunha Barbosa, who became one of the leading figures in the Brazilian independence movement. Joaquim Inácio chose to follow his father, a naval officer who achieved the rank of second lieutenant, in his choice of a career. On 20 November 1822 at the age of 14, Joaquim Inácio was admitted as aspirante a guarda-marinha at the Navy Academy. On 11 December 1823, he graduated from the academy, majoring in mathematics, with the rank of guarda-marinha; as he had in previous studies at other schools, Joaquim Inácio proved to be a brilliant student. Among his colleagues at the academy was Francisco Manuel Barroso da Silva whom he befriended; when Prince Dom Pedro and heir of King João VI, led the movement for the independence of Brazil, Joaquim Inácio was one of several Portuguese-born residents who sided with the Brazilian cause and joined the armada.
On 16 January 1824, he began his service aboard the D. Pedro I, a ship of the line and flagship of First Admiral Thomas Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhão. Joaquim Inácio did not fight in any battles, as the Portuguese enemy forces had surrendered by that time, his baptism of fire came a few months with the advent of the Confederation of the Equator, a secessionist rebellion in Brazil's northeastern provinces. He was given the command of the cutter Independente and aided in the suppression of rebels in Rosário do Itapecuru, a village in the province of Maranhão; the rebellion was over by early 1825, on 25 February Joaquim Inácio was promoted to second lieutenant. In June 1825, Joaquim Inácio traveled to Brazil's far south to quell a secessionist rebellion in the province of Cisplatina; the insurgents were aided by the United Provinces of the River Plate, which led to the Cisplatine War. Joaquim Inácio served as first officer aboard
Paulino Soares de Sousa, 1st Viscount of Uruguai
Paulino José Soares de Sousa, the Viscount of Uruguai, was a congressman, a senator, a State Adviser and a skilful diplomat. Born in Paris, he distinguished himself during the 1850s when, as Minister of Foreign Affairs for Brazil, he organized the Brazilian Diplomatic Corps and structured the entire Brazilian policy of intervention in the River Plate against Juan Manuel de Rosas from Argentina, Manuel Oribe from Uruguay. A cautious diplomat, he knew how to take advantage of favourable circumstances, excluding unilateral action by Brazil and acting only at the request of the constitutional governments in the region. Success came from his part in Franco-English involvement, he took on the financial burden incurred by France in maintaining the government of Montevideo and in relation to England, took steps towards the abolition of the slave traffic, creating favourable conditions for involvement by Brazil and its allies. In Paris in 1855 he negotiated the issue of Brazilian borders with French Guiana, which resulted in the matter being resolved in 1900, by the Baron of Rio Branco.
The Viscount died in Rio de Janeiro, aged 57
Politics of the Empire of Brazil
Politics of the Empire of Brazil took place in a framework of a quasi-federal parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Emperor of Brazil was the head of state and nominally head of government although the President of the Council of Ministers was the de facto head, of a multi-party system. Executive power was exercised by the government. Legislative power was vested in the two chambers of the General Assembly; the Judiciary was independent of the Legislative. The Empire of Brazil was divided into the Neutral City, capital of the country. Upon gaining independence from Portugal in 1822, the Brazilian nation as a whole was entirely in favor of a monarchical form of government. There were a variety of reasons for this political choice. There was fear among various social groups of the possibility that Brazil would fall into the same political and economic chaos experienced by most of the former Spanish American colonies: territorial dismemberment, coups and the rise of caudillos.
The perceived necessity was for a political structure that would permit the Brazilian people not to enjoy the advantages of liberty, but that would guarantee the country's stability, in conformance with the liberalism of the time. Only a neutral entity independent of parties, groups or opposing ideologies, could achieve this end, and there was "always a powerful ideological element remaining from independence as the result of a great national union over particular interests." The Brazilian monarchy was "a form of government that assured a Brazil that would include the whole of the old Portuguese dominion, in a climate of order and freedom." There was another reason for adoption of the monarchy, or more its maintenance. The Europeans, as much as the Africans and the Native Americans, came from monarchical societies. To remain under this form of government was a way of maintaining the traditions and identity of the Brazilian people, a people descended from those three distinct ethnic groups; the choice of a member of the House of Braganza came not just from the historical moment, but from the fact that Prince Pedro descended from the pure male line of the Portuguese kings.
