1843 in science
The year 1843 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. March 11–14 – Eta Carinae flares to become the second brightest star, february 5–April 19 – Great March Comet observed. Heinrich Schwabe reports a periodic change in the number of sunspots, they wax, carl Mosander discovers Terbium and Erbium. John J. Waterston produces an account of the theory of gases. October 16 – William Rowan Hamilton discovers the calculus of quaternions, arthur Cayley and James Joseph Sylvester found the algebraic invariant theory. John T. Graves discovers the octonions, pierre-Alphonse Laurent discovers and presents the Laurent expansion theorem. James Prescott Joule experimentally finds the mechanical equivalent of heat, british surgeon James Braid publishes Neurypnology, or the Rationale of Nervous Sleep, a key text in the history of hypnotism. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. argues that puerperal fever is spread by lack of hygiene in physicians, March 25 – Completion of the Thames Tunnel, the first bored underwater tunnel in the world.
July 19 – Launch of SS Great Britain, the first iron-hulled, november 21 – Thomas Hancock patents the vulcanisation of rubber using sulphur in the United Kingdom The steam powered rotary printing press is invented by Richard March Hoe in the United States. Robert Stirling and his brother James convert a steam engine at a Dundee factory to operate as a Stirling engine, the first public telegraph line in the United Kingdom is laid between Paddington and Slough. Copley Medal, Jean-Baptiste Dumas Wollaston Medal for Geology, Jean-Baptiste Elie de Beaumont, Pierre Armand Dufrenoy January 13 – David Ferrier, may 6 – G. K. Gilbert, American geologist. June 12 – David Gill, Scottish astronomer, june 23 – Paul Heinrich von Groth, German mineralogist. July 24 – William de Wiveleslie Abney, English astronomer, august 17 – Alexandre Lacassagne, French forensic scientist. November 30 – Martha Ripley, American physician, july 25 – Charles Macintosh, Scottish inventor of a waterproof fabric. August 10 – Robert Adrain, Irish American mathematician, september 11 – Joseph Nicollet, French geographer, explorer and astronomer.
September 19 – Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, French mathematician and discoverer of the Coriolis effect, september 30 – Richard Harlan, American zoologist. November 16 – Abraham Colles, Anglo-Irish surgeon
British Indian Army
The Indian Army was the principal army of India before independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both British India and the Princely states, which could have their own armies. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empires forces, the term Indian Army appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies of the Presidencies of British India, particularly after the Indian Rebellion. The first army officially called the Indian Army was raised by the government of India in 1895, however, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies. The Indian Army should not be confused with the Army of India which was the Indian Army itself plus the British Army in India, before 1858, the precursor units of the Indian Army were units controlled by the Company and were paid for by their profits. These operated alongside units of the British Army, funded by the British government in London. Many of these took part in the Indian Mutiny, with the aim of reinstating the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II at Delhi.
The meaning of the term Indian Army has changed over time, The officer commanding the Army of India was the Commander-in-Chief, the title was used before the creation of a unified British Indian Army, the first holder was Major General Stringer Lawrence in 1748. By the early 1900s the Commander-in-Chief and his staff were based at GHQ India, Indian Army postings were less prestigious than British Army positions, but the pay was significantly greater so that officers could live on their salaries instead of having to have a private income. Accordingly, vacancies in the Indian Army were much sought after and generally reserved for the higher placed officer-cadets graduating from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. British officers in the Indian Army were expected to learn to speak the Indian languages of their men, prominent British Indian Army officers included Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, Claude Auchinleck and William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim.
