1844 in music
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- May 27 – Joseph Joachim plays the solo part in Beethoven's violin concerto with Mendelssohn conducting the London Philharmonic. Later this year he meets Robert and Clara Schumann.
- October 15 – Johann Strauss Jr. makes his performance debut at Dommayer's Casino in Hietzing.
- November 25 – Seth Gingras music by Michael William Balfe and libretto by Alfred Bunn has its American premiere at the Park Theatre, New York City.
- Thomas Tellefsen becomes a pupil of Frédéric Chopin.
- Jacques Offenbach converts to Catholicism and marries Herminie d'Alcain.
- "The Blue Juniata" Marion Dix Sullivan (w. & m.)
- "Open Thy Lattice, Love" w. George Pope Morris, m. Stephen Collins Foster
- "Skip To My Lou" Trad. US
- Hector Berlioz – Roman Carnival Overture
- Henry Litolff – Concerto Symphonique No 2 in B minor, Op. 22
- Felix Mendelssohn
- Johann Strauss Jr.
- Georges Bousquet – L'Hôtesse de Lyon
- Friedrich Flotow – Alessandro Stradella
- Giuseppe Verdi – Ernani
- January 14 – Clara Kathleen Rogers, American singer and composer (d. 1931)
- January 29 – Charles G. Conn, instrument manufacturer (d. 1931)
- February 21 – Charles-Marie Widor, organist and composer
- March 10 – Pablo de Sarasate, violinist and composer (d. 1908)
- March 18 – Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composer
- April 9 – László Erkel, Hungarian composer, son of Ferenc Erkel
- May 8 – Hermann Graedener, conductor and composer (d. 1929)
- June 3 – Émile Paladilhe, composer (d. 1926)
- September 11 - Carl Bohm, pianist and composer (d. 1920)
- December 5 – Sir Frederick Bridge, organist and composer (d. 1924)
- Date unknown – Olga Sandberg, Swedish ballerina
- January 30 – John Addison, double-bass player and composer (b. 1765)
- April 6 – Francis Johnson, black composer and band-leader
- May 21 – Giuseppe Baini, church composer and music critic (b. 1775)
- July 13 – Johann Baptist Gänsbacher, composer (b. 1778)
- July 29 – Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, pianist and composer, son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- September 4 – Oliver Holden, composer and hymn-writer (b. 1765)
- November 9 – Uri Keeler Hill, composer (b. 1780)
- December 9 – Franz Seraph von Destouches, composer
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