Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
The Borujerdi House is a historic house museum in Kashan, Iran. It was built in 1857 by architect Ustad Ali Maryam for the bride of a wealthy merchant; the bride came from the affluent Tabātabāei family, for whom the architect had built the nearby Tabātabāei House several years earlier. The Borujerdi House consists of the biruni and andaruni features of Iran's traditional residential architecture, including a courtyard with a fountain pool and a two-story iwan; the main hall is topped by a khishkhan, a type of central dome. Three 40-meter-tall windcatchers, two above the main hall and one over the entrance area, are erected on the house; the house is decorated with stucco, glass work, mirror work, features frescoes by prominent painter Kamal-ol-Molk
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Schwerin Palace, is a palatial schloss located in the city of Schwerin, the capital of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state, Germany. It is situated on an island in the Lake Schwerin. For centuries the palace was the home of the dukes and grand dukes of Mecklenburg and Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Today it serves as the residence of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state parliament. Major parts of the current palace were built between 1845 and 1857, as a cooperation of the renowned historicist architects Gottfried Semper, Friedrich August Stüler, Georg Adolf Demmler and Ernst Friedrich Zwirner; the castle is regarded as one of the most important works of romantic Historicism in Europe and is designated to become a World Heritage Site. It is nicknamed "Neuschwanstein of the North"; the first records of a castle at this location date from AD 973. There was a fort of the Polabian Slav tribe of the Obotrites on an island in the large Lake of Schwerin. In 1160, the fort became a target of Germanic noblemen planning to expand their territory eastward under the leadership of Henry the Lion.
The Obotrites under Niklot left because of the Germanic military dominance. The German conquerors however recognised the strategic and aesthetically interesting location of the island and started building a new fort; the foundation of the city of Schwerin took place in the same year. Schwerin became the seat of a bishopric. In 1167, Henry gave the County of Schwerin to his vassal Gunzelin von Hagen, the rest of the country around the city was returned to Niklot's son Pribislav, forming a ducal hereditary line that lasted until 1918. In 1358, the County of Schwerin was purchased by the descendants of Niklot, elevated to Dukes of Mecklenburg in 1348, they soon relocated farther inland near the city of Wismar, to Schwerin. During the late Gothic era, the growing prosperity and position of the dukes led to a growing need for a representative castle, this meant architectural changes to the fortress settlement; the Bishop's House from that period remains in a grave. Under John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg, the building faced important changes.
The fort became a palace, the defensive functionality of the fortress was replaced with ornamentation and concessions to comfort. The use of terracotta during the Renaissance was dominant in North German architecture, Schwerin's terracotta was supplied from Lübeck. A few years after reworking the main building itself, from 1560 to 1563, John Albert rebuilt the palace's chapel, it became the first new Protestant church of the state. The architecture was inspired by churches in Dresden; the Venetian Renaissance gate, its gable showing the carrying of the cross, was made by Hans Walther, a sculptor from Dresden. Windows on the northern face show biblical illustrations by well-known Dutch artist Willem van den Broeck; as the ducal residence needed additional defences, despite its island site, some time in the middle of the 16th century bastions were established to the northwest and southeast. They were built by the same Italian architects who, under Francesco a Bornau designed the Dömitz Fortress.
The bastions were modified several times, are still standing today. Before the Thirty Years' War, the architect Ghert Evert Piloot, who had entered Mecklenburg's service in 1612, made plans to rebuild the palace in the style of the Dutch Renaissance. In 1617, work began under his supervision, but soon had to cease because of the war. Piloot's plans were realized between 1635 and 1643: the house above the palatial kitchen and that above the chapel were razed and given Dutch Renaissance style façades. During this period, a half-timbered building was constructed near the chapel to house the archducal collection of paintings; the Teepavillon was built. The court moved to Schloss Ludwigslust in 1756. In 1837, the ducal residence moved back to Schwerin, but the building was in a bad condition, the Grand Duke disliked the individual buildings' incongruent origins and architectural styles. Grand Duke Friedrich instructed his architect Georg Adolph Demmler to remodel the palace; however a few months construction was halted by his successor, Friedrich Franz II, who wanted a complete reconstruction of the historic site.