Commissioned officers and Indian, held identical ranks to commissioned officers of the British Army, Kings Commissioned Indian Officers, created from the 1920s, held equal powers to British officers. Viceroys Commissioned Officers were Indians holding officer ranks and they were treated in almost all respects as commissioned officers, but had authority over Indian troops only, and were subordinate to all British Kings Commissioned Officers and KCIOs. They included Subedar Major or Risaldar-Major, equivalents to a British Major, Subedar or Risaldar equivalents to Captain, recruitment was entirely voluntary, about 1.75 million men served in the First World War, many on the Western Front and 2.5 million in the Second. Soldier ranks included Sepoys or Sowars, equivalent to a British private, British Army ranks such as gunner and sapper were used by other corps. In the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny of 1857, known as the Sepoy Mutiny. The three Presidency armies remained separate forces, each with its own Commander-in-Chief, overall operational control was exercised by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, who was formally the Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies.
From 1861, most of the manpower was pooled in the three Presidential Staff Corps
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil can be produced. Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including deposits in the United States. Estimates of global deposits range from 4.8 to 5 trillion barrels of oil in place, heating oil shale to a sufficiently high temperature causes the chemical process of pyrolysis to yield a vapor. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas, Oil shale can be burned directly in furnaces as a low-grade fuel for power generation and district heating or used as a raw material in chemical and construction-materials processing. Oil shale gains attention as an abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises. Estonia and China have well-established oil shale industries, and Brazil, general composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix and kerogen. Oil shales differ from oil-bearing shales, shale deposits that contain petroleum that is produced from drilled wells.
Examples of oil-bearing shales are the Bakken Formation, Pierre Shale, Niobrara Formation, Oil shale, an organic-rich sedimentary rock, belongs to the group of sapropel fuels. It does not have a geological definition nor a specific chemical formula. According to the petrologist Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong, oil shales are not geological nor geochemically distinctive rock and their common defining feature is low solubility in low-boiling organic solvents and generation of liquid organic products on thermal decomposition. Oil shale differs from bitumen-impregnated rocks, humic coals and carbonaceous shale, general composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix and kerogen. While the bitumen portion of oil shales is soluble in carbon disulfide, kerogen portion is insoluble in carbon disulfide and can contain iron, nickel, Oil shale contains a lower percentage of organic matter than coal. In commercial grades of oil shale the ratio of organic matter to mineral matter lies approximately between 0.75,5 and 1.5,5.
At the same time, the matter in oil shale has an atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon approximately 1.2 to 1.8 times lower than for crude oil. Some deposits contain significant fossils, Germanys Messel Pit has the status of a Unesco World Heritage Site, the mineral matter in oil shale includes various fine-grained silicates and carbonates. Inorganic matrix can contain quartz, clays, pyrite, geologists can classify oil shales on the basis of their composition as carbonate-rich shales, siliceous shales, or cannel shales. Another classification, known as the van Krevelen diagram, assigns kerogen types, depending on the hydrogen, the most commonly used classification of oil shales, developed between 1987 and 1991 by Adrian C. Hutton, adapts petrographic terms from coal terminology and this classification designates oil shales as terrestrial, lacustrine, or marine, based on the environment of the initial biomass deposit
1851 in science
The year 1851 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. February – First public exhibition of a Foucault pendulum, at the Meridian of the Paris Observatory, a few weeks Foucault installs one at the Panthéon. July 28 – Solar eclipse of July 28,1851, Total solar eclipse, the first correctly exposed photograph, a daguerrotype, of the solar corona is made during the total phase of the eclipse by Berkowski at Koenigsberg Observatory in Prussia. October 24 – Ariel and Umbriel, moons of Uranus, are discovered by William Lassell, the William Brydone Jack Observatory is completed at Fredericton, New Brunswick. March – English sculptor Frederick Scott Archer makes public the wet collodion photographic process. George Wilson publishes The Life of the Hon. Henry Cavendish, bernhard Riemann provides a proof of Greens theorem in his inaugural dissertation. The Royal Marsden is established as the Free Cancer Hospital by surgeon William Marsden in London, hippolyte Fizeau carries out the Fizeau experiment to measure the relative speeds of light in moving water.
