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Resist dyeing

Resist dyeing is a traditional method of dyeing textiles with patterns. Methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth, thereby creating a pattern and ground; the most common forms use wax, some type of paste made from starch or mud, or a mechanical resist that manipulates the cloth such as tying or stitching. Another form of resist involves using a chemical agent in a specific type of dye that will repel another type of dye printed over the top; the best-known varieties today include batik. Wax or paste: melted wax or some form of paste is applied to cloth before being dipped in dye. Wherever the wax has seeped through the fabric, the dye will not penetrate. Sometimes several colors are used, with a series of dyeing and waxing steps; the wax may be applied to another piece of cloth to make a stencil, placed over the cloth, dye applied to the assembly. Stencils: a stencil is placed over the fabric where it is to be shielded from ink, similar to how screen prints are made.

Mechanical: the cloth is tied, stitched, or clamped using clothespegs or wooden blocks to shield areas of the fabric. Chemical: a modern textile printing method achieved using two different classes of fiber reactive dyes, one of which must be of the vinyl sulfone type. A chemical-resisting agent is combined with dye Type A, printed using the screenprint method and allowed to dry. A second dye, Type B, is printed overtop; the resist agent in Type A chemically prevents Type B from reacting with the fabric, resulting in a crisp pattern/ground relationship. Resist dyeing has been widely used in Eurasia and Africa since ancient times; the first discoveries of pieces of linen was from date from the fourth century. Cloth, used for mummy wrappings, was coated with wax, scratched with a sharp stylus, dyed with a mixture of blood and ashes. After dyeing the cloth was washed in hot water to remove the wax. In Asia, this technique was practiced in China during the Tang dynasty, in India and Japan in the Nara period.

In Africa it was practiced by the Yoruba people in Nigeria, the Soninke and Wolof in Senegal. Guizhou Province of China had a strong tradition of wax dyeing Indonesia and India – Batik with wax Japan – Rōketsuzome with wax, Katazome, Yūzen and Tsutsugaki with rice-paste Africa – Yoruba people of Nigeria uses cassava paste as a resist while the people of Senegal use rice paste. Among other terms, Madiba. Indonesia and PhilippinesIkat, where only the warp or weft is dyed. India Yoruba people in Nigeria – Adire Modern West – Tie-dye Japan – Shibori Japan- Katagami and Bingata with stencils China – about 500 AD the jia xie method for dyeing using wood blocks was invented. An upper and a lower block is made, with carved out compartments opening to the back, fitted with plugs; the cloth folded a number of times, is inserted and clamped between the two blocks. By unplugging the different compartments and filling them with dyes of different colours, a multi-coloured pattern can be printed over quite a large area of folded cloth.

Ukraine and PolandPysanka, with wax for eggs at Easter Woodblock printing Byzantine dress

Jack Southworth

John Southworth known as Jack and Skimmy Southworth, was a footballer who played in the early days of professional football for Blackburn Rovers and Everton as well as being capped three times for England. He was the top scorer in the Football League in 1890–91 and 1893–94, he began his football career at the age of 7 when he helped form a junior club named Inkerman Rangers. He played for Chester, scored their first goal against their local rivals Wrexham Olympic in 1886. In the 1885–86 season, despite having signed professional for Chester FC earlier in the season, he turned out for Blackburn Olympic in their First Round FA Cup match; as a result of the subsequent FA enquiry he was suspended for four months. A keen musician, he took a job with a theatre in Chester and returned to Olympic, resuming his old position of centre forward. Having overcome his injuries, he became a great success as a centre forward and the 1887–88 season saw him join Blackburn Rovers, together with his less-talented brother James.

Both were involved in performances at the Royalty Theatre in Chester, with Jack playing the violin and James the conductor. The first season of the Football League began in September 1888. Rovers' first league game took place on 15 September 1888 at Leamington Road home of Blackburn Rovers, when Rovers shared ten goals in an exciting encounter with Accrington. Southworth converted a cross from Harry Fecitt to score Blackburn's first goal in the league; the other scorers for Blackburn were Billy Townley and Fecitt. Southworth scored his first hat-trick for Blackburn at Burnley in November, he scored two-League-goals-in-a-match twice. In the FA Cup match against Aston Villa Southworth scored four goals as Blackburn registered an 8–1 victory, before going out in the semi-final to Wolves. Blackburn ended the inaugural League season in fourth place; as a forward he played in a forward-line that scored three-League-goals-or-more-in-a-match on 11 separate occasions. Southworth was christened the "Prince of Dribblers".

