Irrigation in Peru

Water resources and irrigation infrastructure in Peru vary throughout the country. The coastal region, an arid but fertile land, has about two-thirds of Peru’s irrigation infrastructure due to private and public investment aimed at increasing agricultural exports; the Highlands and Amazon regions, with abundant water resources but rudimentary irrigation systems, are home to the majority of Peru's poor, many of whom rely on subsistence or small-scale farming. The Peruvian Government is undertaking several programs aimed at addressing key challenges in the irrigation sector like increasing water stress, competing interests, deteriorating water quality, poor efficiency of irrigation, drainage systems, weak institutional and legal frameworks, low cost recovery, vulnerability to climate variability and change, including extreme weather conditions and glacier retreat. Agriculture in Peru dates back more than 5,000 years when the Chavin culture built simple irrigation systems and canal networks north of Lima.

By the 15th and 16th centuries, the Inca Empire boasted an advanced irrigation systems, supplying water to 700,000 hectares of diverse crops in the fertile coastal zone. For the next 300 years, Spanish colonialists shifted the country's focus to mining, which caused a reduction in agricultural production to 300,000 hectares in the coast; the 20th Century represented a period of agricultural stagnation during the 1970s and 1980s. In the past 30 years, the Peruvian Government has invested about US$5 billion to improve hydraulic infrastructure, including dams, irrigation and drainage systems, producing an increase of the land under irrigation in the coastal region. Today 1.7 million hectares of Peru's cultivated hectares have some irrigation infrastructure available. However, only 1.2 million hectares are irrigated each year due to poor performance of irrigation systems. The 20th century began with an important institutional development in Peru's irrigation sector with the creation of the Mining and Water Engineering Body and the Hydrological Service.

However, it was not until the 1920s that the first large-scale State irrigation projects were launched. Public investment in irrigation in 1905 accounted for 8.7% of the total, reaching 18.62% in 1912, a trend that continued in the 1920s and 1930s. From 1945 to 1948, the Government approved a National Plan for Improving Irrigation. Between 1945 and 1956, public investment reached unprecedented levels with up to 50% of total investment. Examples of the projects implemented at this time and during the 1960s are the water transfers from the Quinoz River to the intermittent Piura River in the Piura Region and from the Chotano River to Chancay-Lambayeque River in the Lambayeque Region, both located in the northern part of the coastal plain. Between 1950 and 1980, 90% of irrigation investment was directed to the coastal region and only 10% to the highlands; the 1969 agrarian reform expropriated all estates above a certain size 100 hectares. Most Peruvian peasants were independent smallholders and thus continued to farm their land individually after the reforms.

The agrarian reform and political instability contributed to the poor performance of agriculture, since they profoundly changed the relationships of production in the countryside, disrupted the organization of productive systems on the best agricultural lands, forced out part of the entrepreneurial capacity. The agrarian reform and the General Water Law made the existing informal water users organizations official and part of an organizational model promoted by the state. In 1989, the decree 037-89-AG decentralized operational and management of irrigation systems to water user boards; the decree aimed to incorporate private investment and spur independence and financial sustainability within water user organizations by establishing water tariffs to cover operational and maintenance costs. However, low tariffs and collection capacity produced insufficient financial support for WUBs to maintain and develop irrigation systems; the Peruvian Government continued to be the major actor in irrigation development which focused on the coastal region.

Some 76% of investment in the coastal region between 1978 and 1982 was concentrated in three major irrigation projects at Majes, Chira-Piura and Tinajones. This trend was maintained in the 1990s. In 1996 the government created the Subsectoral Irrigation Program, aiming to develop some WUBs' capacities, reduce the role of the public sector in irrigation, improve sustainability through increased cost recovery, increase investment in technical improvement of irrigation systems; the project, considered a big success, expanded to all WUBs in the Costa and is in the process of being expanded to the Sierra. According to The Economist, Peru is South America's fastest-growing economy; that performance owes much to record prices for mineral exports. However, newer export products, such as mangoes and artichokes, are flourishing. Irrigated agriculture has become important in Peru's development and growth after a period of stagnation and limited development in the 1970s and 1980s; the agriculture sector employs 30% of Peru's population and accounts for 13% of GDP and more than 10% of total exports.