November 13 – First protected submarine telegraph cable laid, across the English Channel, William Armstrong introduces the weight-loaded hydraulic accumulator. Copley Medal, Richard Owen Wollaston Medal for geology, Adam Sedgwick January 19 – Jacobus Kapteyn, march 16 – Martinus Beijerinck, Dutch microbiologist and botanist. April 12 – E. Walter Maunder, July 8 – Arthur Evans, archaeologist. July 20 – Arnold Pick, august 3 – George FitzGerald, mathematician. January 27 – John James Audubon and illustrator, february 18 – Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, mathematician. March 9 – Hans Christian Ørsted, July 6 – Thomas Davenport, electrical engineer. July 17 – John Farey, mechanical engineer and technical writer, september 2 – William Nicol, geologist
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet. In the Solar System there are six planetary satellite systems containing 178 known natural satellites, four IAU-listed dwarf planets are known to have natural satellites, Haumea and Eris. As of January 2012, over 200 minor-planet moons have been discovered, the Earth–Moon system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon to the mass of Earth is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System. At 3,474 km across, Earths Moon is 0.27 times the diameter of Earth, the first known natural satellite was the Moon, but it was considered a planet until Copernicus introduction of heliocentrism in 1543. Until the discovery of the Galilean satellites in 1610, galileo chose to refer to his discoveries as Planetæ, but discoverers chose other terms to distinguish them from the objects they orbited. The first to use of the satellite to describe orbiting bodies was the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a se quatuor Iouis satellitibus erronibus in 1610.
He derived the term from the Latin word satelles, meaning guard, attendant, or companion, the term satellite thus became the normal one for referring to an object orbiting a planet, as it avoided the ambiguity of moon. In 1957, the launching of the artificial object Sputnik created a need for new terminology, to further avoid ambiguity, the convention is to capitalize the word Moon when referring to Earths natural satellite, but not when referring to other natural satellites. A few recent authors define moon as a satellite of a planet or minor planet, there is no established lower limit on what is considered a moon. Small asteroid moons, such as Dactyl, have been called moonlets, the upper limit is vague. Two orbiting bodies are described as a double body rather than primary. Asteroids such as 90 Antiope are considered double asteroids, but they have not forced a clear definition of what constitutes a moon, some authors consider the Pluto–Charon system to be a double planet. In contrast, irregular satellites are thought to be captured asteroids possibly further fragmented by collisions, most of the major natural satellites of the Solar System have regular orbits, while most of the small natural satellites have irregular orbits.
The Moon and possibly Charon are exceptions among large bodies in that they are thought to have originated by the collision of two large proto-planetary objects. The material that would have placed in orbit around the central body is predicted to have reaccreted to form one or more orbiting natural satellites. As opposed to planetary-sized bodies, asteroid moons are thought to form by this process. Triton is another exception, although large and in a close, circular orbit, its motion is retrograde, most regular moons in the Solar System are tidally locked to their respective primaries, meaning that the same side of the natural satellite always faces its planet. The only known exception is Saturns natural satellite Hyperion, which rotates chaotically because of the influence of Titan
Urbain Le Verrier
Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier was a French mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranuss orbit and the laws of Kepler, Le Verrier sent the coordinates to Johann Gottfried Galle in Berlin, asking him to verify. Galle found Neptune in the night he received Le Verriers letter. The discovery of Neptune is widely regarded as a validation of celestial mechanics. Le Verrier was born at Saint-Lô, France, and he briefly studied chemistry under Gay-Lussac, writing papers on the combinations of phosphorus and hydrogen, and phosphorus and oxygen. He switched to astronomy, particularly celestial mechanics, and accepted a job at the Paris Observatory and he spent most of his professional life there, and eventually became that institutions Director, from 1854 to 1870 and again from 1873 to 1877. In 1846, Le Verrier became a member of the French Academy of Sciences, Le Verriers name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.
