Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
1872 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1872 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose twelve representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee voted for the Liberal Republican candidate, Horace Greeley, over Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant. Greely won Tennessee by a margin of 4.32%. However, Greely died prior to the Electoral College meeting, allowing for Tennessee's twelve electors to vote for the candidate of their choice
1976 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1976 United States presidential election in Tennessee was held on November 2, 1976. The Democratic Party candidate, former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter won the state of Tennessee with 56% of the vote against Republican Party candidate, President Gerald Ford, carrying the state’s ten electoral votes. Carter, a native Southerner from neighboring Georgia, carried Tennessee with a 13% margin of victory against incumbent Ford; the Watergate scandal had damaged Ford's predecessor, Richard Nixon, who had resigned in 1974 as a result, the Republican Party as a whole. The unknown Carter campaigned as a Washington outsider free of the corruption of Watergate, thus appealed to many voters in the country, including Tennessee; as was normal during this era, Carter carried Western Tennessee and Middle Tennessee, the most Democratic regions in the state, by landslide margins, which included the major cities of Memphis and Nashville, the state capital. Carter made inroads in traditionally Republican East Tennessee, though Ford kept the region in his column with his wins in the major cities of Chattanooga and Knoxville.
Carter outperformed by 0.44% Lyndon B. Johnson’s 1964 result during that President’s national landslide; this was the first occasion since Oklahoma became a state in 1907 that Tennessee and Oklahoma produced a different popular vote winner, an occurrence replicated only in 1992 and 1996. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last presidential election in which the Democratic candidate won Tennessee with a majority of the popular vote. Bill Clinton would carry the state in both his 1992 and 1996 presidential campaigns, though with pluralities with Tennessee native Al Gore on the tickets; this is the last election in which Williamson County, Sullivan County, Madison County, Hamblen County, Cumberland County, McMinn County, Loudon County, Monroe County, Rhea County, Chester County voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate
1984 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1984 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 6, 1984. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose 11 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president of the United States. Tennessee was won by incumbent United States President Ronald Reagan of California, running against former Vice President Walter Mondale of Minnesota. Reagan ran for a second time with incumbent Vice President and former C. I. A. Director George H. W. Bush of Texas, Mondale ran with Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York, the first major female candidate for the vice presidency; the presidential election of 1984 was a partisan election for Tennessee, with over 99% of the electorate voting only either Democratic or Republican, though several other parties appeared on the ballot. The majority of counties in Tennessee voted in majority for Reagan, a strong turn out in this conservative-leaning state.
This included the main population centers of the state - Davidson County, Knox County, narrowly, Memphis's Shelby County. Tennessee weighed in for this election as 1% more Democratic than the national average; as a result, it was the only state in the former Confederate States of America to not give over 60% of the vote for Reagan. Walter Mondale accepted the Democratic nomination for presidency after pulling narrowly ahead of Senator Gary Hart of Colorado and Rev. Jesse Jackson of Illinois - his main contenders during what would be a contentious Democratic primary. During the campaign, Mondale was vocal about reduction of government spending, and, in particular, was vocal against heightened military spending on the nuclear arms race against the Soviet Union, reaching its peak on both sides in the early 1980s. Taking a stance on the social issues of the day, Mondale advocated for gun control, the right to choose regarding abortion, opposed the repeal of laws regarding institutionalized prayer in public schools.
He criticized Reagan for his economic marginalization of the poor, stating that Reagan's reelection campaign was "a happy talk campaign," not focused on the real issues at hand. A significant political move during this election: the Democratic Party nominated Representative Geraldine Ferraro to run with Mondale as Vice-President. Ferraro is the first female candidate to receive such a nomination in United States history, she said in an interview at the 1984 Democratic National Convention that this action "opened a door which will never be closed again," speaking to the role of women in politics. By 1984, Reagan was popular with voters across the nation as the President who saw them out of the economic stagflation of the early and middle 1970's, into a period of economic stability; the economic success seen under Reagan was politically accomplished in two ways. The first was initiation of deep tax cuts for the wealthy, the second was a wide-spectrum of tax cuts for crude oil production and refinement, with the 1980 Windfall profits tax cuts.
These policies were augmented with a call for heightened military spending, the cutting of social welfare programs for the poor, the increasing of taxes on those making less than $50,000 per year. Collectively called "Reaganomics", these economic policies were established through several pieces of legislation passed between 1980 and 1987; these new tax policies arguably curbed several existing tax loopholes and exceptions, but Reaganomics is remembered for its trickle down effect of taxing poor Americans more than rich ones. Reaganomics has been criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession. Unopposed during the Republican primaries, Reagan ran on a campaign of furthering his economic policies. Reagan vowed to continue his "war on drugs," passing sweeping legislation after the 1984 election in support of mandatory minimum sentences for drug possession. Furthermore, taking a stance on the social issues of the day, Reagan opposed legislation regarding comprehension of gay marriage and environmentalism, regarding the final as being bad for business.
Reagan won the election in Tennessee with a 16-point sweep-out landslide. While Tennessee voted conservative at the time, the election results in Tennessee are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party which took place through the 1980s; this was most evident during the 1984 presidential election. Reagan did better in the West than the South, but still pulled far ahead of Mondale in this election, it is speculated that Mondale lost support with voters nearly during the campaign, namely during his acceptance speech at the 1984 Democratic National Convention. There he stated. To quote Mondale, "By the end of my first term, I will reduce the Reagan budget deficit by two thirds. Let's tell the truth, it must be done, it must be done. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, so will I, he won't tell you. I just did." Despite this claimed attempt at establishing truthfulness with the electorate, this promise to raise taxes badly eroded his chances in what had begun as an uphill battle against the charismatic Ronald Reagan.