The House of Braganza originated with Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza, an illegitimate son of John I of the House of Aviz who, in turn, was the son of Peter I of the House of Burgundy, founded 300 years earlier in 1143 by Afonso Henriques, first king of Portugal. Thus, the strong popular appeal of the monarchy, a tradition of more than three hundred years, enabled Prince Pedro to take on the role of a symbol of national unity; the monarchical regime maintained on Brazilian soil "was a force of continuity and tradition". A third element in the choice of monarchy was the necessity to comply with the powers of the era, all located in Europe; the possibility, quite real at the time, of European countries seeking to dominate the young American nation, strengthened the desire to prevent the adoption of the republican form at all costs and to avoid any territorial dismemberment into small republics, weak and in constant rivalry with one another. Given that other Latin American countries and Portugal were becoming easy prey to European greed, maintaining the monarchy with a monarch of European origin acted as a deterrent and allowed Brazil to ensure the predominance of its international interests.
And in fact, "after the phase of the regency, turbulent but transitory by its nature, the imperial order dominated from above, assuring internal peace and external prestige."For the reasons cited above, Brazil chose a representative constitutional monarchical system. The imperial regime was based on the idea that sovereignty resided in the Nation, not the State, symbolically represented by the emperor. While the Nation wished to experience freedom and prosperity, the State, in turn, wanted "permanence and existence." In this form, the Constitution expressed in its text that both the Emperor and the General Assembly were representatives of the Brazilian nation. The monarch represented the constant, general interests of the nation as a whole, while the Assembly represented particular, momentary interests. However, the Emperor was not sovereign of the country. A major difference between parliamentarism and presidentialism is that in the first, the Head of State and of the Government are distinct individuals, while in the second, both roles reside in a single individual.
Under the Brazilian monarchy, the emperor was head of both the State and the Government. This basic characteristic of presidential republicanism was transplanted by the Brazilian Constitutional Order; the Constitution of 1824 was rather less parliamentary than the draft prepared by the Constituent Assembly. In fact, it was for all purposes a unique regime: a presidential monarchy; that did not mean, by any means, that the Brazilian monarch had prerogatives resembling those of a tyrant or dictator. The individual guarantees that guarantee human liberty and dignity were inserted into the articles of the Charter and were respected; the Emperor would not act in areas reserved to the legislative branch and the judiciary, such as to create laws or to judge and sentence. Still, the creation of the Moderating Power and natural evolution of Brazilian representative system enabled a transition from presidential to the parliamentary model, which "would give the Empire a position of illustrious companion next to the British lion" [the Un
Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil
Dona Isabel, nicknamed "the Redemptress", was the heiress presumptive to the throne of the Empire of Brazil, bearing the title of Princess Imperial. She served as the Empire's regent on three occasions. Isabel was born in Rio de Janeiro, the eldest daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina, thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. After the deaths of her two brothers in infancy, she was recognized as her father's heiress presumptive, she married a French prince, Count of Eu, in an arranged marriage, they had three sons. During her father's absences abroad, Isabel acted as regent. In her third and final regency, she promoted and signed a law, named Lei Áurea or the Golden Law, emancipating all slaves in Brazil. Though the action was broadly popular, there was strong opposition to her succession to the throne, her gender, strong Catholic faith and marriage to a foreigner were seen as impediments against her, the emancipation of the slaves generated dislike among powerful planters.
