General Sir Arthur Benjamin Clifton KSA KSW was a British soldier who fought in the Peninsular War and commanded the Second Union Cavalry Brigade at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Clifton was the third son of Sir Gervase Clifton, 6th Baronet, one time High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire. Educated at Rugby, he entered the army in 1794, he served throughout the Peninsular War and received the gold medal and one clasp for service at the battles of Fuentes de Oñoro and Vittoria. On the death of Major General Sir William Ponsonby at Waterloo, Clifton commanded the 2nd Union Cavalry Brigade, he was subsequently promoted to the rank of general. He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 1838 Coronation Honours, raised to Knight Grand Cross in 1861, he died unmarried on 8 March 1869 aged 98 at his residence in the Old Brighton. He was the brother of Sir Robert Clifton, 7th Baronet, Sir Juckes Granville Juckes-Clifton, 8th Baronet and Frances Egerton Clifton who married the Ven.
Robert Markham, archdeacon of York, in 1797
Hercules Robert Pakenham
Lieutenant-General Sir Hercules Robert Pakenham was a British Army officer who served as aide-de-camp to William IV of the United Kingdom. Hercules Robert Pakenham was born 29 September 1781, the third son of Edward Pakenham, 2nd Baron Longford and Catherine Rowley, second daughter of the Right Hon. Hercules Langford Rowley, he was brother of Sir Edward Michael Pakenham, brother-in-law of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. Pakenham was appointed ensign 40th Regiment of Foot on 23 July 1803, became lieutenant 3 February 1804, was transferred to the 95th rifles in April the same year, obtained his company there on 2 August 1805, he served in the expedition to Copenhagen and in Portugal, where during the Battle of Roliça, he was wounded at Obidos 16–17 Aug. 1808. "He is one of the best officers of riflemen I have seen," wrote Sir Arthur Wellesley, recommending him for promotion. He was promoted to a majority in the 7th West India regiment 30 August 1810, remained with the Peninsular Army, was assistant adjutant-general of Picton's division up to the fall of Badajos, where he was wounded and received the Gold Cross for Busaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajos).
He was promoted to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 27 April 1812, was promoted to lieutenant-colonel 26th Cameronians on 3 September 1812, transferred as captain and lieutenant-colonel to the Coldstream Guards on 25 July 1814, from which he retired on half-pay in 1817. He was made brevet colonel and aide-de-camp to the king on 27 May 1825 and was promoted to major-general on 10 January 1837, he succeeded Sir Thomas McMahon as Lieutenant-Governor of Portsmouth and General Officer Commanding South-West District in 1839, was appointed colonel 43rd Light Infantry on 9 September 1844, was promoted to lieutenant-general on 9 November 1846. He was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath on 4 June 1815, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 19 July 1838, received the Peninsular silver medal and Roleia and Vimeiro clasps. Pakenham was a member of Parliament, representing Westmeath from 27 February 1808 to 1826, he sat for his brother, Thomas, 2nd Earl of Longford and placed votes intermittently between 1821 and 1825.
He was against Catholic Relief, but came to favour it, citing his need representation of the change in opinion among his Protestant constituents. Pakenham won the 1826 general election for Westmeath, but did not accept due to rumors that his favoring of Protestant interests resulted in his brother "discarding" him; the Catholic press reported that he was "the victim of the vote he gave... in favour of emancipation." Hercules Robert Pakenham. Colonel Pakenham's speech on the second reading of the Catholic Relief Bill: In the House of Commons, on Tuesday, the 19th of April, 1825. W. E. Andrews. ASIN B0008AZ548; when he was a captain, Pakenham was mentioned in Lady Morgan’s Memoirs: Autobiography and Correspondence: We have had Captain Pakenham here some days. He is a pleasant young man. In November 1817, Pakenham married Emily, the fourth daughter of Thomas Stapylton, Lord le Despenser, had issue six sons and three daughters. One of his sons, was killed at Inkerman in 1854 and another, Robert, at the relief of Lucknow in 1857.