A contemporary wrote that: "His dodging, his neat passing, his speed and general accuracy in shooting won the hearts of the spectators at the Leamington ground. He is built for speed, he plays an unselfish game. Arguably the finest goal-scorer in the Football League during its early years, Southworth scored in all three of his appearances for England, he won his first international cap for England against Wales on 23 February 1889 and scored one of the goals in England's 4–1 victory. Southworth scored in the other two games he played for his country against Wales and Scotland. In 1889–90 Southworth's goal-scoring form continued. Both he and Nat Walton scored hat-tricks in a 9–1 home success against Notts County, before Southworth netted four of Blackburn' s goals in a 5–1 victory over West Bromwich Albion at Ewood Park, he repeated this feat in January in an 8–0 victory over Stoke. In the FA Cup he scored the only goal in the semi-final victory over Wolves. Blackburn finished the league season in third place, with Southworth ever-present and again top-scorer with 22 league goals.

In the FA Cup final against Sheffield Wednesday at The Oval on 29 March 1890, Rovers were the odds-on favourites to win in view both of their record of three victories in the previous six seasons and their superior league placing. Blackburn fielded a team consisting of nine Scotland internationals. Rovers lived up to expectations as they romped away with the Cup defeating their Yorkshire opponents 6–1 with goals by Billy Townley, Nat Walton and Joe Lofthouse; as Philip Gibbons points out in his book Association Football in Victorian England: "The Blackburn side had given one of the finest exhibitions of attacking football in an FA Cup Final, with England internationals, Townley and John Southworth at the peak of their form."Rovers opened the 1890–91 season with an exciting 8–5 defeat at Derby County with Southworth scoring a hat-trick. He repeated this in a 5–1 win against Aston Villa in December. In the opening week of the New Year, Rovers recorded their biggest League win of the season as Combe Hall and Billy Townley found the net in an 8–0 home success against Derby County.

In the 7–0 FA Cup victory against Chester Southworth netted his fourth hat-trick of the season. His next came in a 4–0 success at Accrington. Southworth missed several games through injury but still finished the season on 26 league goals thus making him top scorer in the Football League. Blackburn reached the FA Cup Final again in 1891. On this occasion Notts County were their opponents. In the final, played at Kennington Oval on 21 March, Rovers put County under pressure from the beginning and in the 8th minute, centre-half Geordie Dewar scored from a Townley corner. Before the end of the first-half and Townley had added further goals. Jimmy Oswald of Notts County scored a late consolation goal but Blackburn finished comfortable 3–1 winners and won the FA Cup for the fifth time in eight years. In the 1891–92 season Southworth continued his prolific form, scoring including a hat-trick against Bolton Wanderers and four in the FA Cup first round victory over Derby County. By now Blackburn finished in ninth place.

Southworth was yet again Blackburn's top scorer with 22 of their 58 league goals. After four league seasons Southworth had scored 87 goals from 85

Pierre H. Dubois

Pierre H. Dubois was a Dutch writer and critic, he was awarded the Constantijn Huygens Prize in 1952, for Een houding in de tijd, again in 1985. 1940 - A. C. Willink 1941 - In den vreemde 1942 - Het gemis 1945 - De semaphoor 1947 - Quia absurdum 1950 - Een houding in de tijd 1952 - Een vinger op de lippen 1953 - De ontmoeting 1953 - F. Bordewijk 1954 - Voor eigen rekening 1955 - Facetten van de Nederlandse poëzie 1956 - Ademhalen 1958 - In staat van beschuldiging 1960 - Jan van Nijlen 1964 - Marcellus Emants, een schrijversleven 1966 - Het geheim van Antaios 1966 - Maurice Gilliams 1966 - Zonder echo 1968 - Het binnenste buiten 1970 - Zomeravond in een kleine stad 1971 - Mettertijd 1972 and 1977 - Schrijvers in hun landschap 1976 - De verleiding van Gogol 1977 - Spinrag van tijd 1978 - Over Allard Pierson 1978 - Over Simenon 1982 - Najaar 1984 - Een toren van Babel 1984 - Requiem voor een verleden tijd 1985 - Kaleidoscopie van een acteur 1986 - De angst van Belisarius 1987 - Memoranda 1 - Hermetisch en besterd 1988 - Memoranda 2 - Retour Amsterdam-Brussel 1989 - Memoranda 3 -Een soort van geluk 1993 - Frans van stijl, Nederlands van karakter, universeel van geest 1993 - Zonder vaandel, biografie Belle van Zuylen, met Simone Dubois 1994 - J. C.

