Governor's Guards

The Governor's Guards of Connecticut are four distinct units of the Connecticut State Guard, a part of the organized militia under the Connecticut State Militia. There are two horse guard units. In colonial times, one foot guard unit and one horse guard unit served the Hartford area and the other two in the New Haven area; the First Company Governor's Foot Guard was created in 1771 with a Second Company raised in 1775. The First Company Governor's Foot Guard is the oldest American military formation in the United States with an unbroken lineage; the First Company Horse Guard was created in 1788 as the Independent Volunteer Troop of Horse Guards in Hartford. The Second Company Governor's Horse Guard was created in 1808 in New Haven. Both were created to serve and protect the governor between his travels between New Haven and Hartford; the First Company Governor’s Foot Guard was organized in Hartford in October 1771 as the Connecticut Governor's Guard, is the oldest military organization in continuous existence in the United States.

Although other organizations may have been formed at an earlier date, the First Company is unique in its record of unbroken service. Hartford, in 1771, was remote from larger towns, it was a small town of 3,000 inhabitants, with few schools. The journey to New York or Boston took three days in a stagecoach. Small as it was, Hartford was not lacking in public spirit. A group of leading young men in Hartford decided it was time to organize a select company for the purpose of escorting the Governor and General Assembly at the General Elections after an unfortunate incident in 1768, when a “trainband” made a farce out of the escort duty. Another reason for the decision was that a company from East Hartford did escort duty in 1769 and 1770. Accordingly, Samuel Wyllys and others petitioned the General Assembly; the petition was granted by the Assembly, Samuel Wyllys, a young man of 32, was elected Captain, William Knox and Ebenezer Austin, Ensign. The company was known at this time as the Governor’s Guard.

As Connecticut had two capitals at this time, it was not long before citizens of New Haven, its other capital, felt the need to establish a unit of Governor's Guards composed of their own citizens. The Second Company was organized in New Haven by Benedict Arnold, elected the company's captain; this caused the original unit to take the name First Company Governor's Guard and the new organization to take the name Second Company Governor's Guards. It was in 1778, with the establishment of a unit of Governor's Horse Guards, that the original unit changed its name for the final time to "First Company Governor's Foot Guard" and the newer unit adopted the name "Second Company Governor's Foot Guard". Both units of Foot Guard are recognized by the state of Connecticut as separate and distinct entities; the ceremonial uniform of the First Company, as far as can be determined, is the same as the original one, although it has picked up elements from different time periods over the years. Tradition hold that the original uniform was copied from that of the Coldstream Guards, the personal body guard of Queen Charlotte.

The uniform consists of a scarlet coat, the tails of which are faced with buff, a black velvet frond crossed with silver braid. The vest and breeches are of buff, the leggings are black velvet; the hat, or'bearskin' as it is known, is of bear skin with a shield in front bearing the State Coat of Arms and supports a red and black feather plume on the side. Enlisted men wear white cross straps. Sergeants dispense with the cross straps and wear a white belt and shoulder scales. Officers wear a black and silver belt, fringed epaulets, carry a saber instead of a sword; the First Company Governor’s Foot Guard has been connected with many historical events. In 1777, although not obligated to do so, it resolved to join the patriot army at Saratoga; as an advance guard of reinforcements under Captain Jonathon Bull, they were crossing the Rhineback Flats on their way to Saratoga when they were met by a messenger with the good news of Burgoyne’s surrender. Earlier, at the start of the American War of Independence recognizing that members of the Second Company Governor's Guards were keen to travel to Massachusetts where the fighting had begun at Lexington and Concord, the colonial authorities wished the Guards to remain at home and kept their weapons locked up.

On April 22, 1775, Captain Benedict Arnold called his men together at a tavern and demanded the keys to the magazine for his company's weapons or else they would break into the storehouse. He stated, "None but the Almighty God shall prevent my marching." During the American Civil War, men of the 2nd Company formed Company "K" 6th Connecticut Volunteers and fought in 26 battles in the conflict. All four units of the Governor's Guards remain active today as subordinate units of the Connecticut Military Department under the command & control of the Connecticut Adjutant General, their mission today remains ceremonial, but they can be called up to active service to augment the Connecticut National Guard for state emergency operations. They perform their annual training each August at Camp Niantic in East Lyme. Over the years, the location of their headquarters has changed due to space availability and financial costs; the headquarters are as follows: First Company Governor's Foot Guard - Hartford Second Company Governor's Foot Guard - Branford First Company Governor's Horse Guard - Avon Second Company Governor's Horse Guard - Newtown Connecticut Wing Civil Air Patrol National Lancers Naval militia United States Coast Guard Auxiliary History of First Company, Governor's Foot Guard Hartford 1771–1901


Illogan is a village and civil parish in west Cornwall, England, UK, two miles northwest of Redruth. The population of Illogan was 5,404 at the 2011 census. In the same year the population of the Camborne-Redruth urban area, which includes Carn Brea and several satellite villages, stood at 55,400 making it the largest conurbation in Cornwall. A rural area supporting itself by farming and agriculture, Illogan shared in the general leap into prosperity brought about by the mining boom, experienced by the whole Camborne-Redruth area. In 1931 the ruins of a Roman villa at Magor Farm were found by Nicholas Warren and excavated under the guidance of the Royal Institution of Cornwall; the villa was the residence of a wealthy Dumnonian who had adopted the Roman lifestyle. The parish church was dedicated to St Edmund. By 1844, the church had become too small to serve a vastly increasing mining population, so a new church was built to the designs of J. P. St Aubyn. at a cost of £2,875 and came into use on 4 November 1846.

The Bell Tower is all. The church reopened in 2012 after extensive repairs to the roof; the churchyard includes fifty-two Commonwealth War Graves. and the grave of Thomas Merritt, whose carols are sung by Cornishmen worldwide and, commissioned to write the 1902 Coronation March for Edward VII. The Church, its tower, the Basset sarcophagus, a Cornish cross, the gates at the north end of the churchyard are all Grade II Listed; the Cornish cross in the churchyard is in situ. The ecclesiastical Parish extends beyond Carn Brea and includes long stretches of the North Cliffs – from Reskajeage Downs on the North Cliffs to Cambrose, with a population of 12,500 people, it was split into three civil parishes - Illogan. The civil parish stretches from Bridge and Harris Mill in the East. Parts of Aviary Court was the home of mining engineer James Tangye; the Bain Memorial, in memory of David Wise Bain who owned Portreath Harbour, built in 1901 as almshouses for decayed miners. Mary's Well named after the wife of Gustavus Lambart Basset.

The Plymouth limestone and granite faced Paynters Lane End Methodist Church, was built in 1890. The Methodist Sunday School was built in 1858. Illogan School provides education for 4-11 year olds. Tehidy Country Park, the largest area of woodland in West Cornwall, containing an 18-hole golf course. Is owned and managed by Cornwall Council. Tehidy was the estate of the Basset family, one of the four most powerful families in Cornwall who had extensive lands and mineral rights. Maningham Community Woodland was opened in 2004, it was part of an ornamental garden for the old Rectory now called Maningham – now a private house – built of Bath stone in 1783 for the Rev John Basset, brother of Lord De Dunstanville whose monument is seen on Carn Brea. Julia Goldsworthy, Politician Rory McGrath, comedian Sir Richard Trevithick Tangye and philanthropist. Moondyne Joe, bushranger. In the Poldark novels by Winston Graham, Demelza Carne was born in'Illuggan'. Media related to Illogan at Wikimedia Commons