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1855 in art
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Events from the year 1855 in art. July 3 – John Everett Millais and Effie Gray marry, jean Auguste Dominique Ingres exhibits Venus Anadyomene, which has taken him forty years to complete. William Bell Scott begins painting murals of Northumbrian history at Wallington Hall, the Bavarian National Museum is founded by King Maximilian II of Bavaria. Kelly, American sculptor and illustrator September 8 – William Friese-Greene, English photographer and cinematographer Willis E
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1855 in architecture
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The year 1855 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. October 15 - The second of the Prussia Columns is inaugurated, on the 60th birthday of their instigator, the Palais de lIndustrie for the Exposition Universelle in Paris, France, mainly designed by the architect Jean-Marie-Victor Viel and the engineer Alexis Barrault. Église Saint-Eugène-Sainte-Cécile in Paris, designed by Louis-Auguste Boileau, is completed, Church of St John the Evangelist, Preston, Lancashire, England, designed by E. H. Shellard, is completed. The Old Stone Church in the United States, designed by Charles Heard, Church of Saint Bartholomew, Brugherio in Italy, rebuilt to the design of Giacomo Moraglia, is completed. St Marys Cathedral, Killarney, Ireland, to the design of Augustus Pugin following his death, the Victoria Tower of the Palace of Westminster in London, England, as The Kings Tower, designed by Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin. The original Smithsonian Institution Building in Washington, D. C. to the 1846 design of James Renwick, Jr. Fremantle Prison in Western Australia, royal Gold Medal - Jacques Ignace Hittorff. Grand Prix de Rome, architecture - Honoré Daumet
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Carl Friedrich Gauss
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Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick, in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, as the son of poor working-class parents. Gauss later solved this puzzle about his birthdate in the context of finding the date of Easter and he was christened and confirmed in a church near the school he attended as a child. A contested story relates that, when he was eight, he figured out how to add up all the numbers from 1 to 100, there are many other anecdotes about his precocity while a toddler, and he made his first ground-breaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. He completed Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, his opus, in 1798 at the age of 21. This work was fundamental in consolidating number theory as a discipline and has shaped the field to the present day, while at university, Gauss independently rediscovered several important theorems. Gauss was so pleased by this result that he requested that a regular heptadecagon be inscribed on his tombstone, the stonemason declined, stating that the difficult construction would essentially look like a circle. The year 1796 was most productive for both Gauss and number theory and he discovered a construction of the heptadecagon on 30 March. He further advanced modular arithmetic, greatly simplifying manipulations in number theory, on 8 April he became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law. This remarkably general law allows mathematicians to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic, the prime number theorem, conjectured on 31 May, gives a good understanding of how the prime numbers are distributed among the integers. Gauss also discovered that every integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers on 10 July and then jotted down in his diary the note, ΕΥΡΗΚΑ. On October 1 he published a result on the number of solutions of polynomials with coefficients in finite fields, in 1831 Gauss developed a fruitful collaboration with the physics professor Wilhelm Weber, leading to new knowledge in magnetism and the discovery of Kirchhoffs circuit laws in electricity. It was during this time that he formulated his namesake law and they constructed the first electromechanical telegraph in 1833, which connected the observatory with the institute for physics in Göttingen. In 1840, Gauss published his influential Dioptrische Untersuchungen, in which he gave the first systematic analysis on the formation of images under a paraxial approximation. Among his results, Gauss showed that under a paraxial approximation an optical system can be characterized by its cardinal points and he derived the Gaussian lens formula. In 1845, he became associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands, in 1854, Gauss selected the topic for Bernhard Riemanns Habilitationvortrag, Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen. On the way home from Riemanns lecture, Weber reported that Gauss was full of praise, Gauss died in Göttingen, on 23 February 1855 and is interred in the Albani Cemetery there. Two individuals gave eulogies at his funeral, Gausss son-in-law Heinrich Ewald and Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen and his brain was preserved and was studied by Rudolf Wagner who found its mass to be 1,492 grams and the cerebral area equal to 219,588 square millimeters. Highly developed convolutions were also found, which in the early 20th century were suggested as the explanation of his genius, Gauss was a Lutheran Protestant, a member of the St. Albans Evangelical Lutheran church in Göttingen