35th United States Congress
The Thirty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1857, to March 4, 1859, during the first two years of James Buchanan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. Panic of 1857 March 4, 1857. James Buchanan became President of the United States March 6, 1857: Dred Scott v. Sandford July 18, 1857: Utah Expedition left Fort Leavenworth beginning the Utah War August 21, 1858: First of the Lincoln-Douglas debates was held March 3, 1859: Financial appropriations for the improvement and construction of lighthouses. March 12, 1858: Treaty with the Ponca signed April 19, 1858: Treaty with the Yankton Sioux signed July 29, 1858: Harris Treaty signed with Japan May 11, 1858: Minnesota admitted as the 32nd state February 14, 1859: Oregon admitted as the 33rd state During this congress, two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Minnesota and Oregon.
During this congress, two House seats were added for the new state of Minnesota and one House seat was added for the new state of Oregon. President: John C. Breckinridge President pro tempore: James M. Mason, March 4, 1857, only Thomas J. Rusk, elected March 14, 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick, elected December 7, 1857 Speaker of the House. James L. Orr This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, facing re-election in 1862; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 5 Democrats: no net change Whigs: no net change Republicans: no net change Americans: no net change deaths: 4 resignations: 1 interim appointments: 2 seats of newly admitted states: 4 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 10 Democrats: 3 seat net loss Whigs: 3 seat net gain Republicans: 1 seat net gain Independent Democrats: 1 seat net gain deaths: 5 resignations: 6 contested election:1 seats of newly admitted states: 3 Total seats with changes: 14 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Banks of the District of Columbia Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs Judiciary Military Affairs Military Asylum near Washington, D. C. Militia Naval Affairs Ordnance and War Ships Pacific Railroad Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Printing Private Land Claims Public Lands Retrenchment Revolutionary Claims Tariff Regulation Territories Whole Accounts Agriculture Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Engraving Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol.
Thomas U. Walter Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: none elected Secretary. Asbury Dickens elected December 1836 Sergeant at Arms. Dunning R. McNair Chaplain. William H. Milburn Clerk: James C. Allen Doorkeeper: Robert B. Hackney Messenger: Thaddeus Morrice Sergeant at Arms: Adam J. Glossbrenner Postmaster: Michael W. Cluskey Reading Clerks: United States elections, 1856 United States presidential election, 1856 United States Senate elections, 1856 and 1857 United States House of Representatives elections, 1856 United States elections, 1858 United States Senate elections, 1858 and 1859 United States House of Representatives elections, 1858 and 1859 Specific citations General references Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory for the 35th Congress, 1st Session
Massachusetts's 7th congressional district
Massachusetts's 7th congressional district is a congressional district located in eastern Massachusetts, including three-fourths of the city of Boston and a few of its northern and southern suburbs. Massachusetts congressional redistricting after the 2010 census changed the borders of the district starting with the elections of 2012, with most of the old 7th district redistricted to the new 5th district. Most of the old 8th district now comprise the new 7th district; the seat is held by Ayanna Pressley. Boston: Wards 1, 2 Ward 3: Precincts 7, 8 Ward 4 Ward 5: Precincts 1, 2, 2A, 6-10 Ward 7: Precinct 10 Wards 8-10 Ward 11: Precincts 1-8 Ward 12 Ward 13: Precincts 1, 2, 4-6, 8 and 9 Ward 14 Ward 15 Ward 16: Precincts 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11 Ward 17 Ward 18 Ward 19: Precincts 7, 10-13 Ward 20: Precinct 3 Wards 21 and 22 Cambridge: Wards 1, 2, 3, 5, 11 Ward 4: Precinct 1 Ward 10: Precinct 3 Chelsea Everett Milton: Precincts 1, 5 and 10 Randolph Somerville 1849: "The whole of Berkshire County. An act of the legislature passed April 22, 1852 divided the 7th district of Massachusetts as such: "The towns of Andover, Bradford, Haverhill, Lynnfield, Middleton and Topsfield in the county of Essex.
1893: "Essex County: Towns of Lynn and Saugus. Middlesex County: Towns of Everett, Melrose and Wakefield. Suffolk County: 4th and 5th wards of the city of Boston, the towns of Chelsea and Revere." 1916: In Essex County: Boxford, Lynn, Middleton, North Andover, Saugus. In Middlesex County: North Reading. 1941: In Essex County: Lawrence, Middleton, North Andover, Peabody. In Suffolk County: Chelsea, Winthrop. In Middlesex County: Arlington Belmont Everett Framingham Lexington Lincoln Malden Medford Melrose Natick Stoneham Waltham Watertown Wayland: Precinct 2 Weston Winchester WoburnIn Suffolk County: Revere Winthrop Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present "Geographical History of the 7th District". U. S. Congressman Michael E. Capuano.