He died at his residence, Langford Lodge, County Antrim, on 7 March 1850. The "Sir Hercules Pakenham Scholarship" and "Emily Lady Pakenham Scholarship" were founded in 1876 by Rev. Arthur Hercules Pakenham in their memory for students of Queen's College, Belfast. One of the 42 stalls in the Domus Dei in Portsmouth was dedicated to him. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Hercules Robert Pakenham
John Harvey (British Army officer)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Harvey, was a British Army officer and a lieutenant governor. He was commissioned into the 80th Foot in 1794 and served in several different locations, including France and India, he came to Canada in 1813 and served as a lieutenant colonel in the War of 1812, taking part in the British victories at the Battle of Stoney Creek and the Battle of Crysler's Farm in Ontario. From 1836 to 1837, he was the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island. From 1837 to 1841, he was the Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick. From 1841 to 1846, he was the Civil Governor of Newfoundland. From 1846 to 1852, he was the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. Harvey, York County, New Brunswick, founded in 1837 when he was Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, is named for him. Harvey Park in Hamilton, Ontario, is named after him. Former Harvey Township, Peterborough County, Ontario, is named after him. There is a monument to him in St. Paul's Church, he is buried in Fort Massey Cemetery. Amelia Clotilda Jennings wrote a poem for him upon his death.
List of lieutenant governors of Nova Scotia Governors of Newfoundland List of people of Newfoundland and Labrador Biography at Government House The Governorship of Newfoundland and Labrador "John Harvey". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. Note: The year after Sir John Harvey had stepped down as governor of Newfoundland and when Sir John Le Marchant was appointed, the colony was administered by Robert Law, a British army officer
Robert Henry Dick
Sir Robert Henry Dick KOV was a Scottish soldier, son of a doctor in the East India Company's service. He entered the British Army in 1800 serving in the 75th Regiment, he was a lieutenant in the 42nd Regiment of Foot in 1804. He served as an officer in the 42nd Regiment of Foot serving in the Peninsular War, he fought at Buçaco, Fuentes de Oñoro, Salamanca. He distinguished himself at Quatre Bras and Waterloo In 1814, he received the C. B. followed by the K. C. H. in 1832 and the K. C. B. in 1838. In 1837, he was promoted to be major general, in 1841–1842 was acting Commander-in-Chief at Madras. In 1846, he assumed command of the Third Infantry Division in the Sikh War, he fell. He is buried at Ferozepore: Here lies in the hope of joyful resurrection Sir Robert Henry Dick of Tully Mett, Perthshire N. B. Major-General Knight Commander of the Orders of the Bath and of Hanover, Knight of the Austrian Military Order of Maria Theresa and of the Russian Order of Vladimir. Colonel of H. M. 73rd Regt. For his country he fought & bled: in Egypt at Maida thro'out the Peninsula at Waterloo & in India.
For his valour and skill at Fuentes d'onor Busaco Salamanca and Waterloo he received two medals and two honorary clasps. Born on 29 July 1787 AD he fell in the moment of victory on the 10th Feby 1846 AD while cheering on H. M's 80th Regt having led his division in the assault on the entrenched camp of the Seikh at Sobraon. Honoured and beloved he lamented he died. Memorial at Dunkeld Cathedral, Tayside: Sacred to the memory of Major-General Sir Robert Henry Dick KCB KCH who after distinguished service in the Peninsula in the command of a Light Battalion and at Waterloo with the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment fell mortally wounded whilst leading the 3rd Division of the Army of the Sutledge to the attack on the Seikh entrenched camp at Sobraon on 10 February 1846; the officers who had the honour of serving under him in his last battle and other friends in Her Majesty's and the Honourable East India Company's Service in Bengal have caused this monument to be placed in his parish church. Memorial at the St. George's Cathedral, India Sacred to the memory of Major-General Sir Robert Henry Dick, K.