In 1889, her family was deposed in a military coup, she spent the last 30 years of her life in exile in France. Isabel was born at 6:30 p.m. on 29 July 1846 in Rio de Janeiro's Paço de São Cristóvão. She was his wife Teresa Cristina. On 15 November the infant princess was baptized in an elaborate ceremony in Igreja da Glória, her godparents, both represented by proxy, were her uncle, King Ferdinand II of Portugal, her maternal grandmother María Isabella of Spain. She was christened Isabel Cristina Leopoldina Augusta Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga, her last four names were always bestowed upon the members of her family, Isabel and Cristina honored Isabel's maternal grandmother and mother, respectively. She was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza through her father, from birth was referred to using the honorific Dona, she was the granddaughter of Brazil's Emperor Pedro I, the niece of Queen Maria II of Portugal. Through her mother, she was a granddaughter of Francis I and niece to Ferdinand II, both kings of the Two Sicilies in turn.
At the time of her birth, she had an elder brother named Afonso, heir apparent to the Brazilian throne. Two other siblings followed: Leopoldina in 1847 and Pedro in 1848. Afonso's death in 1847, at the age of 2 1⁄2, propelled Isabel to the position of Pedro II's heir presumptive, she lost the position with the birth of Prince Imperial Pedro. After his death in 1850, Isabel became the definitive heir as Princess Imperial, the title given to the first in the line of succession. Isabel's early years were a time of prosperity in Brazil, her parents provided a healthy upbringing. She and her sister "grew up in a stable, secure environment different from the one her father and aunts had known, light years away from the childhood chaos of Pedro I." The early death of both of his sons had an enormous impact on Pedro II. Aside from his personal grief, the loss of his sons affected his future conduct as monarch and would determine the fate of the Empire. In the Emperor's eyes, the deaths of his children seemed to portend an eventual end of the Imperial system.
The future of the monarchy as an institution no longer concerned him, as he saw his position as being nothing more than that of Head of State for his lifetime. The Emperor's words revealed his inner conviction. After learning of the death of his son Pedro in 1850, he wrote: "This has been the most fatal blow that I could receive, I would not have survived were it not that I still have a wife and two children whom I must educate so that they can assure the happiness of the country in which they were born." Seven years in 1857, when it was more than clear that no more children would be born, the Emperor wrote: "As to their education, I will only say that the character of both the princesses ought to be shaped as suits Ladies who, it may be, will have to direct the constitutional government of an Empire such as Brazil". Although the Emperor still had a legal successor in his beloved daughter Isabel, the male-dominated society of the time left him little hope that a woman could rule Brazil, he was fond and respectful of the women in his life, but he did not consider it feasible that Isabel could survive as monarch, given the political realities and climate.
To historian Roderick J. Barman, the Emperor "could not conceive of women, his daughters included, playing any part in governance. In consequence, although he valued D. Isabel as his daughter, he could not accept or perceive her in cold reality as his successor or regard her as a viable ruler." The main reason for this behavior was his attitude toward the female gender. "Pedro II believed, as did most men of his day", says Barman, "that a single woman could not manage life's problem on her own if she possessed the powers and authority of an empress." Isabel began her education on 1 May 1854, when she was taught how to read and write by a male instructor, republican. As the Portuguese court tradition demanded, the heir of the throne was supposed to have an aio in charge of his education once he achieved the age of seven. After a long search, Pedro II chose the Brazilian-born Luísa Margarida Portugal de Barros, the Countess of Barral, daughter of a Brazilian noble and wife of a French noble. Barral assumed her position on 9 September 1856.
The 40-year-old Countess was a charming and vivacious woman who soon captured
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda was a politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. His long political career expanded through the reigns of João VI, Pedro I and Pedro II, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Conservative Party. He served as Regent of the Empire of Brazil from 1837 until 1840, during the minority of Emperor Pedro II. During the personal reign of Pedro II, Olinda on four different periods served as President of the Council of Ministers. Pedro de Araújo Lima was born on 22 December 1793, his birthplace was Antas farm, near the village of Sirinhaém in Pernambuco. Through his father, Manuel de Araújo Lima, he was a descendant of settlers who had come from Portugal in the early 16th century with Duarte Coelho, the first captain general of Pernambuco. Through his mother, Ana Teixeira Cavalcante, his ancestry traced back to Filippo Cavalcanti, a nobleman from Florence. Filippo Cavalcanti married a daughter of the Portuguese settler Jerônimo de Albuquerque and his Amerindian spouse.
