The 1830s decade ran from January 1,1830, to December 31,1839. July 30,1836 – The first English language newspaper is published in Hawaii,1838 – The Pitcairn Islands become a Crown colony of the United Kingdom, and women there are the first in the world to be granted and maintain, another one womens suffrage. China was ruled by the Daoguang Emperor of the Qing dynasty during the 1830s, the decade witnessed a rapid rise in the sale of opium in China, despite efforts by the Daoguang Emperor to end the trade. A turning point came in 1834, with the end of the monopoly of the British East India Company, by 1838, opium sales climbed to 40,000 chests. In 1839, newly appointed imperial commissioner Lin Zexu banned the sale of opium, Lin closed the channel to Guangzhou, leading to the seizure and destruction of 20,000 chests of opium. The British retaliated, seizing Hong Kong on August 23 of that year and it would end three years with the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. July 1837 – Charles W.
King sets sail on the American merchant ship Morrison, in the Morrison Incident, he is turned away from Japanese ports with cannon fire. 1830 – The Java War ends, Prince Mongkut of Siam founds the Dhammayut Buddhist reform movement. The Padri War was fought from 1803 until 1837 in West Sumatra between the Padris and the Adats, the latter asked for the help of the Dutch, who intervened from 1821 and helped the Adats defeat the Padri faction. The conflict intensified in the 1830s, as the war centered on Bonjol. It finally fell in 1837 after being besieged for three years, and along with the exile of Padri leader Tuanku Imam Bonjol, the conflict died out,1839 – The Emperor Minh Mạng renames Việt Nam to Đại Nam. The various Maori chieftains of Northland region of North Island proclaim their independence as the United Tribes of New Zealand, the British Crown immediately recognizes their claim. August 15,1834 – The South Australia Act allows for the creation of a colony there, June 8,1835 – The Australian city of Melbourne is founded by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner.
October 28,1835 – United Tribes of New Zealand founded at Waitangi with the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand, November 19,1835 – A force of 500 Māori people invade and enslave the peoples of the Chatham Islands. July 27,1836 – Adelaide, South Australia, is founded, December 26,1836 – The colony of South Australia is officially proclaimed. December 28,1836 – Colony of South Australia founded by Captain John Hindmarsh June 10,1838 –28 Indigenous Australians are killed in the Myall Creek Massacre. 1838 – Five nuns from the Religious Sisters of Charity in Ireland become the first women of religion to set foot on Australian soil. December 1838 – First Anglo-Afghan War and Presidency armies set out from Punjab in support of Shah Shujah Durranis claim to the throne of Afghanistan
1846 in Sweden
Events from the year 1846 in Sweden Monarch – Oscar I December 22 - The Guildsystem in Sweden is abolished by the Fabriks och Handtwerksordning and Handelsordningen. - Trade- and crafts professions are opened to all unmarried women. - Adolf Eugene von Rosen and Georg Theodor Policron von Chiewitz proposes a regulation of Gamla stan, - Swedish History Museum is founded. - Gothenburg becomes the first Swedish city to be lit up by Coal gas
History of Austria
The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state. The name Ostarrîchi has been in use since 996 AD when it was a margravate of the Duchy of Bavaria, Austria was dominated by the House of Habsburg from 1273 to 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. When this empire collapsed in 1918, Austria was reduced to the main German speaking areas of the empire, however this union was forbidden by the Allies at the Treaty of Versailles. Following the First Republic, Austrofascism tried to keep Austria independent from the German Reich, but in 1938 it was annexed by Nazi Germany with the support of the large majority of the Austrian people. After the Second World War Austria again became an independent republic as the Second Republic in 1955, the history of Austria raises a number of questions. Should it be confined to the current Republic of Austria, or to all lands formerly ruled by the rulers of Austria, should Austrian history include 1938–1945 when it did not exist.