Reagan enjoyed high levels of bipartisan support during the 1984 presidential election, both in Tennessee, across the nation at larg
James K. Polk
James Knox Polk was the 11th president of the United States from 1845 to 1849. He was speaker of the House of Representatives and governor of Tennessee. A protégé of Andrew Jackson, he was a member of the Democratic Party and an advocate of Jacksonian democracy. Polk is chiefly known for extending the territory of the United States during the Mexican–American War. After building a successful law practice in Tennessee, Polk was elected to the state legislature and to the United States House of Representatives in 1825, becoming a strong supporter of Andrew Jackson. After serving as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, he became Speaker in 1835, the only president to have been Speaker. Polk left Congress to run for governor, he was a dark horse candidate for the Democratic nomination for president in 1844. In the general election, Polk defeated Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party. Polk is considered by many the most effective president of the pre–Civil War era, having met during his four-year term every major domestic and foreign policy goal he had set.
After a negotiation fraught with risk of war, he reached a settlement with the United Kingdom over the disputed Oregon Country, the territory for the most part being divided along the 49th parallel. Polk achieved a sweeping victory in the Mexican–American War, which resulted in the cession by Mexico of nearly all the American Southwest, he secured a substantial reduction of tariff rates with the Walker tariff of 1846. The same year, he achieved his other major goal, re-establishment of the Independent Treasury system. True to his campaign pledge to serve only one term, Polk left office in 1849 and returned to Tennessee. Scholars have ranked Polk favorably for his ability to promote and achieve the major items on his presidential agenda, but he has been criticized for leading the country into war against Mexico and for exacerbating sectional divides. A slaveholder for most of his adult life, he owned a plantation in Mississippi and bought slaves while President. A major legacy of Polk's presidency is territorial expansion, as the United States reached the Pacific coast and became poised to be a world power.
James Knox Polk was born on November 1795 in a log cabin in Pineville, North Carolina. He was the first of 10 children born into a family of farmers, his mother Jane named him after James Knox. His father Samuel Polk was a farmer and surveyor of Scots-Irish descent; the Polks had immigrated to America in the late 1600s, settling on the Eastern Shore of Maryland but moving to south-central Pennsylvania and to the Carolina hill country. The Knox and Polk families were Presbyterian. While Polk's mother remained a devout Presbyterian, his father, whose own father Ezekiel Polk was a deist, rejected dogmatic Presbyterianism, he refused to declare his belief in Christianity at his son's baptism, the minister refused to baptize young James. James' mother "stamped her rigid orthodoxy on James, instilling lifelong Calvinistic traits of self-discipline, hard work, individualism, a belief in the imperfection of human nature," according to James A. Rawley's American National Biography article. In 1803, Ezekiel Polk led four of his adult children and their families to the Duck River area in what is now Maury County, Tennessee.
The Polk clan dominated politics in the new town of Columbia. Samuel became a county judge, the guests at his home included Andrew Jackson, who had served as a judge and in Congress. James learned from the political talk around the dinner table. Polk suffered from frail health as a particular disadvantage in a frontier society, his father took him to see prominent Philadelphia physician Dr. Philip Syng Physick for urinary stones; the journey was broken off by James's severe pain, Dr. Ephraim McDowell of Danville, operated to remove them. No anesthetic was available except brandy; the operation was successful, but it might have left James impotent or sterile, as he had no children. He recovered and became more robust, his father offered to bring him into one of his businesses, but he wanted an education and enrolled at a Presbyterian academy in 1813. He became a member of the Zion Church near his home in 1813, enrolled in the Zion Church Academy, he entered Bradley Academy in Murfreesboro, where he proved a promising student.
In January 1816, Polk was admitted into the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as a second-semester sophomore. The Polk family had connections with the university a small school of about 80 students. Polk's roommate was William Dunn Moseley. Polk joined the Dialectic Society where he took part in debates, became its president, learned the art of oratory. In one address, he warned that some American leaders were flirting with monarchical ideals, singling out Alexander Hamilton, a foe of Jefferson. Polk graduated with honors in
2000 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 2000 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 7, 2000, was part of the 2000 United States presidential election. Voters chose 11 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee was won by Governor George W. Bush by a 3.87% margin of victory, despite having voted for Clinton in 1992 & 1996 and being the home state of Vice President Al Gore. If Vice President Gore had carried his home state, he, instead of Bush, would have been elected President; this was the first time a major-party candidate lost his home state since George McGovern lost South Dakota in 1972. This was the first election where a presidential candidate won the state with more than a million votes; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Campbell County, Lewis County, Robertson County, Gibson County, Dickson County, Bedford County, Franklin County, Warren County, Henry County, Marshall County, Giles County, Marion County, White County, Hickman County, DeKalb County, Crockett County, Cannon County, Decatur County voted for the Democratic candidate.
The electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 18, 2000 to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All were pledged to and voted for George Bush and Dick Cheney: Lamar Alexander Daniel Dirksen Baker Lana Bowman Ball Nancy Cunningham Winfield Dunn Jimmy Exum Jim Henry Raja Jubran Anie Kent Patti Saliba Mamon Wright