Bloem, dichter van het onuitsprekelijke 1997 - Over de grens van de tijd Pierre H. Dubois at the Digital library for Dutch literature

JoaquĆ­n Blake

Joaquín Blake y Joyes was a Spanish military officer who served with distinction in the French Revolutionary and Peninsular wars. Of Irish descent his mother was from Galicia and his father an Irishman, Blake was born at Vélez-Málaga to an aristocratic family. In his youth, he saw action as a lieutenant of the grenadiers in the American Revolutionary War, taking part in the abortive siege of Gibraltar and the 1783 reconquest of Minorca from the British. At the outbreak of war with France in 1793, Blake, a captain, took part in the invasion of Roussillon under General Ricardos, he was wounded at San-Lorenzo-de-la-Muga in 1794. Exploits in the field led to further promotions, by the start of the Peninsular War in 1808, Blake held the rank of Lieutenant General, he was appointed head of the Supreme Junta's Army of Galicia during the French invasions and fought well against Napoleon's Grande Armée despite the heavy odds against him. Blake and Cuesta were defeated on 14 July at Medina del Rio Seco.

Following the general French retreat prompted by the disaster at Bailén, Blake took up positions opposite the enemy on the banks of the Ebro. On 31 October Marshal Lefebvre's IV Corps fell upon Blake's 19,000 men at Pancorbo, turning back the hesitant Spanish advance. To his credit, Blake retreated swiftly and in good order, preventing Napoleon's planned envelopment and annihilation of the Spanish flank. Furious, the Emperor dispatched Lefebvre and Victor in pursuit, the latter ordered to outmaneuver Blake and sweep across his line of retreat; the French allowed their forces to disperse during the pursuit. On 5 November Blake surprised his enemies again when, at Valmaseda, he turned about and attacked the French vanguard with seasoned troops, inflicting a stinging defeat on General Vilatte's leading division. However, another French corps joined the chase, Blake raced west once more to evade encirclement. Blake chose to make another stand at Espinosa on 10 November. Victor, intent on avenging himself for his earlier humiliations at the hands of Blake, spent the day recklessly flinging his divisions against the Spaniards without success.

The next day, however, a well-coordinated French attack shattered Blake's center and drove his army from the field in rout. Although Blake lost only 3,001 men on the battlefield, many thousands more were dispersed in the hopeless confusion of retreat as the Spanish front disintegrated. Knowing the Army of Galicia to be irreparably shattered, Blake embarked on a grueling march west into the hills, outdistancing his pursuers under Soult, he reached Léon on 23 November with only 10,000 men. Command of what remained of the Army of Galicia passed to General Pedro Caro y Sureda, 3rd marqués de La Romana. In 1810, Blake participated in the creation of a Spanish General Staff, which in the final years of the war began to restore coherence to the country's military enterprises. Poor battlefield performance had in large part been caused by the lethargy and miscoordination of Spain's fragmented military administration. On 16 May 1811 Blake fought the French at the Battle of Albuera alongside William Beresford's Anglo–Portuguese army.