Within Austria there are regional variations, and parts of Austria have at various times wished to become part of adjacent countries. Human habitation of current Austria can be traced back to the first farming communities of the early Stone Age. In the late Iron Age it was occupied by a Celtic culture, at the end of the 1st century BC this became part of the Roman Empires lands to the south of the Danube, and was incorporated as the Province of Noricum around 40 AD. The most important Roman settlement was at Carnuntum, in the 6th century, another Germanic people, the Bavarii occupied these lands until it fell to the Frankish Empire in the 9th century. Around 800 AD Charlemagne established the outpost of Avar March in what is now Lower Austria, to hold back advances from Slavs and Avars. In the 10th century an eastern outpost of the Duchy of Bavaria, bordering Hungary, was established as the Marchia orientalis or Margraviate of Austria in 976 and this Eastern March, in German was known as Ostarrîchi or Eastern Realm, hence Austria.
The first mention of Ostarrîchi occurs in a document of that name dated 996 CE, from 1156 the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa created an independent duchy under the House of Babenberg, until its extinction in 1246, corresponding to modern Lower Austria. The 15th and early 16th century saw expansion of the Habsburg territories through diplomacy and marriages to include Spain. This expansionism, together with French aspirations and the resultant Habsburg-French or Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry were important factors shaping European History for 200 years, by 1526 Ferdinand had inherited the kingdoms of Bohemia, and Hungary after the Battle of Mohács which partitioned the latter. However the Ottoman Empire now lay directly adjacent to the Austrian lands, even after the unsuccessful first Siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1529, the Ottoman threat persisted for another one and a half centuries. The 16th Century saw the spread of the Reformation, from around 1600 the Habsburg policy of recatholicisation or Catholic Renewal eventually led to the Thirty Years War.
Originally a religious war, it was a struggle for power in central Europe, eventually the pressure of the anti-Habsburg coalition of France and most Protestant German states contained their authority to the Austrian and Czech lands in 1648
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages, and, as a result, at its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Greece to Egypt and to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories, nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece and Cyprus. The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their language, which was recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script). They were primarily a people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the eruption at Thera. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c.1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy, around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek.
The Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, which was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris, the Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They often buried daggers or some form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility were buried with gold masks, armor. Mycenaeans were buried in a position, and some of the nobility underwent mummification. Around 1100–1050 BC, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed, numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a dark age. During this period, Greece experienced a decline in population and literacy, the Greeks themselves have traditionally blamed this decline on an invasion by another wave of Greek people, the Dorians, although there is scant archaeological evidence for this view
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896.
The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
Lorentina Wilhelmina Skogh, born Wahlgren was a hotel manager and owned a number of hotels and restaurants in Sweden. Family, In 1888, she married wine trader Per Samuel Skogh, Gustav Skogh She came alone to Stockholm from the island Fårö by steam ship at the age of 14 with the intention to get a job and earn some money to support her family on Gotland. Her father died when Wilhelmina was 6 years old and the family became rather poor and she became very impressed by the lifestyle in the big city, the fine restaurants and hotels and soon she decided to look for a job in a restaurant to learn the business. Her first job was drying the dishes from early morning to evening in the restaurant at Stromparterren down below the bridge Norrbro. When she became older she studied in a school as well as working, learning languages. From an early age she had the strong ambition that some day she would have her own company in the hotel. She built her first hotel at the age of 27 - the railroad hotel in Storvik by the railroad station, in 1884 she bought the railroad hotel in Bollnäs, where she spent many years of her life and married Pehr Skogh.
Wilhelmina became managing director of Grand Hôtel in Stockholm in 1902 at the age of 53 and her most famous project was to build the Grand Hôtel Royal including the immense Winter Garden in the form of an annex to the original hotel building. She got the idea for Royal during her first trip to Paris, the Winter Garden has a ceiling height of 15 m and can accommodate 800 dinner guests. It remains even today an important cornerstone of what the Hotel can offer and her husband Per Skogh died in 1904 and she arranged a large headstone including a large angel in marble, still present in front of the family grave in Stockholm. She left Grand Hôtel in December 1910 following a disagreement with members of the board about economy, between 1908 and 1910, when she still was working at Grand Hôtel in Stockholm, she built her private house - the Villa Foresta on the island of Lidingö east of Stockholm. In order to get the feeling of Gotland she used limestone from Gotland as building material. At that time Villa Foresta was the largest private residence on Lidingö and she lived there until 1922 when the costs for the big house finally forced her to sell the entire building to pay the loans and move out.
