John Ruggles was an American politician from the U. S. state of Maine. He served in several important state legislative and judicial positions before serving in the U. S. Senate. Ruggles was born in Massachusetts, he attended public school there and in 1813 graduated from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Ruggles studied law, after being admitted to the bar in 1815 he began practicing in Skowhegan, Maine. Two years Ruggles moved to Thomaston. In 1823, Ruggles was elected to the Maine House of Representatives, he served in the House until 1831, was speaker. He resigned from the state house to replace Samuel E. Smith as a justice of the supreme judicial court of Maine, serving until 1834; the state legislature elected Ruggles as a Democratic-Republican to the U. S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Peleg Sprague, he was elected for the full term beginning March 4, 1835, in total served from January 20, 1835, to March 3, 1841. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1840.
During his tenure in Congress, Ruggles had served as chairman of the Committee on Patents and Patent Office, in 1836 framed the bill for the reorganization of the United States Patent Office. He was known for his interest in inventions and patents, because of his legislative accomplishments in this area he has become known as the "Father of the U. S. Patent Office". Ruggles was an inventor and the patent-holder of U. S. Patent 1, issued July 13, 1836, his invention was a type of train wheel designed to reduce the adverse effects of the weather on the track. This was not the first patent from the USPTO. Ruggles received the first patent granted under the new system. In retirement, Ruggles resumed the practice of law in Thomaston. There he was well known as a political writer and orator. Ruggles was wealthy, he died in 1874 a few months before reaching age 85. He is interred in the Elm Grove Cemetery. Patent Office 1836 fire Patent Office 1877 fire "Ruggles, John." The Political Graveyard. Http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/ruggles.html#R9M0JBIAQUnited States Congress.
"John Ruggles". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Reggles, John. Letter to the U. S. Patent Office. Https://web.archive.org/web/20050212172531/http://www.mindfully.org/Industry/Patent-1-13jul1836.htm "Senator John Ruggles." Thomaston Historical Society. Https://web.archive.org/web/20041205124819/http://www.thomastonhistoricalsociety.com/JRuggles.htm
Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that expanded suffrage to most white men over the age of 21, restructured a number of federal institutions. Originating with the seventh President Andrew Jackson, his supporters, it became the nation's dominant political worldview for a generation; this era, called the Jacksonian Era by historians and political scientists, lasted from Jackson's 1828 election as president until slavery became the dominant issue in 1854 and the political repercussions of the American Civil War reshaped American politics. It emerged when the long-dominant Democratic-Republican Party became factionalized around the 1824 election. Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party and his rivals John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay created the National Republican Party, which would afterward combine with other anti-Jackson political groups to form the Whig Party. Broadly speaking, the era was characterized by a democratic spirit and built upon Jackson's equal political policy.
Before the Jacksonian era began, suffrage had been extended to a majority of white male adult citizens, a result the Jacksonians celebrated. Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, while seeking to broaden the public's participation in government; the Jacksonians demanded elected judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms, they favored geographical expansion. There was a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided. Jackson's expansion of democracy was limited to Americans of European descent and voting rights were extended to adult white males only. There was little or no progress for the rights of African Americans and Native Americans during the extensive period of Jacksonian Democracy, spanning from 1829 - 1860. Jackson's biographer Robert V. Remini argues: stretches the concept of democracy about as far as it can go and still remain workable....
As such it has inspired much of the dynamic and dramatic events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in American history—Populism, the New and Fair Deals, the programs of the New Frontier and Great Society. William S. Belko in 2015 summarizes "the core concepts underlying Jacksonian Democracy" as: equal protection of the laws. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. in 1945 argues Jacksonian democracy was built on the following: Expanded suffrage – The Jacksonians believed that voting rights should be extended to all white men. By the end of the 1820s, attitudes and state laws had shifted in favor of universal white male suffrage and by 1856 all requirements to own property and nearly all requirements to pay taxes had been dropped. Manifest destiny – This was the belief that Americans had a destiny to settle the American West and to expand control from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and that the West should be settled by yeoman farmers. However, the Free Soil Jacksonians, notably Martin Van Buren, argued for limitations on slavery in the new areas to enable the poor white man to flourish—they split with the main party in 1848.