Only some parts of the building dating from the 16th and 17th century were retained. Dresden architect Gottfried Semper and Berlin architect Friedrich August Stüler could not convince the Grand Duke of their plans. Instead, Demmler included elements of both of them into his plan, but found inspiration in French Renaissance castles; the castle became the most admired masterpiece of the student of Karl Friedrich Schinkel. He planned a government building in 1825-1826 located at Schlossstraße. Renaissance châteaux of the Loire Valley inspired him and contributed to the construction from 1843 until 1851, his successor Stüler again made a few alterations, included an equestrian statue of Niklot and the cupola. Heinrich Strack from Berlin was chosen for the interior design. Most of the work was carried out by craftsmen from Berlin. A fire destroyed about a third of the palace in December 1913. Only the exterior reconstruction had been completed when the revolution in 1918 resulted in the abdication of the Grand Duke.
The castle became a museum and in 1948 the seat of the state parliament. The German Democratic Republic used the palace as a college for kindergarte
The Absecon Lighthouse is a coastal lighthouse located in the north end of Atlantic City, New Jersey, overlooking Absecon Inlet. At 171 feet it is the tallest lighthouse in the state of New Jersey and the third-tallest masonry lighthouse in the United States. Construction began in 1854, with the light first lit on January 15, 1857; the lighthouse was deactivated in 1933 and, although the light still shines every night, it is no longer an active navigational aid. The lighthouse is open to public visitation and, for a small donation, one may climb to the watch room and external gallery. A re-creation of the keepers' quarters serves as a museum and gift shop; the original oil house now contains a Fresnel lens exhibit. Along with school and group tours, the Absecon Lighthouse offers an overnight program for Scouts, a winter arts program for children, a wide variety of special events throughout the year; the Absecon Lighthouse was designed by George Meade and still retains its original first-order fixed Fresnel lens.
The lens is made of lead glass and weighs 12,800 pounds As the light was fixed, it does not have a landward segment allowing visitors to look up in the lens where the keepers entered it for maintenance. Jack E. Boucher conceived and oversaw the preservation of the lighthouse in 1964; the lighthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Historic American Buildings Survey, the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. Absecon Lighthouse has a history museum located in the replicated 1925 Keeper's House. Exhibits include ocean life, shipwrecks and lighthouse history, local memorabilia, restoration photos; the Oil House has a Fresnel Lens exhibit. Visitors can climb the 228 steps to the top of the lighthouse. Educational programs are offered for children. List of museums in New Jersey List of tallest buildings in Atlantic City National Register of Historic Places listings in Atlantic County, New Jersey Historic Absecon Lighthouse - official site, visitor information Absecon Light at American Byways NPS - Absecon Light at Historic light stations HABS/HAER record of the Absecon lighthouse Absecon Lighthouse - from Lighthousefriends.com New Jersey State Historic Sites NJ Division of Parks and Forestry
The Basilica of Saint Clotilde is a basilica church in Paris, located on the Rue Las Cases, in the area of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. It is best known for its imposing twin spires. Construction of the church was first mooted by the Paris City Council on 16 February 1827, it was designed by architect F. C. Gau of Cologne in a neo-Gothic style. Work began in 1846, but Gau died in 1853, the job was continued by Théodore Ballu who completed the church in 1857, it was opened on 30 November 1857 by Cardinal Morlot. The church was declared a minor basilica by Pope Leo XIII in 1896; this neo-gothic basilica is marked by its two towers 69 meters high. The interior is clear and there are stained glass windows by Thibaut, paintings by Jules Eugène Lenepveu, sculptures by James Pradier and Francisque Joseph Duret. A series of sculptures by Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume representing the conversion of Valerie of Limoges, her condemnation to death and the appearance of Saint Martial; the building dominates the Samuel-Rousseau square.
The basilica was copied by the architect Léon Vautrin for the construction of the facade of the Cathedral of [[the Sacred Heart of Canton between 1863 and 1888. Abbot Arthur Mugnier, nicknamed the "confessor of the duchesses," and who left a diary, was one of the vicars. Abbé Henri Chaumont, vicar of the parish from 1869 to 1874, in 1872 with Caroline Carré de Malberg founded the Society of the Daughters of Saint Francis de Sales, whose mother-house moved to Lorry-lès-Metz. Abbé Albert Colombel was first vicar in 1914. Abbé Bernard Bouveresse, a member of the Resistance, was parish priest and rector of Sainte-Clotilde from the post-war period to his death. In 1993, the rector of Sainte-Clotilde, the abbot Alain Maillard de La Morandais was appointed chaplain of the parliamentarians. In 1992, Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, Archbishop of Paris, created the Pastoral Service for Political Studies. In 1995, he entrusted the direction to Father Antoine de Vial, who received the Pontifical Prelature in 2001.