A company was formed that took over the whole property, Villa Foresta today is owned by a real estate company and rented out to the Swedish-based hotel chain Scandic Hotels. She spent the last four years of her life in a private flat in Bolinders Palace. The free disposition of an apartment at the Hotel including free meals was actually a part of the deal when she left the position as managing director for Grand Hôtel in 1910. When she moved out from Foresta she was almost bankrupt and she had to ask for support from old friends in the last years of her life. Wilhelmina died in the morning of 18 June 1926
Fredrika Bremer was a Swedish writer and feminist reformer. It inspired Sophie Adlersparre to begin publishing the Home Review, in 1884, she became the namesake of the Fredrika Bremer Association, the first womens rights organization in Sweden. Fredrika Bremer was born on 17 August 1801 at Tuorla Manor in Piikki Parish outside of Åbo and she was the second daughter of five and the second child of seven of Carl Fredrik Bremer and Birgitta Charlotta Hollström. Her grandparents Jacob and Ulrika Fredrika Bremer had built up one of the largest business empires in Swedish Finland but, upon his mothers death in 1798, when Fredrika was three years old, the family moved to Stockholm. The next year, they purchased Årsta Castle, about 20 miles distant from the capital, Fredrika passed the next two decades of her life summering there and at another nearby estate owned by her father, spending winter in the familys Stockholm apartment. Fredrika and her sisters were raised to marry and became socialites and hostesses within the upper class like their own French-trained mother and she was a talented miniaturist and studied French and German.
Bremer found the limited and passive family life of Swedish women of her time suffocating and frustrating and her own education was unusually strict and she wrote French poetry as early as the age of eight, but considered her time in Paris disappointing because of her fathers bad temper. She was deeply touched by Schillers poems and began to long for some career through which she could do good in the world beyond ladies traditional employments. As she wrote, Embroidering an eternal and gray collar, I grew more and more numb. that is, in my living powers, the feeling of torment did not grow numb. It worsened day by day, like frost during a growing winter, the fire of my soul flickered anxiously with but one wish—to forever die out. The non-life she saw awaiting her prompted an outbreak of depression and she described the process as a revelation, as, once she had begun to write, she felt the words coming as champagne bubbles out of a bottle. The Swedish Academy awarded her their gold medal on 1 January 1831.
Her success and desire to keep writing drove her to study literature, an English friend Frances Lewin introduced her to Benthams Utilitarianism, which liberalized her political views. Benthams idea of providing the greatest happiness to the greatest number encouraged her to continue devoting her time to her instead of nursing. In the autumn 1831, she began taking lessons from Per Johan Böklin, a reform educator. He challenged her support of Enlightenment and Classicist figures such as Herder and Schiller with a conception of Romanticism grounded in Plato, the lessons continued until the summer of 1833, by which time they were very close. She wrote during the time I want to kiss a man, breastfeed a baby, manage a household, to be happy, and think of nothing except for them and the praise of God. She hesitated, however, in accepting Böklins proposal of marriage and, after he married another woman in 1835, she retired from Stockholms society life
History of Germany
Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes. When the Frankish Empire was divided among Charlemagnes heirs in 843, in 962, Otto I became the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state. In the High Middle Ages, the dukes, princes. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the states became Protestant. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years War, which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both states. The Thirty Years War brought tremendous destruction to Germany, more than 1/4 of the population,1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia and Saxony. After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, feudalism fell away, the Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the Socialist movement in Germany.
Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power, German universities became world-class centers for science and the humanities, while music and the arts flourished. The new Reichstag, a parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific, Germany was the dominant power on the continent. By 1900, its rapidly expanding industrial economy passed Britains, allowing a naval race, Germany led the Central Powers in World War I against France, Great Britain and the United States. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as Polish areas and Alsace-Lorraine. The German Revolution of 1918–19 deposed the emperor and the kings and princes, leading to the establishment of the Weimar Republic. In the early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared, in 1933, the Nazi party under Adolf Hitler came to power and quickly established a totalitarian regime.