The Whigs opposed Manifest Destiny and expansion, saying the nation should build up its cities. Patronage – Also known as the spoils system, patronage was the policy of placing political supporters into appointed offices. Many Jacksonians held the view that rotating political appointees in and out of office was not only the right, but the duty of winners in political contests. Patronage was theorized to be good because it would encourage political participation by the common man and because it would make a politician more accountable for poor government service by his appointees. Jacksonians held that long tenure in the civil service was corrupting, so civil servants should be rotated out of office at regular intervals. However, patronage led to the hiring of incompetent and sometimes corrupt officials due to the emphasis on party loyalty above any other qualifications. Strict constructionism – Like the Jeffersonians who believed in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Jacksonians favored a federal government of limited powers.
Jackson said that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty". However, he was not a states' rights extremist—indeed, the Nullification Crisis would find Jackson fighting against what he perceived as state encroachments on the proper sphere of federal influence; this position was one basis for the Jacksonians' opposition to the Second Bank of the United States. As the Jacksonians consolidated power, they more advocated expanding federal power, presidential power in particular. Laissez-faire – Complementing a strict construction of the Constitution, the Jacksonians favored a hands-off approach to the economy as opposed to the Whig program sponsoring modernization, railroads and economic growth; the chief spokesman amongst laissez-faire advocates was William Leggett of the Locofocos in New York City. Opposition to banking – In particular, the Jacksonians opposed government-granted monopolies to banks the national bank, a central bank known as the Second Bank of the United States.
Jackson said: "The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" and he did so. The Whigs, who supported the
Amos Ellmaker was a U. S. politician and judge from Pennsylvania. He served as the Pennsylvania Attorney General and was the Anti-Masonic vice presidential candidate in the 1832 presidential election. Born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, he established a legal career in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania after attending Litchfield Law School. During the War of 1812, he served as an aide to General John Forster. After serving in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, Ellmaker accepted appointment as the Pennsylvania Attorney General, he returned to private practice in 1819 and helped found the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad. From 1828 to 1829, Ellmaker served another term as Pennsylvania Attorney General. In 1832, Ellmaker was nominated as the Anti-Masonic vice presidential candidate; the ticket of William Wirt and Ellmaker took 7.8% of the national popular vote and won the state of Vermont. Ellmaker was defeated by James Buchanan. After the election, Ellmaker practiced law in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Amos Ellmaker was born in Leacock Township, Lancaster County, the son of Nathaniel Ignatious and Elizabeth Ellmaker. He graduated from Princeton College in 1805, attended the Litchfield Law School, continued his legal studies under James Hopkins, the same Lancaster attorney who trained James Buchanan. Ellmaker completed his studies in the Harrisburg office of Thomas Elder, whose daughter he married. In 1808, Ellmaker began practicing law in Harrisburg. On Jan. 13, 1809, at age 21, Ellmaker was appointed deputy attorney general for Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1813 and 1814, elected from the legislative district composed of Dauphin and Lebanon Counties, he volunteered for the militia during the War of 1812 and served in 1814 as aide-de-camp to Brigadier General John Forster during the Chesapeake Campaign. While in this position, he was elected to the Fourteenth Congress from the congressional district consisting of Lancaster and Lebanon Counties, but never filled that office.
On July 3, 1815 Ellmaker was appointed Judge of the Twelfth Judicial District of Pennsylvania, composed of Dauphin and Schuylkill Counties. Ellmaker resigned from the bench in December 1816 to accept Governor Simon Snyder's appointment as Pennsylvania Attorney General. Governor William Findlay re-appointed him in 1818, Ellmaker served until December 1819. In 1817 Ellmaker declined an offer from James Monroe to serve as Secretary of War. During his career, he twice turned down offers of appointment as Secretary of the Commonwealth, twice as justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. In 1821 Ellmaker moved from Harrisburg to Lancaster. In 1823 Ellmaker was an original incorporator of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In 1826 he was an original incorporator of the Columbia and Philadelphia Railroad, as was James Buchanan. In May 1828 Ellmaker returned to the office of state Attorney General, served until August 1829. In 1832, Ellmaker was the candidate for Vice President on the Anti-Masonic ticket, with William Wirt as the candidate for president.