Le Verriers first work in astronomy was presented to the Académie des Sciences in September 1839 and this work addressed the most-important question in astronomy, the stability of the Solar System, first investigated by Laplace. He was able to some important limits on the motions of the system. From 1844 to 1847, Le Verrier published a series of works on periodic comets, in particular those of Lexell, Faye and DeVico. He was able to some interesting interactions with the planet Jupiter. Le Verriers most famous achievement is his prediction of the existence of the unknown planet Neptune, using only mathematics. At the same time, but unknown to Le Verrier, similar calculations were made by John Couch Adams in England, Le Verrier transmitted his own prediction by 18 September in a letter to Johann Galle of the Berlin Observatory. There was, and to an extent still is, controversy over the apportionment of credit for the discovery, there is no ambiguity to the discovery claims of Le Verrier, and dArrest.
Adamss work was earlier than Le Verriers but was finished and was unrelated to the actual discovery. Not even the briefest account of Adamss predicted orbital elements was published more than a month after Berlins visual confirmation. Galle, so that the facts stated above cannot detract, in the slightest degree, early in the 19th century, the methods of predicting the motions of the planets were somewhat scattered, having been developed over decades by many different researchers. In 1847, Le Verrier took on the task to, embrace in a single work the entire planetary system, put everything in harmony if possible, declare with certainty that there are as yet unknown causes of perturbations
William T. G. Morton
William Thomas Green Morton was an American dentist who first publicly demonstrated the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic in 1846. The promotion of his claim to have been the discoverer of anesthesia became an obsession for the rest of his life. Born in Charlton, William T. G. Morton was the son of James Morton, a farmer, William found work as a clerk and salesman in Boston before entering Baltimore College of Dental Surgery in 1840. In 1841, he gained notoriety for developing a new process to solder false teeth onto gold plates, in 1842, he left college without graduating to study in Hartford, Connecticut with dentist Horace Wells, with whom Morton shared a brief partnership. In 1843 Morton married Elizabeth Whitman of Farmington, the niece of former Congressman Lemuel Whitman and her parents objected to Mortons profession and only agreed to the marriage after he promised to study medicine. In the autumn of 1844, Morton entered Harvard Medical School and attended the lectures of Dr.
Charles T. Jackson. Morton also left Harvard without graduating, on September 30,1846, Morton performed a painless tooth extraction after administering ether to a patient. At this demonstration Dr. John Collins Warren painlessly removed a tumor from the neck of a Mr. Edward Gilbert Abbott, francis Boote, an American doctor who had heard of Mortons and Bigelows demonstrations. The MGH theatre came to be known as the Ether Dome and has preserved as a monument to this historic event. Following the demonstration, Morton tried to hide the identity of the substance Abbott had inhaled, by referring to it as Letheon, a month after this demonstration, a patent was issued for letheon, although it was widely known by that the inhalant was ether. The medical community at large condemned the patent as unjust and illiberal in such a humane, Mortons own efforts to obtain patents overseas undermined his assertions of philanthropic intent. Consequently, no effort was made to enforce the patent, and he made similar applications in 1849,1851, and 1853, and all failed.
He sought remuneration for his achievement through an attempt to sue the United States government. The lawyer who represented him was Richard Henry Dana, Jr, in 1852 he received an honorary degree from the Washington University of Medicine in Baltimore, which became the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Mortons rival, Dr. Jackson, testified for the prosecution, Morton was in New York City in July 1868. He was riding in a carriage with his wife when he demanded the carriage stop. This peculiar behavior was because he had, in fact, suffered a stroke which proved fatal soon after. He is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Watertown and Cambridge and his son William J. Morton was a noted physician and authority in electrotherapeutics
Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States, with Brigham and Womens Hospital, it is one of the two founding members of Partners HealthCare, the largest healthcare provider in Massachusetts. Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the world and it is currently ranked as the #3 hospital in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. Founded in 1811, the hospital was designed by the famous American architect Charles Bulfinch. It is the third-oldest general hospital in the United States, only Pennsylvania Hospital, John Warren, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at Harvard Medical School, spearheaded the move of the medical school to Boston. John Bartlett, the Chaplain of the Almshouse in Boston, because all those who had sufficient money were cared for at home, Massachusetts General Hospital, like most hospitals that were founded in the 19th century, was intended to care for the poor.