Two-thirds of agricultural GDP is produced on the Pacific coastal strip, a region dependent on irrigation due to low rainfall. High-value crops and irrigation technology have had a major impact on the coast's rural development

Whirlpool (1949 film)

Whirlpool is a 1950 film noir thriller directed by Otto Preminger and written by Ben Hecht and Andrew Solt, adapted from Guy Endore's novel Methinks the Lady. The film stars Gene Tierney, Richard Conte, José Ferrer and Charles Bickford, features Constance Collier in her final film role. Due to anti-British statements Hecht had made regarding their involvement in Israel, UK prints of the film replaced his credit with a pseudonym, Lester Barstow; the drama combines crime drama with psychological thriller and melodrama, as the central character's marriage is threatened. Four years Conte starred in The Blue Gardenia, which has a strikingly similar plot, but replaces the psychoanalysis angle with a more straightforward procedural storyline. Ann Sutton, the wife of Dr. William Sutton, a successful psychoanalyst, is arrested for shoplifting. Ann is saved from scandal by smooth-talking hypnotist David Korvo. Korvo persuades the store officials to put the mermaid pin she stole on her credit account, not prosecute.

He pressures her into coming to lunch with him, she is relieved when, instead of accepting the blackmail payment she thinks he is after, he tears up her check and the store record of her shoplifting, promises to help her. Ann is anguished about her secret, but feels she must hide all negative feelings from her husband and appear to him as a happy, supportive wife; this is taking a toll on her, she is unable to sleep well. She attends a sophisticated party with Korvo, where he has words with one Theresa Randolph, who has had an affair and a bitter breakup with him. Korvo hypnotizes Ann and instructs her to sleep well, which works, but he cannot make her obey his order to put her hand in his. Ann meets Korvo at the hotel where he lives for what she thinks are further therapy sessions, but refuses to go up to his suite and insists on talking in public in the hotel bar. Korvo takes the martini glass with her fingerprints on it and her scarf. In a trance, Ann takes two LP records from her husband's archives and takes them to Theresa Randolph's house, where she hides them in a closet before discovering Theresa's murdered body.

The police are right behind her, find her scarf and the glass with her fingerprints there. She cannot account for her presence, before coming out of her trance, answers Yes to the question of whether she hated Theresa because they were rivals for Korvo's love, she is arrested for Theresa's murder. The police are certain she had an affair with Korvo and jealousy was her motive for murder, her husband and his lawyer, Martin Avery, believe Korvo may have killed Theresa. It is found, that he has a cast-iron alibi: at the time of the murder and since, he has been in the hospital weak and prostrate after a gall bladder operation; the police lieutenant in charge of the case, Colton, is sure this rules him out as a suspect: he knows how serious and incapacitating gall bladder removal is, having just lost his beloved wife in such an operation. When Dr. Sutton leaves the police station, Avery and Lt. Colton persuade Ann to confess her real guilt, her rich father stinted her badly on money as a child, she stole to get back at him.

She is happy and relieved after confessing this, ready to be honest with her husband. When Dr. Sutton hears about this, he realizes her kleptomania made her an easy target for Korvo to get her to steal Theresa Randolph's patient records from him. Lt. Colton refuses to allow him to take Ann to Theresa's house to see if her real memories can return and they can find the records. Korvo hears nurses talking about the search for Theresa's patient records. Dr. Sutton, Ann and Lt. Colton, who decided to give them a chance after all, arrive at the house to look for the records. Korvo tries to get her to get the men out of the room so he can escape. At the end of his artificial strength and bleeding to death, Korvo plays the record again in a moment of bravado, demonstrating his motive and guilt, tries to leave the house, but falls and dies. Colton releases Ann into the care of her husband, they embrace. Gene Tierney as Ann Sutton Richard Conte as Dr. William Sutton José Ferrer as David Korvo Charles Bickford as Lt. Colton Barbara O'Neil as Theresa Randolph Eduard Franz as Martin Avery Constance Collier as Tina Cosgrove Fortunio Bonanova as Feruccio di Ravallo The staff at Variety liked the film and wrote, "Whirlpool is a entertaining, exciting melodrama that combines the authentic features of hypnosis.

Ben Hecht and Andrew Solt have woven a screenplay about the effects of hypnosis on the subconscious, but they, Otto Preminger in his direction, have eliminated the phoney characteristics that might have allowed the picture to slither into becoming just another eeri