1849 in Chile
- 6 July - The University of Santiago, Chile is established.
- 29 June - Pedro Montt
- 13 January - Francisco Ramón Vicuña
1. Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valley
2. 1849 – As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – France issues Ceres, the nations first postage stamp, january 5 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, The Austrian army led by Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, enters in the Hungarian capitals, Buda and Pest. The Hungarian government and parliament flees to Debrecen, january 8 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Romanian armed groups massacre 600 unarmed Hungarian civilians at Nagyenyed. January 13 – Second Anglo-Sikh War – British forces retreat from the Battle of Tooele, january 21 General elections are held in the Papal States. Hungarian Revolution of 1848, The Hungarian army in Transylvania led by Josef Bem is defeated by the Austrians led by Anton Puchner at the battle of Nagyszeben. January 23 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M. D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, january 27 – The Fayetteville and Western Plank Road Company is incorporated to build a plank road from Fayetteville to Bethania, North Carolina. January 31 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, A Russian army of 10000 soldiers enters Transylvania, february 1 – Abolition of the Corn Laws by the United Kingdoms Importation Act 1846 comes fully into effect. February 4 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, The Austrian army led by Anton Puchner defeats the Hungarians led by general Josef Bem in the battle of Vízakna. February 5 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, The Hungarian revolutionary army led by Richard Guyon break through the pass of Branyiszkó, february 8 – The new Roman Republic is proclaimed. February 9 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Josef Bems Hungarian army defeats Anton Puchner in the battle of Piski, february 14 – In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first President of the United States to have his photograph taken. February 21 – Second Anglo-Sikh War, Battle of Gujrat – British East India Company forces defeat those of the Sikh Empire in Punjab, february 27 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848, The main Hungarian and Austrian armies meet in the Battle of Kápolna. February 28 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay. The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6,1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, march – The Frankfurt Parliament completes its drafting of a liberal constitution and elects Frederick William IV emperor of the new German national state. March 3 The United States Department of the Interior is established, incorporating the Census Office, General Land Office, Office of Indian Affairs and Patent, minnesota becomes a United States territory. The United States Congress passes the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins, march 4 Zachary Taylor becomes President of the United States, but refuses to be sworn into office on a Sabbath. Urban legend holds that David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the United States Senate is President de jure for a single day, march 5 Hungarian Revolution of 1848, The Hungarians led by János Damjanich and Károly Vécsey defeat the Austrians at Szolnok. President Zachary Taylor is sworn in, the most part of Transylvania is liberated from the Austrian rule. The Austrian and the Russian troops flee to Wallachia, march 28 – Four Christians are ordered burnt alive in Antananarivo, Madagascar, by Queen Ranavalona I, and 14 others are executed
3. History of Chile – The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3,000 B. C. The countrys economic development was marked by the export of first agricultural produce. The wealth of raw materials led to an upturn, but also led to dependency. Chile was governed during most of its first 150 years of independence by different forms of restricted government, in 1990, Chile made a peaceful transition to democracy. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in the fertile valleys, pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different Amerindian societies. These theories are backed by findings in the Monte Verde archaeological site, specific early human settlement sites from the very early human habitation in Chile include the Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. No elaborate, centralized, sedentary civilization reigned supreme, the Araucanians, a fragmented society of hunters, gatherers, and farmers, constituted the largest Native American group in Chile. A mobile people who engaged in trade and warfare with indigenous groups, they lived in scattered family clusters. Although the Araucanians had no language, they did use a common tongue. Those in what became central Chile were more settled and more likely to use irrigation and those in the south combined slash-and-burn agriculture with hunting. Of the three Araucanian groups, the one that mounted the fiercest resistance to the attempts at seizure of their territory were the Mapuche, as the Spaniards would after them, the Incas encountered fierce resistance and so were unable to exert control in the south. During their attempts at conquest in 1460 and again in 1491, the Incas established forts in the Central Valley of Chile, the Mapuche fought against the Sapa Tupac Inca Yupanqui and his army. During the conquest, the Araucanians quickly added horses and European weaponry to their arsenal of clubs and they became adept at raiding Spanish settlements and, albeit in declining numbers, managed to hold off the Spaniards and their descendants until the late 19th century. The Araucanians valor inspired the Chileans to mythologize them as the nations first national heroes, the Chilean Patagonia located south of the river calle calle in Valdivia was composed of many tribes, mainly Tehuelches that were considered giants by Spaniards during Magellans voyage of 1520. The name Patagonia comes from the word used by Magellan to describe the native people whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed the Patagons were actually Tehuelches with an height of 1.80 m compared to the 1.55 m average for Spaniards of the time. The Argentine portion of Patagonia includes the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, the Argentine politico-economic Patagonic Region includes the Province of La Pampa. The first European to sight Chilean territory was Ferdinand Magellan, who crossed the Strait of Magellan on November 1,1520, however, the title of discoverer of Chile is usually assigned to Diego de Almagro