Political opponents were killed or imprisoned, after forming a pact with the Soviet Union in 1939, Hitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a Phoney War in spring 1940 the German blitzkrieg swept Scandinavia, only the British Commonwealth and Empire stood opposed, along with Greece. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, in 1942, the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, and after the United States had entered the war, Britain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities. Germany fought the war on multiple fronts through 1942–1944, however following the Allied invasion of Normandy, millions of ethnic Germans fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, and became the dominant economy in Western Europe
The 1820s decade ran from January 1,1820, to December 31,1829. 1820, Anchor coinage is issued for use in some British colonies,1824 – The Dutch sign the Masang Agreement, temporarily ending hostilities in the Padri War in West Sumatra. The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830 and it started as a rebellion led by Prince Diponegoro after the Dutch decided to build a road across a piece of his property that contained his parents tomb. The troops of Prince Diponegoro were very successful in the beginning, controlling the middle of Java, the Javanese population was supportive of Prince Diponegoros cause, whereas the Dutch colonial authorities were initially very indecisive. As the Java war prolonged, Prince Diponegoro had difficulties in maintaining the numbers of his troops, Prince Diponegoro started a fierce guerrilla war and it was not until 1827 that the Dutch army gained the upper hand. The Dutch colonial army was able to fill its ranks with troops from Sulawesi, the rebellion finally ended in 1830, after Prince Diponegoro was tricked into entering Dutch custody near Magelang, believing he was there for negotiations for a possible cease-fire.
It is estimated that 200,000 died over the course of the conflict,8,000 being Dutch, the campaign initiated a period of two decades in which Kedah resisted Siamese control. The Sultan took refuge on Penang Island, under British control, by 1822 there was a rise in the population of the British territories caused by an influx of Malays displaced by the invasion. 1826 – The Burney Treaty allowed the Siamese view of their rights to prevail in Kelah,1826 – The British crown colony of the Straits Settlements is established in what is now Malaysia and Singapore. February 14,1820 – Minh Mang starts to rule in Vietnam,1825 – Minh Mang outlaws the teaching of Christianity in Vietnam. 1828 Siamese-Lao War, Siam invades and sacks Vientiane,1827 – Laos, King Anouvong of Vientiane declares war on Siam and successfully attacks Nakhon Ratchasima. November 12,1828 – Anouvong, ruler of the Kingdom of Vientiane, is deposed, during the war, the city of Vientiane is obliterated by Siamese forces. 1824-1826, The First Anglo-Burmese War ended in a British victory, and by the Treaty of Yandabo, Burma lost territory previously conquered in Assam and Arakan.
The British took possession of Tenasserim with the intention to use it as a chip in future negotiations with either Burma or Siam. 1824-1826 - Rattanakosin Kingdom, Rama II died in 1824 and was succeeded by his son Jessadabodindra. In 1825 the British sent another mission to Bangkok led by East India Company emissary Henry Burney and they had by now annexed southern Burma and were thus Siams neighbours to the west, and they were extending their control over Malaya. The King was reluctant to give in to British demands, in 1826, Siam concluded its first commercial treaty with a western power, the Burney Treaty. Under the treaty, Siam agreed to establish a uniform system, to reduce taxes on foreign trade
Anne Charlotte Leffler
Anne Charlotte Edgren-Leffler, duchess of Cajanello, was a Swedish author. She was the daughter of the school principal John Olof Leffler and her brother was noted mathematician Gösta Mittag-Leffler. Leffler was initially educated privately and a student at the Wallinska skolan from the age of thirteen, at that time perhaps the most progressive school open to females in Stockholm. Her earliest plays, Skådespelerskan, and its successors, were produced anonymously in Stockholm, Sanna Kvinnor is directed against false femininity, and was well received in Germany as well as in Sweden. Anne Leffler had married G. Edgren in 1872, but about 1884 she was separated from her husband, who did not share her advanced views. She spent some time in England, and in 1885 produced her Hur man gör gott, followed in 1888 by Kampen för lyckan, another volume of the Ur Lifvet series appeared in 1889, and Familjelycka was produced in the year after her second marriage. Her dramatic method forms a link between Ibsen and Strindberg, and its masculine directness, freedom from prejudice and frankness won her work great esteem in Sweden.
Her last book was a biography of her friend Sofia Kovalevskaya, an English translation by Annie de Furuhjelm and A. M. Clive Bayley contains a biographical note on Fräu Edgren-Leffler by Lily Wolffsohn, based on private sources. Leffler died in 1892 of complications from appendicitis in Naples, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Edgren-Leffler, Anne Charlotte. Works by Anne Charlotte Leffler at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Anne Charlotte Leffler at Internet Archive