C. B._K. C. H. of Tullymet, N. B. one of the heroes of the Peninsula war, after distinguished services in H. M.'s 42nd Regiment Royal Highlanders, which regiment he brought out of action at Quatre Bras, closed a long and brilliant military career on the memorable field of Sobraon. February 10th 1846 Raised in grateful admiration by the public of the Presidency of Madras, for some time, he held tho Chief Military Command. Over the inscription is a 42nd Highlander in full uniform resting against a pedestal, on, inscribed the battle roll of the regiment — Maida, Alexandria, Busaco, Torres Vedras, Foz D'Arouce, Fuentes de Onoro, Salamanca, Fort St. Michael, Quatre Bras, Sobraon. A memorial exists in St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh, his portrait, by William Salter, is in the National Portrait Gallery. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Sir Patrick Lindesay, was a military officer during the Napoleonic Wars and Peninsular War but is most noted as having served as Acting Governor of New South Wales, Australia in 1831. Mount Lindesay, Mount Lindesay and Lindesay River in Australia are all named after him, he was born in Musselburgh, East Lothian, the son of Lt. Col. John Lindesay, he was educated in 1793 joined the army as an Ensign. He was thereafter gazetted as a lieutenant in the famed 78th Regiment of Foot, he was promoted to Captain in September 1795. He moved to the 39th Regiment of Foot in October 1796 and was there promoted to Major in 1807, he saw considerable action in Spain and Portugal during the Peninsular War. In 1811 he saw his most major action, received a medal for his actions in the Battle of Albuera. In 1814, his obituary states, he had a "final brush" with the Americans in the final battles between these countries. From 1824 to 1826 he served in the First Anglo-Burmese War, commanding a division of the Expeditionary Army.
In November 1827, aged 49, he arrived in Sydney, Australia to succeed Col. William Stewart in the command of the garrison at Port Jackson, he became a member of the Legislative Council for the colony and when the post of lieutenant-governor was abolished he took over the required duties of the post. From April 1829 he was a member of the Executive Council. After the controversial departure of the governor Sir Ralph Darling on 22 October 1831, Lindesay played the role of Acting Governor until the appointment of Sir Richard Bourke as governor on 2 December 1831. During this period he permitted one of the Captains in his Regiment, Captain Charles Sturt to take a leave of absence to explore the Murray River. On Sturt's return he brought many bird skins which were delivered by Lindesay to the Edinburgh Museum. A donation to Prof. Robert Jameson caused Jameson to state that Lindesay was "a distinguished officer and a active naturalist". Sturt named a tributary of the Murray River the Lindesay River, in gratitude to his commanding officer.
The explorer Allan Cunningham named a mountain on the border of New South Wales, in the McPherson Range, "Mount Lindesay" but this was renamed Mount Barney. The name Mount Lindesay was used to replace a mountain named "Mount Hooker" just north within Queensland. A second Mount Lindesay was named by Sir Thomas Mitchell, attaching to a dominant mountain in the Nandewar Range. In 1832 he was dispatched to India to command the garrisons at Bangalore. After the surrender of Mercara he received a bounty of £10,000, he commanded the entire British forces in southern Madras until late 1835. He returned to Britain in 1836 and was promoted Major General on 10 January 1837 and was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, he is interred in St. Michael's Churchyard in Inveresk west of the main church in the older section, his grave in 2014 was wholly obscured by two yew trees. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol 2, 1967 Obituary, "Gentlemen's Magazine" Vol 166/7 page 90
Coronation of Queen Victoria
The coronation of Queen Victoria took place on Thursday, 28 June 1838, just over a year after she succeeded to the throne of the United Kingdom at the age of 18. The ceremony was held in Westminster Abbey after a public procession through the streets from Buckingham Palace, to which the queen returned as part of a second procession. Planning for the coronation, led by prime minister Lord Melbourne, began at Cabinet level in March 1838. In the face of various objections from numerous parties, the Cabinet announced on Saturday, 7 April, that the coronation would be at the end of the parliamentary session in June, it was budgeted at £70,000, more than double the cost of the "cut-price" 1831 coronation but less than the £240,000 spent when George IV was crowned in July 1821. A key element of the plan was presentation of the event to a wider public. By 1838, the newly built railways were able to deliver huge numbers of people into London and it has been estimated that some 400,000 visitors arrived to swell the crowds who thronged the streets while the two processions took place and filled the parks where catering and entertainment were provided.