Wirt and Ellmaker won in Vermont, received seven electoral votes. In 1834 Ellmaker ran for the United States Senate. After this election, Ellmaker continued the practice of law. In 1838, the Lancaster Female Seminary was incorporated, with Ellmaker as one of the original 10 trustees. In 1816 Ellmaker married Mary Rachael Elder, the daughter of Thomas Elder, they had two sons and Levi. Ellmaker died in Lancaster on November 28, 1851, he was buried in the churchyard of St. James' Episcopal Church in Lancaster. Egle, William Henry Pennsylvania Genealogies: Chiefly Scots-Irish and German. Ellis, Franklin History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania: with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans. Amos Ellmaker at The Political Graveyard Amos Ellmaker at Find a Grave
William Wilkins (American politician)
William Wilkins was an American lawyer and politician from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During his career, he served in both houses of the Pennsylvania State Legislature, in all three branches of the United States federal government, including service as a United States federal judge, as a member of both the House and Senate, as a cabinet member. William Wilkins was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania on December 20, 1779, he attended the Pittsburgh Academy, the forerunner of the University of Pittsburgh, read law in 1801 and graduated from Dickinson College in 1802. He was in private practice in Pittsburgh from 1801 to 1806 in Lexington, Kentucky from 1806 to 1807, again in Pittsburgh from 1808 to 1815, he was President, Pittsburgh City Council from 1816 to 1819. He was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1819 to 1820. Wilkins became a judge of the Fifth Judicial District of Pennsylvania in 1820, serving until 1824. On May 10, 1824, Wilkins was nominated by President James Monroe to a seat on the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania vacated by Jonathan Hoge Walker.
Wilkins was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 12, 1824, received his commission the same day. He resigned on April 1831, to begin his own term of service in the United States Senate. A Jacksonian, he was a United States Senator from Pennsylvania from 1831 to 1834. In the election of 1832, Wilkins received 30 electoral votes from Pennsylvania for the Vice Presidency. Additionally, he was elected to Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district for the 21st United States Congress to start on March 4, 1929, but resigned before assuming office. From 1834 to 1835 Wilkins was Minister to Russia. After returning to private practice in Pittsburgh from 1836 to 1842, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1843 until resigning in 1844, he resigned to accept appointment as U. S. Secretary of War under President John Tyler. In 1845, Willkins returned to the private practice of law in Pittsburgh, he was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1855 to 1857, was in private practice of law in Pittsburgh until his death, in 1865.
Wilkins died in 1865 in Homewood, near Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pa, was buried in the Homewood Cemetery there. Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania is named after him, his brother John Wilkins, Jr. served as a Major General in the United States Army. His nephew, Ross Wilkins, was a notable jurist in Michigan. Wilkins is the namesake of Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, while the town of Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania is named after his aforementioned brother. "William Wilkins". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Wilkins at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Homewood Cemetery Biography & History Dickinson College Biography Gravesite Photos The Political Graveyard
John M. Clayton
John Middleton Clayton was an American lawyer and politician from Delaware. He was a member of the Whig Party who served in the Delaware General Assembly, as U. S. Senator from Delaware and U. S. Secretary of State. Born in Dagsboro, son of Sarah and James Clayton, his uncle, Dr. Joshua Clayton, was a former Governor of Delaware and his cousin, Thomas Clayton, was a prominent lawyer, U. S. Senator, jurist. John M. Clayton studied at Berlin and Milford, Delaware when his parents moved there, his boyhood home, known as the Parson Thorne Mansion, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. He graduated from Yale University in 1815, studied law at the Litchfield Law School, in 1819 began the practice of law in Dover, Delaware. About this time his father died and Clayton became the sole supporter of his immediate family, weekly walking the distance from Dover to Milford to see to their needs, he married to Sally Ann Fisher in 1822. She was the granddaughter of former Governor George Truitt.
They had two sons and Charles, but she died two weeks after the birth of Charles. Clayton never raised the two boys himself. In 1844, Clayton cultivated a tract of land near Delaware which he called Buena Vista, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. Here he made one of the most fruitful estates in that region. Both of his sons died while shortly before the death of their father. Clayton was elected to the Delaware House of Representatives for the 1824 session and was appointed the Delaware Secretary of State from December 1826 to October 1828. Conservative in background and outlook, Clayton became a leader of the Adams faction which developed into the Delaware Whig Party. During this time he was the driving force in the convention that produced the Delaware Constitution of 1831. In 1829 Clayton was elected to the United States Senate as its youngest member. Six years he declined re-election, but the General Assembly elected him anyway, only to have him resign, he served from March 4, 1829 until December 29, 1836.
He distinguished himself in the Senate by a speech during the debate on the Foote resolution, though relating to the survey of the public lands, introduced into the discussion the whole question of nullification. Clayton favored the extension of the charter for the Second Bank of the United States and his investigation of the Post Office Department led to its reorganization. At various times he served on the Military Affairs, District of Columbia and Post Office Committees, but his most important position was the Chairmanship of the Judiciary Committee in the 23rd and 24th Congress. After returning to Delaware from his first term in the United States Senate, Clayton was appointed Chief Justice of the Delaware Superior Court, replacing his cousin Thomas Clayton, elected to the vacant U. S. Senate seat, he served in this position from January 16, 1837 until September 19, 1839, when he resigned to support the presidential candidacy of William Henry Harrison. Clayton was once again elected to the United States Senate in 1845, where he opposed the annexation of Texas and the Mexican–American War but advocated the active prosecution of the latter once it was begun.