During the mid-to-late 19th century, Harvard Medical School was located adjacent to Massachusetts General Hospital, the first American hospital social workers were based in the hospital. A major patient database system called File Manager, which was developed by the Veterans Administration, was created using this language, the museum is a part of the hospitals public affairs department. Several years prior, Dr. Crawford Long of Danielsville, Georgia had given ether for surgery, but his work was unknown outside Georgia until he published his experience in 1849. On 16 October 1846, after administration of ether by Morton, MGH Chief of Surgery, John Collins Warren, painlessly removed a tumor from the neck of a local printer, Edward Gilbert Abbott. Upon completion of the procedure, which was without screaming or restraint, the usually skeptical Warren reportedly quipped, News of this anesthesia invention rapidly traveled within months around the world. A reenactment of the Ether Dome event was painted in 2000 by artists Warren and they used the then-MGH staff to pose as their counterparts from 1846.
The Ether Dome still exists and is open to the public, an anesthesia department was established at the MGH in 1936 under the leadership of Henry Knowles Beecher. The main MGH campus is located at 55 Fruit Street in Boston and it has expanded into an area formerly known as the West End, adjacent to the Charles River and Beacon Hill. With more than 14,000 employees, the hospital is the largest non-governmental employer in Boston, the hospital has 1,057 beds and admits over 47,000 patients each year. The surgical staff performs over 34,000 operations yearly, the obstetrics service handles over 3,500 births each year. In the fall of 2004, the Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care opened and this 380, 000-square-foot ten-floor facility is the largest and most comprehensive outpatient building in New England. In 2011, the Lunder Building, a 530,000 square foot, since 1994, MGH has been awarded the most research funding for an independent hospital by the National Institutes of Health, receiving over $210 million alone in 2014
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight. Reddish-brown and extremely bitter, laudanum contains almost all of the alkaloids, including morphine and codeine. Laudanum was historically used to treat a variety of ailments, but its use was as an analgesic. Until the early 20th century, laudanum was sold without a prescription and was a constituent of many patent medicines, laudanum is recognized as addictive and is strictly regulated and controlled as such throughout most of the world. The United States Uniform Controlled Substances Act, for one example, Laudanum is known as a whole opium preparation since it historically contained all the opium alkaloids. Recent enforcement action by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration against manufacturers of paregoric, the terms laudanum and tincture of opium are generally interchangeable, but in contemporary medical practice the latter is used almost exclusively. Paracelsus, a 16th-century Swiss-German alchemist, discovered that the alkaloids in opium are far more soluble in alcohol than water, having experimented with various opium concoctions, Paracelsus came across a specific tincture of opium that was of considerable use in reducing pain.
He called this preparation laudanum, derived from the Latin verb laudare, the term laudanum referred to any combination of opium and alcohol. Indeed, Paracelsus laudanum was strikingly different from the standard laudanum of the 17th century and his preparation contained opium, crushed pearls, musk and other substances. One researcher has documented that Laudanum, as listed in the London Pharmacoepoeia, was a made from opium, castor, musk. By the 18th century, the properties of opium and laudanum were well known. Opium, and after 1820, was mixed with everything imaginable, hashish, cayenne pepper, chloroform, whiskey and brandy. In the 1850s, cholera and dysentery regularly ripped through communities, its victims often dying from debilitating diarrhoea, by the 19th century, laudanum was used in many patent medicines to relieve pain. To check excessive secretions. to support the system, Laudanum was used during the yellow fever epidemic. Innumerable Victorian women were prescribed the drug for relief of menstrual cramps, nurses spoon-fed laudanum to infants.