Hyde Park was the scene including a balloon ascent. The fair was extended by popular demand to four. Green Park featured a firework display the night after the ceremony; the event took place in fine weather and was considered a great success by the press and wider public, though those inside the Abbey witnessed a good deal of mishap and confusion due to lack of rehearsal. In the country at large, there was considerable Radical opposition to the coronation in northern England. Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle King William IV on 20 June 1837, her first prime minister was Lord Melbourne. Until 1867, the Demise of the Crown automatically triggered the dissolution of parliament and a general election was therefore necessary with voting between 24 July and 18 August; the result was a victory for Melbourne whose existing Whig Party government was returned to power for four more years. Their majority over the opposition Conservative Party was reduced from 112 seats to thirty. Melbourne was the leading player in the planning and implementation of Victoria's coronation.
Melbourne's Cabinet began formal discussion of the subject of the coronation in March 1838. A major factor in the planning was this being the first coronation held since the passing of the Reform Act 1832, which the government recognised as radically reshaping the monarchy. In terms of the ceremony itself, the extension of the franchise meant that some 500 Members of Parliament would be invited to attend in addition to the peerage. A greater consideration was the need to somehow involve the general public and Melbourne championed the centuries old custom of a public procession through the streets. There had been a procession in 1831 but a much longer route was planned for 1838 including a new startpoint at Buckingham Palace. Earlier processions had run from the Tower of London to the Abbey. Victoria's procession would be the longest since that of Charles II in April 1661. Scaffolding for spectators would be built all along the route; this was achieved according to contemporary reports, including one saying there was "scarcely a vacant spot along the whole, unoccupied with galleries or scaffolding".
The diarist Charles Greville commented that the principal object of the government plan was to amuse and interest the ordinary working people. He concluded that the "great merit" of the coronation was that so much had been done for the people. In terms of cost, the government was torn between the extremes of George IV's lavish coronation in 1821 and the "cut-price" event, dubbed the "Half-Crown-ation", held for William IV in 1831, they decided to allow a budget of £70,000. Therefore, the cost of Victoria's coronation represented a compromise between two extremes of £240,000 and £30,000; the government's plans for the coronation attracted considerable criticism from its opponents. For different reasons, both Tories and Radicals objected to the coronation being turned into a day of popular celebration, to be seen by as wide a public as possible; the Tory objections made beforehand, were that the government's plans to put much of the spending into the long public procession detracted from the traditional dignity of the ceremonies at Westminster, which would be "shorn of majesty by Benthamite utilitarianism".
The Radical left, including the Chartist movement, anti-monarchist, thought the whole occasion far too expensive. A dubious perception that prevailed was the identification of the new monarch with the Whig party; this would be a problem through the early years of Victoria's reign, leading to the so-called Bedchamber Crisis in 1839 over what were the political appointments of her ladies-in-waiting. In addition, the Whig party had exploited Victoria's name in its election campaign, suggesting that a monarch from a new generation would mean the progress of reform. William IV and his wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, had strong Tory sympathies, while Victoria's mother and namesake was known to favour the Whigs, it was assumed, to some extent that Victoria herself had been brought up to hold similar views. This was reflected in popular ballads sold on the streets, one of which had Victoria saying: The government's decision to dispense with certain traditions was seen as snub by the Tory aristocracy.
The omissions included an exclusive banquet at Westminster Hall and medieval rituals like a monarchical champion throwing down a gauntlet. In the House of Lords, complaints were made about the processions because a young girl (Victori