His family was both wealthy. The family owned several engenhos. One of these properties was Antas farm; the sugarcane planters were the northeastern equivalent in power and wealth to coffee farmers in Brazil's southeast. As there was little access to primary schools, which were only to be found in larger towns, Pedro de Araújo Lima learned to read and write at home. In 1805 at the age of 12, he went to live with a paternal uncle in capital of Pernambuco, he enrolled five years in the colégio Madre de Deus. In 1813, he crossed the Atlantic to study Law at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, his fellow Brazilians in Coimbra at that time included Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos, Manuel Alves Branco, Cândido José de Araújo Viana, Miguel Calmon du Pin e Almeida and João Bráulio Muniz. Araújo Lima proved to be a good student, he graduated on 15 March 1817. Continuing in advanced studies, he received a doctorate decree in Canon law on 27 August 1819, he returned to Brazil that year, disembarking in Pernambuco in December.
In mid-1820, he was first offered the office of ouvidor and a position as Provedor da fazenda, dos defuntos, capelas e resíduos in Paracatu, captaincy of Minas Gerais, but he declined both. On 1820 the military garrisons in Portugal mutinied, leading to what became known as the Liberal Revolution of 1820; the military formed a provisional government and summoned the Cortes—the centuries-old Portuguese parliament, this time democratically elected with the aim of creating a national Constitution. Araújo Lima was 1.70 meters tall, had brown hair. Cascudo, Luís da Câmara. O Marquês de Olinda e seu tempo. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional. Lira, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II: Ascenção. 1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia. Leão Filho, Joaquim de Sousa. "O Marquês de Olinda". Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional. 291. Needell, Jeffrey D.. The Party of Order: the Conservatives, the State, Slavery in the Brazilian Monarchy, 1831–1871. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-8047-5369-2. Porto, Costa. O Marquês de Olinda e o seu tempo. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia. Media related to Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda at Wikimedia Commons
History of Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century; the first European to colonize what is now the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire; the country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and it became the Empire of Brazil. A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic; the country has seen two dictatorship periods: the first during Vargas Era and the second during the military rule under Brazilian military government.
When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, "the earliest going back at least 10,000 years in the highlands of Minas Gerais". The dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called "Indians" by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists; the earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere, radiocarbon-dated 8,000 years old, has been excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, near Santarém, providing evidence to overturn the assumption that the tropical forest region was too poor in resources to have supported a complex prehistoric culture". The current most accepted view of anthropologists and geneticists is that the early tribes were part of the first wave of migrant hunters who came into the Americas from Asia, either by land, across the Bering Strait, or by coastal sea routes along the Pacific, or both; the Andes and the mountain ranges of northern South America created a rather sharp cultural boundary between the settled agrarian civilizations of the west coast and the semi-nomadic tribes of the east, who never developed written records or permanent monumental architecture.
For this reason little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500. Archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, occasional large state-like federations. At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes; the indigenous peoples were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living on the coast and along the banks of major rivers. Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives, but the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them, against which many Natives were helpless due to lack of immunity. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people; the diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans.
Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks; the extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island. Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos.
She concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rainforest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. There are many theories regarding, the first European to set foot on the land now called Brazil. Besides the accepted view of Cabral's discovery, some say that it was Duarte Pacheco Pereira between November and December 1498 and some others say that it was first encountered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, a Spanish navigator who had accompanied Colombus in his first voyage of discovery to the Americas, having arrived in today's Pernambuco region on 26 January 1500 but was unable to claim the land because of the Treaty of Tordesillas. In April 1500, Brazil was claimed for Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
The Portuguese encountered stone-using natives d
The Paraguayan War known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870, between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay. It was the bloodiest inter-state war in Latin America's history, it devastated Paraguay, which suffered catastrophic losses in population: 70% of its adult male population died, according to some counts, it was forced to cede territory to Argentina and Brazil. According to some estimates, Paraguay's pre-war population of 525,000 was reduced to 221,000, of which only 28,000 were men; the war began in late 1864, as a result of a conflict between Paraguay and Brazil caused by the Uruguayan War. Argentina and Uruguay entered the war against Paraguay in 1865, it became known as the "War of the Triple Alliance"; the war ended with the total defeat of Paraguay. After it lost in conventional warfare, Paraguay conducted a drawn-out guerrilla resistance, a disastrous strategy that resulted in the further destruction of the Paraguayan military and much of the civilian population through battle casualties and diseases.