His tenure was only from March 4, 1845 until February 23, 1849, as he resigned to become U. S. Secretary of State. On March 8, 1849 Clayton became U. S. Secretary of State in the Whig administration of Zachary Taylor, his most notable accomplishment was the negotiation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 with the British minister, Sir Henry Bulwer-Lytton. This treaty guaranteed the neutrality and encouragement of lines of travel across the isthmus at Panama, laid the groundwork for America's eventual building of the Panama Canal, his tenure was brief, ending on July 22, 1850, soon after President Taylor's death. As secretary of state, Clayton was intensely nationalistic and an ardent advocate of commercial expansion but his strict interpretation of international law created crises with Spain and France. Clayton was again elected to the United States Senate one last time in 1853 and served from March 4, 1853 until his death on November 9, 1856, he proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. One of his most noted speeches delivered in the Senate was that made June 15, 1854 against the message of U.
S. President Franklin Pierce, vetoing the Bill for the Benefit of the Indigent Insane, which would have ceded public lands for an insane asylum. After the death of his second son, Clayton moved his residence back to Dover, he died there and is buried in the Old Presbyterian Cemetery, at Dover, on the grounds of the Delaware State Museum. His contemporaries considered Clayton one of the most skilled orators in the Senate, he was always accessible, was noted for his genial disposition and brilliant conversational powers. Clayton Hall at the University of Delaware is named in his honor, as are towns in Delaware, New York, North Carolina and a county in Iowa. In 1934, the state of Delaware donated a statue of Clayton to the National Statuary Hall Collection. Elections were held the first Tuesday of October. Members of the General Assembly took office on the first Tuesday of January. State Representatives had a one-year term; the Secretary of State was appointed by the Governor and took office on the third Tuesday of January for a five-year term.
The General Assembly chose the U. S. Senators, who took office March 4, for a six-year term. List of United States Congress members who died in office Comegys, Joseph P.. Memoirs of John M. Clayton. Wilmington, Delaware: Historical Society of Delaware. Conrad, Henry C.. History of the State of Delawar
State legislature (United States)
A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U. S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 25 states, the legislature is called the Legislature, or the State Legislature, while in 19 states, the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly; every state except Nebraska has a bicameral legislature, meaning that the legislature consists of two separate legislative chambers or houses. In each case the smaller chamber is called the Senate and is referred to as the upper house; this chamber but not always, has the exclusive power to confirm appointments made by the governor and to try articles of impeachment. Members of the smaller chamber represent more citizens and serve for longer terms than members of the larger chamber four years. In 41 states, the larger chamber is called the House of Representatives.
Five states designate the larger chamber the Assembly and three states call it the House of Delegates. Members of the larger chamber serve for terms of two years; the larger chamber customarily has the exclusive power to initiate taxing legislation and articles of impeachment. Prior to United States Supreme Court decisions Reynolds v. Sims and Baker v. Carr in the 1960s, the basis of representation in most state legislatures was modeled on that of the U. S. Congress: the state senators represented geographical units while members of the larger chamber represented population. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court announced the one man, one vote standard and invalidated state legislative representation based on geography. Nebraska had a bicameral legislature like the other states, but the lower house was abolished following a referendum, effective with the 1936 elections; the remaining unicameral legislature is called the Nebraska Legislature, but its members continue to be called senators. As a legislative branch of government, a legislature performs state duties for a state in the same way that the United States Congress performs national duties at the national level.
The same system of checks and balances that exists at the Federal level exists between the state legislature, the state executive officer and the state judiciary, though the degree to which this is so varies from one state to the next. During a legislative session, the legislature considers matters introduced by its members or submitted by the governor. Businesses and other special interest organizations lobby the legislature to obtain beneficial legislation, defeat unfavorably perceived measures, or influence other legislative action. A legislature approves the state's operating and capital budgets, which may begin as a legislative proposal or a submission by the governor. Under the terms of Article V of the U. S. Constitution, state lawmakers retain the power to ratify Constitutional amendments which have been proposed by both houses of Congress and they retain the ability to call for a national convention to propose amendments to the U. S. Constitution. After the convention has concluded its business 75% of the states will be required to ratify what the convention has proposed.