From 2005 to 2012, Father Matthieu Rougé held both positions. In September 2012, Father Laurent Stalla-Bourdillon, former vicar of the church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, was appointed rector of the Sainte-Clotilde church and director of SPEP. St. Clotilde is famous for the Aristide Cavaillé-Coll organ played by César Franck and the succession of famous composers who have been Organiste titulaire: César Franck 1859–1890 Gabriel Pierné 1890–1898 Charles Tournemire 1898–1939 Joseph-Ermend Bonnal 1942–1944 Jean Langlais 1945–1988 Pierre Cogen and Jacques Taddei 1987–1993 Jacques Taddei 1993–2012 Olivier Penin 2012– Sacred Heart Cathedral of Guangzhou, the facade of, based on the Basilica of St. Clotilde List of works by James Pradier Stations of the Cross Basilica of St. Clotilde Ste-Clotilde's parish website
Britannia Music Hall
The Britannia Music Hall in Trongate, Scotland is one of the oldest remaining music halls in Britain. It is now located at 113-117 Trongate. Built in 1857 by Thomas Gildard and Robert H. M. MacFarlane, the Panopticon was one of the first buildings in Glasgow to become powered by electricity and one of the first cinemas in Scotland, it was closed in 1938 when it was sold to a tailors and converted to a workshop. However, following the removal of the false ceiling in 2003, the Britannia opened again, it is being conserved by a trust who perform traditional shows in the auditorium. The building is now protected as a category A listed building. By 1840, on the venue's present site, there was a four storey commercial building. In 1857, the facade was rebuilt in a Italianate style as designed by Macfarlane; the classical and elegant design of the front of the building showed cherubs, carved swags and Grecian decoration. The auditorium was made of wood. A platform served as the stage, the stalls and a horseshoe balcony accommodated the audience.
Around 1860, the music hall was to be occupying the first and second floors of the building. However, it reached its final form in 1869, with a staircase entry from the ground floor vestibule opening onto Trongate; the first floor of the building would have once been the stalls level of the Britannia auditorium. The building went through many alterations throughout the years; when John Brand took ownership of the building, he renamed it Britannia Music Hall and in the early 1860s, he added long, wooden pews in the balcony. Extensive refurbishment took place when the Rossboroughs took over ownership of the building in 1869; the building was modernised in 1896, under management of William Kean, with the redecoration and installation of the electric light throughout the building. The building became equipped with a cinematograph; the building temporary closed again in 1903 for works to be carried out, with the addition of a new staircase and a door at the stage side of the auditorium. The Britannia Panopticon was hidden above a false ceiling.
This structure separated the upper part of the auditorium from the lower area. The entrance to the music hall, including the vestibule and front staircase, was removed; the ground floor of the building was converted into a shop and the music hall on the first floor into a workshop. Over the years, the Britannia changed ownership several times. In 1906, A. E. Pickard changed its name to the Panopticon; the word ‘Panopticon’ means “to view everything”, derived from the Greek terms ‘Pan’ meaning “everything” and ‘Opti’ meaning “to see”. Pickard undertook some major works and, upon re-opening the hall, he opened its adjacent American museum and waxworks, on 101 Trongate. Pickard excavated the basement of the hall and installed an indoor zoo, he opened his “Noah’s Ark and Glasgow Zoo” on the ground floor of the Panopticon in 1908. Under Pickard’s management, the Panopticon offered a variety of entertainments, such as the amateur nights, exhibition of animals, film shows, showing of sporting events films, clog-dancing competitions, or boxing demonstrations.
The boxer Jem Mace performed publicly for the last time at the Panopticon in 1910. The Britannia has hosted some of the biggest names on the Music hall circuit; the table below lists some of them. In 1906 Stan Laurel made his first stage appearance there on amateur night. Bowers, Judith. Stan Laurel and other tales of the Panopticon: the story of the Britannia Music Hall. Edinburgh: Birlinn. Maloney, Paul; the Britannia Panopticon music hall and cosmopolitan entertainment culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Britannia Panopticon Music Hall Trust & Friends Website http://www.monklands.co.uk/pans/