The Romantic and Victorian eras were marked by the use of laudanum in Europe. Initially a working class drug, laudanum was cheaper than a bottle of gin or wine, because it was treated as a medication for legal purposes, Laudanum was used in home remedies and prescriptions, as well as a single medication. Diarrhoea, Aqueous extract of ergot,20 grains, Extract of nux vomica,5 grains, Extract of Opium,10 grains, take one pill every three or four hours
Robert Liston was a pioneering Scottish surgeon. Liston was noted for his skill in an era prior to anaesthetics and he was the son of the Scottish clergyman and inventor Henry Liston, whose father—Robert Liston—was the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Liston received his education at the University of Edinburgh, became first The Great Northern Anatomist of Blackwells Magazine, in 1832/3 he is listed as living at 99 George Street in the centre of Edinburghs New Town. He lived from 1840 to 1847 at No, Listons legacy comprises both that which has made its way into the popular culture, and that found primarily within the medical fraternity and related disciplines. Listons image has been preserved in both bust and portrait form, following Listons death, a meeting was held of his friends and admirers, who unanimously resolved to establish some public and lasting Testimonial to the memory of this distinguished surgeon. Richard Gordon describes Liston as the fastest knife in the West End and he could amputate a leg in 2 1⁄2 minutes.
Gordon described the scene thus, He was six foot two, and operated in a coat with wellington boots. He sprung across the blood-stained boards upon his swooning, strapped-down patient like a duelist, Time me gentlemen, to students craning with pocket watches from the iron-railinged galleries. Everyone swore that the first flash of his knife was followed so swiftly by the rasp of saw on bone that sight, to free both hands, he would clasp the bloody knife between his teeth. Gordons talent for prose is more than just caricature and he describes how the link between surgical hygiene and iatrogenic infection was poorly understood at that time. He quotes Sir Frederick Treves on that era, There was no object in being clean. Indeed and it was considered to be finicking and affected. An executioner might as well manicure his nails before chopping off a head and he instituted the very hygiene practices exhorted by Holmes, and the mortality rate fell. Such was the era in which Liston lived and he relished operating successfully in the reeking tenements of the Grassmarket and Lawnmarket on patients they had discharged as hopelessly incurable.
They conspired to bar him from the wards, banished him south, in writings on Liston, he is portrayed as a man of strong character and ethics, which was the source of some of his confrontational style. In one case, he confronted a medical colleague over the treatment of a young woman who it transpired was murdered. She was in Knoxs dissecting rooms within four hours of her death, Listons response is documented in a letter from him According to Liston, he saw Mary Patersons body in Knoxs rooms and immediately suspected foul play. He removed her body for burial, while Listons pioneering contributions are paid tribute within popular culture such as Richard Gordon, they are best known within the medical fraternity and related disciplines. Liston became the first Professor of Clinical Surgery at University College Hospital in London in 1835 and he performed the first operation in Europe under modern anaesthesia using ether, on 21 December 1846 at the University College Hospital
1846 in architecture
The year 1846 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. December 23 - The Nizamat Imambara, in Murshidabad, India built by Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, January 16 - Shree Govindajee Temple in Imphal, commissioned by Raja Nara Singh. March 7 - Grace Church, New York City, United States, designed by James Renwick, may 12 - Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Cathedral holds its first service. May 21 - Trinity Church in Wall Street, New York City, july 30 - Albert Dock in Liverpool, officially opened by Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria. August 4 - Dublin Kingsbridge railway station in Ireland, designed by Sancton Wood, august 31 - St Giles Catholic Church, Cheadle in England, designed by Augustus Pugin, is concsecrated. September 1 - Pasig River Light, the first lighthouse erected in the Philippines, is lit, september 22 - Lancaster Castle railway station in England, designed by William Tite. December 24 - Needham and Thurston railway stations in Suffolk, macau Government House, built as a private home by Macanese architect Thomaz de Aquino.
Notre-Dame de Bon-Port, France, designed by Seheult, llandinam Bridge in Montgomeryshire, designed by Thomas Penson. Grand Prix de Rome, Alfred-Nicolas Normand, september 4 - Daniel Burnham, American architect and urban designer January 22 - Louis Baltard, French architect and engraver