Under Article II, state legislatures choose the manner of appointing the state's presidential electors. State legislatures appointed the U. S. Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the state's voters; the legislative bodies and their committees use either Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure or an amended form thereof. During official meetings, a professional parliamentarian is available to ensure that legislation and accompanying discussion proceed as orderly as possible without bias; the lawmaking process begins with the introduction of a bill in either the House of Representatives or the Senate. Bills may be introduced in either house, sometimes with the exception of bills increasing or decreasing revenue, which must originate in the House of Representatives; the order of business in each house provides a proper time for the introduction of bills. Bills are assigned consecutive numbers, given in the order of their introduction, to facilitate identification.
A bill cannot become enacted until it has been read on a certain number of days in each house. Upon introduction, a bill is read by its title only, constituting the first reading of the bill; because a bill is read by title only, it is important that the title give the members notice of the subject matter contained in the bill. As with other legislative bodies throughout the world, U. S. state legislatures operate through committees when considering proposed bills. Thus, committee action is the most important phase of the legislative process. Most bills cannot be enacted into law until it has been referred to, acted upon by, returned from, a standing committee in each house. Reference to committee follows the first reading of the bill; each committee is set up to consider bills relating to a particular subject. Standing committees are charged with the important responsibility of examining bills and recommending action to the Senate or House. On days when a legislature is not in session, the committees of each house meet and consider the bills that have been referred to them to decide if the assigned bills should be reported f
24th United States Congress
The Twenty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1835, to March 4, 1837, during the seventh and eighth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority. December 28, 1835: The Second Seminole War began. Seminole fighter Osceola and his warriors attack government agent Thompson outside Fort King in central Florida. 1835: Toledo War fought between Ohio and Michigan Territory over the city of Toledo and the Toledo Strip. February 3, 1836: United States Whig Party held its first convention in Albany, New York. February 23, 1836: Siege of the Alamo began in San Antonio, Texas. July 11, 1836: President Andrew Jackson issued the Specie Circular, beginning the failure of the land speculation economy that would lead to the Panic of 1837.
July 13, 1836: U. S. patent #1 was granted after filing 9,957 unnumbered patents. November 3 - December 7, 1836: 1836 presidential election: Martin Van Buren defeated William Henry Harrison, but Virginia's electors refused to vote for Van Buren's running mate, thereby denying victory to any Vice Presidential candidate. December 4, 1836: Whig Party held its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. December 15, 1836: The U. S. Patent Office burned in Washington, DC. February 8, 1837: Richard Mentor Johnson became the first and only Vice President of the United States elected by the United States Senate; the Senate was required to choose between Richard Johnson and Francis Granger as the next vice-president. Johnson was elected in a single ballot by 33 to 16: December 29, 1835: Treaty of New Echota signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi to the United States June 15, 1836: Arkansas admitted as the 25th state 5 Stat. 50 January 26, 1837: Michigan admitted as the 26th state 5 Stat. 144.
During this congress one House seat was added for each of the new states of Michigan. President: Martin Van Buren President pro tempore: William R. King Speaker: James K. Polk This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1838; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 11 Anti-Jacksonians: 5-seat net loss Jacksonians: 10-seat net gain Deaths: 3 Resignations: 8 Interim appointments: 0 Seats of newly admitted states: 4 Total seats with changes: 16 Replacements: 18 Anti-Jacksonians: 5-seat net gain Anti-Masonics: 1-seat net loss Jacksonians: 2-seat net loss Nullifiers: No net change Deaths: 5 Resignations: 13 Contested election: 0 Seats of newly admitted states: 2 Total seats with changes: 24 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Constitution of the State of Arkansas Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Incendiary Publications Indian Affairs Judiciary Letter from Mr. Poindexter Manufactures Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Ohio-Michigan Boundary Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Lands Purchasing Boyd Reilly's Gas Apparatus Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Sale of Public Lands Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Amendment to the Constitution Banks of the District of Columbia Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: Edward Y.
Higbee, elected December 23, 1835 John R. Goodman, elected December 28, 1836 Secretary: Walter Lowrie until December 11, 1836 Asbury Dickens, elected December 12, 1836 Sergeant at Arms: John Shackford Chaplain: Thomas H. Stockton, elected December 7, 1835 Oliver C. Comstock, elected December 5, 1836 Clerk: Walter S. Franklin Doorkeeper: Overton Carr Sergeant at Arms: Roderick Dorsey, elected December 15, 1835 Reading Clerks: Postmaster: William J. McCormick United States elections, 1834 Uni