The Spaniards under Blake's command held the allied flank against a strong French infantry, earning him a promotion to Captain General. Blake was transferred to eastern Spain to combat Marshal Suchet's advance on Valencia. Blake, after several defeats, ended up trapped in the city with his army surrendering on 8 January 1812 with his 16,000 troops, which marked the high point of French successes in eastern Spain. In 1815 Blake was made Chief Engineer of the Spanish Royal Army, he died in 1827 in North Western Spain. The Tribes of Galway A biography of General Joaquín Blake y Joyes By Rodolfo B. González Alexander, Don W. Rod of Iron: French Counterinsurgency Policy in Aragon During the Peninsular War ISBN 0-8420-2218-X. Esdaile, Charles J; the Spanish Army in the Peninsular War ISBN 0-7190-2538-9. Fletcher, Ian Bloody Albuera: The 1811 Campaign in the Peninsular War ISBN 1-86126-372-4. Gates, David The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War ISBN 0-393-02281-1. Oliver, Michael The Battle of Albuera 1811: Glorious Field of Grief ISBN 1-84415-461-0

Raymond D. Mindlin

Raymond David Mindlin was an American mechanical engineer, Professor of Applied Science at Columbia University, recipient of the 1946 Presidential Medal for Merit and many other awards and honours. He is known as mechanician, who made seminal contributions to many branches of applied mechanics, applied physics, engineering sciences. In 1924 he enrolled at Columbia University, where he received a B. A. followed by a B. S. in 1931, in 1932 by a C. E. and the Illig medal for "proficiency in scholarship." During his graduate study, Mindlin attended a series of summer courses organized by Stephen Timoshenko in 1933,'34, and'35, there is no doubt that the experience at the University of Michigan served to confirm him in his choice of his life's work. For his doctoral research Mindlin set himself a fundamental problem in theoretical elasticity: determining the stresses in an elastic half-space subjected to a sub-surface point load; the results, nowadays referred to as "Mindlin's problem", represent a generalization of the two classical 19th century solutions associated with the names of Kelvin and Boussinesq, have become the basis for analytical formulations employed in geotechnical engineering.

His paper was published in Physics in 1936, the year Mindlin received his Ph. D. degree. Mindlin remained an assistant for another two years, at which point he was elevated to instructor in civil engineering, only in 1940 did he receive promotion to assistant professor. In 1942 Mindlin was co-opted by the Applied Physics Laboratory in Silver Spring, Maryland, an institution engaged in naval ordnance work, where he contributed in the development of the proximity fuze. For his part in its success, he was presented with the Presidential Medal for Merit, he came back to Columbia in 1945 as an associate professor, two years attained the rank of professor. In 1967 he was appointed James Kip Finch Professor of Applied Science until his retirement in 1975. Mindlin died on November 1987, in Hanover, New Hampshire. Early awardedNaval Ordnance Development Award Presidential Medal for Merit, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Research Prize of the ASCE. Member, National Academy of Engineering C. B. Sawyer Award of the Army Electronics Command.

Honorary Member, ASME. In the 1970sEgleston Medal from Columbia University. Sc. degree from Northwestern University. The Collected Papers of Raymond D. Mindlin collected 129 papers co-authored by Mindlin; the major contributions of Mindlin were summarized in 8 papers by his students and friends in a book dedicated to his retirement, R. D. Mindlin and Applied Mechanics; these include: Photoelasticity and experimental mechanics Classical three-dimensional elasticity Generalized elastic continua Frictional contact and granular media Waves and vibrations in isotropic and anisotropic plates Wave propagation in rods and cylinders Theory of electro-elasticity and piezoelectric crystal resonators Crystal lattice theories Mindlin served with devotion the profession which he made his life's work, through his research, his teaching, his advisory capacity to numerous government agencies, his activities in various scientific and technical societies. Among the latter, mention is warranted of the following positions he held at various times: In the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Applied Mechanics Division.

In the American Society of Civil Engineers, Committee on Applied Mechanics of the Structural Engineering Division. In the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis, co-founder and president. In the American Institute of Physics, associate editor, Journal of Mathematical Physics, he was member of: the U. S. National Committee for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. H. Deresiewicz, M. P. Bieniek, F. L. DiMaggio, The Collected Papers of Raymond D. Mindlin, Springer-Verlag, 1989. George Herrmann, R. D. Mindlin and Applied Mechanics, Pergamon Press, 1974. R. D. Mindlin. "An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Vibrations of Elastic Plates," in: Jiashi Yang World Scientific, 2007 Raymond D. Mindlin at the Mathematics Genealogy Project