1840 United States Census

The United States Census of 1840 was the sixth census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1840, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 – an increase of 32.7 percent over the 12,866,020 persons enumerated during the 1830 Census. The total population included 2,487,355 slaves. In 1840, the center of population was about 260 miles west near Weston, Virginia; this was the first census in which: A state recorded a population of over two million A city recorded a population of over 300,000 Multiple cities recorded populations of over 100,000 The 1840 Census was the first that attempted to count Americans who were "insane" or "idiotic". Published results of the census indicated that alarming numbers of black persons living in non-slaveholding States were mentally ill, in striking contrast to the corresponding figures for slaveholding States. Pro-slavery advocates trumpeted the results as evidence of the beneficial effects of slavery, the probable consequences of emancipation.

Anti-slavery advocates contended, on the contrary, that the published returns were riddled with errors, as detailed in an 1844 report by Edward Jarvis of Massachusetts in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences published separately as a pamphlet, in a memorial from the American Statistical Association to Congress, praying that measures be taken to correct the errors. The memorial was submitted to the House of Representatives by John Quincy Adams, who contended that it demonstrated "a multitude of gross and important errors" in the published returns. In response to the House's request for an inquiry, Secretary of State John C. Calhoun reported that a careful examination of the statistics by the supervisor of the census had sustained their correctness; the returns were not revised. The 1840 census asked these questions: Name of head of family Address Number of free white males and females in five-year age groups to age 20 in 10-year age groups from 20 to 100 100 years and older number of slaves and free colored persons in six age groups number of deaf and dumb, by race number of blind, by race number of insane and idiotic in public or private charge, by race number of persons in each family employed in seven classes of occupation number of schools and number of scholars number of white persons over 20 who could not read and write number of pensioners for Revolutionary or military service No microdata from the 1840 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

A compendium of data from the sixth census, organized by States and principal towns is available on the web site of the Census Bureau. Compendium of the Enumeration of the Inhabitants and Statistics of the United States... from the Returns of the Sixth Census.... Overview of the 1840 Census on 1840 U. S. Federal Census - Online Records and Indexes on Includes links to sites with any or all of the following: digitized images, transcriptions, extractions and partial or whole copies of census materials

Pioche, Nevada

Pioche is an unincorporated town in Lincoln County, United States 180 miles northeast of Las Vegas. U. S. Route 93 is the main route to Pioche and bypasses the town center just to the east, with Nevada State Route 321 and Nevada State Route 322 providing direct access, its elevation is 6,060 feet above sea level. Pioche is the county seat of Lincoln County. Pioche is named after François Louis Alfred Pioche, a San Francisco financier and land speculator from France; the town's population was 1,002 at the 2010 census. The first modern settlement of the area occurred in 1864 with the opening of a silver mine; the settlers abandoned the area when local Indian tribes launched a series of massacres. Recolonization was launched in 1868, after the Indian raids were stopped and François Pioche bought the town in 1869. By the early 1870s, Pioche had grown larger, to become one of the most important silver-mining towns in Nevada; because of the town's remoteness which had earlier allowed the Indian raids to occur, Pioche had a reputation for being one of the roughest towns in the Old West.

Local lore says. This legend is immortalized by the creation of Boot Hill, now a landmark in the city. Pioche has a cool semi-arid climate bordering on a humid continental climate due to its high altitude and exposure to rain-bearing winds; the high elevation means summers are much cooler than in Clark County, with temperatures of 100 °F or 37.8 °C reached upon only one afternoon every five years, 90 °F or 32.2 °C reached only upon 23.1 afternoons. The hottest month recorded was July 2005, with a mean maximum of 93.0 °F or 33.9 °C, a record hot day of 105 °F on 17 July, nine days above the century mark from 11 to 19 July. Although summers are dry with mild nights, it is not unknown for “Arizona rains” to penetrate into Lincoln County during July and August, as happened in August 1945 when 5.01 inches of rain fell on a total of eleven “wet” days, during August 1955 when seventeen days saw at least 0.01 inches or 0.3 millimetres of rain. The fall season sees warm days and cold nights: the freeze-free period extends from 17 May to 10 October, although temperatures below 0 °F or −17.8 °C are rare during winter with an average of 1.1 mornings falling this low.

The coldest month has been January 1949 with a mean maximum of 27.7 °F, although in a normal winter only 10.3 afternoons will not top freezing. During the winter, days are cool to cold – although in January 7.1 afternoons top 50 °F or 10 °C – and nights are cold, although snowfall is erratic. During the wet and cold spell of January and February 1993, 98 inches or 2.49 metres of snow fell in Pioche. Pioche is known for its "Million Dollar Courthouse," built in 1872; the original cost of $88,000 far exceeded initial estimates and was financed, refinanced with bonds totaling nearly $1 million. Pioche contains the county administrative offices and has one of the oldest grade schools in the state. Next door to the courthouse sits the old Mountain View Hotel, where President Herbert Hoover is said to have stayed in 1930. Built in 1895, the hotel served the lodging needs of dignitaries visiting Pioche on court business. Although the building no longer serves as a hotel, it is an example of turn-of-the-century western architecture.

There is another hotel, the Overland, still operating, with 14 themed rooms on the second floor over the main saloon. An aerial tramway carried buckets of ore from the mines to the Godbe Mill; the tramway ran during the 1920s and 1930s and was used for the transportation of silver and nickel ore. The abandoned tramway used cables which still stretch over parts of the town, with some original ore buckets intact. During Labor Day in September, the population swells for events including fireworks, history-based theater and mining car filling contests called "mucking events." In December, the town holds a public Christmas tree lighting. The town of Pioche is Nevada Historical Marker 5. Pioche Nevada Pioche - Nevada Ghost Town Pioche, Nevada


EcoBlue is the marketing name for a range of Diesel engines from Ford Motor Company. The EcoBlue engines were developed under the codename "Panther" by Ford engineering teams in the U. K. and Germany, are expected to succeed the Duratorq diesel engines, offering optimised fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 and NOx emissions. An initial 2.0-litre variant will be offered with 105, 130 and 170 PS in commercial vehicle applications. This engine architecture is capable of delivering more than 200 PS, will feature with such power outputs in Ford passenger cars, alongside a 1.5-litre variant. In early 2018 Ford launched its Ranger Raptor with a biturbo 2.0-litre EcoBlue producing 213 PS and 500 N⋅m of torque. In 2018 Ford launched an higher spec biturbo 2.0-litre EcoBlue producing 238 PS for the Edge Titanium, ST-Line and Vignale SUV in Europe. A U. S.-spec version of the biturbo 2.0-litre EcoBlue will debut in the 2020 Transit. An all-new engine architecture is claimed to deliver reduced friction and a clean-burning combustion system.

The engines will meet Euro 6 emissions standards. Ford says that a 13 percent improvement in fuel efficiency is obtained through friction reduction enhancements. A new strong lightweight engine block features an aluminium ladder below that reduces noise and vibration; the crankshaft from the piston is offset by 10mm to allow piston side load against the cylinder wall to be reduced hence decreasing friction and wear with the diameter reduced to improve efficiency. New belt-in-oil system are being used to drive the cams to reduce friction while the head’s intake system is engineered to balance the air between each cylinder. Centralized eight-hole-nozzle piezo injectors are being used to inject oil at 2,000 bar, much higher than previous engines. Duratorq diesel engines List of Ford engines