The guerrilla war lasted 14 months until President Francisco Solano López was killed in action by Brazilian forces in the Battle of Cerro Corá on 1 March 1870. Argentine and Brazilian troops occupied Paraguay until 1876. Estimates of total Paraguayan losses range from 21,000 to 200,000 people, it took decades for Paraguay to recover from demographic losses. Since their independence from Portugal and Spain in the early 19th century, the Empire of Brazil and the Spanish-American countries of South America were troubled by territorial disputes. All nations in the region had lingering boundary conflicts with multiple neighbors. Most had overlapping claims to the same territories; these issues were questions inherited from their former metropoles, despite several attempts, were never able to resolve them satisfactorily. Signed by Portugal and Spain in 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas proved ineffective in the following centuries as both colonial powers expanded their frontiers in South America and elsewhere.
The outdated boundary lines did not represent actual occupation of lands by the Portuguese and Spanish. By the early 1700s, the Treaty of Tordesillas was deemed all but useless and it was clear to both parties that a newer one had to be drawn based on realistic and feasible boundaries. In 1750, the Treaty of Madrid separated the Portuguese and Spanish areas of South America in lines that corresponded to present-day boundaries. Neither Portugal nor Spain were satisfied with the results, new treaties were signed in the following decades that either established new territorial lines or repealed them; the final accord signed by both powers, the Treaty of Badajoz, reaffirmed the validity of the previous Treaty of San Ildefonso, which had derived from the older Treaty of Madrid. The territorial disputes became worse when the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata collapsed in the early 1810s, leading to the rise of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Historian Pelham Horton Box writes: "Imperial Spain bequeathed to the emancipated Spanish-American nations not only her own frontier disputes with Portuguese Brazil, but problems which had not disturbed her, relating to the exact boundaries of her own viceroyalties, captaincies general and provinces."
Once separated, Argentina and Bolivia quarreled over lands that were uncharted and unknown. They were either scarcely settled by indigenous tribes that answered to no parties. In the case of Paraguay with her neighbor Brazil, the problem was to define whether the Apa or Branco rivers should represent their actual boundary, a persistent issue that had vexed and confused Spain and Portugal in the late 18th century; the region between both rivers was populated only by some indigenous tribes that roamed the area attacking nearer Brazilian and Paraguayan settlements. There are several theories regarding the origins of the war; the traditional view emphasizes the policies of Paraguayan president Francisco Solano López, who used the Uruguayan War as a pretext to gain control of the Platine basin. This caused a response from the regional hegemons Brazil and Argentina, who exercised influence over the much smaller republics of Uruguay and Paraguay; the war has been attributed to the after-effects of colonialism in South America, with border conflicts between the new states, the struggle for power among neighboring nations over the strategic Río de la Plata region and Argentine meddling in internal Uruguayan politics, Solano López's efforts to help his allies in Uruguay, as well as his presumed expansionist ambitions.
Before the war Paraguay had experienced rapid economic and military growth as a result of its protectionist policies that had boosted the local industry. A strong military was developed because Paraguay's larger neighbors Argentina and Brazil had territorial claims against it and wanted to dominate it politically much like they did in Uruguay. Paraguay had recurring boundary disputes and tariff issues with Argentina and Brazil for many years during the rule of Carlos Antonio López. In the time since Brazil and Argentina had become independent, their struggle for hegemony in the Río de la Plata region had profoundly marked the diplomatic and political relations among the countries of the region. Brazil was the first country to recognize the independence of Paraguay, in 1844. At this time Argentina still considered it a breakaway province. While Argentina was ruled by Juan Manuel Rosas, a common enemy of both Brazil and