Washington DC: U. S. House of Representatives. Map of Massachusetts's 7th Congressional District, via Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth CNN.com 2004 election results CNN.com 2006 election results
Zebulon Baird Vance
Zebulon Baird Vance was a Confederate military officer in the American Civil War, the 37th and 43rd Governor of North Carolina, U. S. Senator. A prolific writer, Vance became one of the most influential Southern leaders of the Civil War and postbellum periods. Zebulon Vance was born in Buncombe County, North Carolina, near present-day Weaverville, the third of eight children, his family owned 18 slaves. His uncle was Congressman Robert Brank Vance, for whom his elder brother, Robert B. Vance, was named. At age twelve he was sent to study at Washington College in Tennessee, now known as Washington College Academy; the death of his father forced Vance to return home at the age of fourteen. It was during this time. To improve his standing, Vance determined to go to law school. At the age of twenty-one, he wrote to the President of the University of North Carolina, where he was a member of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies, former Governor David L. Swain, asked for a loan so that he could attend law school.
Governor Swain arranged for a $300 loan from the university, Vance performed admirably. By 1852 Vance had begun practicing law in Asheville, was soon elected county solicitor. By 1853, he married Harriette Espy at Quaker Meadows, they would subsequently have five sons, four of whom survived to adulthood. By the time the ordinance of secession had passed in May 1861, Vance was a captain stationed in Raleigh, commanding a company known as the "Rough and Ready Guards", part of the Fourteenth North Carolina Regiment; that August, Vance was elected Colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina. The Twenty-sixth engaged in the Battle of New Bern in March 1862, where Vance conducted an orderly retreat. Vance led the Twenty-sixth at Richmond; the Twenty-sixth was destroyed at the Battle of Gettysburg, losing more than 700 of its original 800 members, though Vance at that time was no longer in military service. In September 1862, Vance won the gubernatorial election. In the Confederacy Vance was a major proponent of individual rights and local self-government putting him at odds with the Confederate government of Jefferson Davis.
For example, North Carolina was the only state to observe the right of habeas corpus and keep its courts functional during the war. Vance opposed Confederate conscription practices. Vance testified that the North Carolinians were "troops raised for local defense" and that "the Confederate government did not keep faith with these local troops," who were "transfer to the regular service" in "violation of their enlistment agreement." This testimony questioned the legality of Pickett's decision to hang as deserters the North Carolinians found fighting for the Union troops, put Pickett at risk of prosecution for war crimes. Vance refused to allow supplies smuggled into North Carolina by blockade runners to be given to other states until North Carolinians had their share. Vance's work for the aid and morale of the people inspired the nickname "War Governor of the South". Vance was re-elected in 1864. On May 29, 1865, William Woods Holden was appointed governor by President Andrew Johnson; some have said that when Vance left Raleigh when it was captured by Sherman at the end of the Civil War, that the house where he temporarily lived in Statesville was a "temporary state capitol," but it is more argued that there is no evidence that he conducted official business in Statesville, that Gov. Holden believed that once Vance left Raleigh, he relinquished the office of governor.
Governor Vance was arrested by Federal forces on his birthday in May 1865 and spent time in prison in Washington, D. C. Per US President Andrew Johnson's amnesty program, he filed an application for pardon on June 3, was paroled on July 6. After his parole, he began practicing law in Charlotte, North Carolina. Among his clients was accused murderer Tom Dula, the subject of the folk song "Tom Dooley." Governor Vance was formally pardoned on March 11, 1867, though no formal charges had been filed against him before his arrest, during his imprisonment, nor during the period of his parole. In 1870, the state legislature elected him to the United States Senate, but due to the restrictions placed on ex-Confederates by the 14th Amendment of the Constitution, he was not allowed to serve. In 1876, Vance was elected Governor once again, in 1879 the legislature again elected him to the United States Senate; this time he was seated, he served in the Senate until his death in 1894. After a funeral in the U.
S. Capitol, Vance was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Asheville. Starting in about 1870, Vance gave a speech hundreds of times he called "The Scattered Nation," which praised the Jews and called for religious tolerance and freedom amongst all Americans. In 1880, Vance married Florence Steele Martin of Kentucky. "He was the Mount Mitchell of all our great men, in the affections and love of the people, he towered above them all. As ages to come will not be able to mar the grandeur and greatness of Mount Mitchell, so they will not be able to efface from the hearts and minds of the people the name of their beloved Vance." – T. J. Jarvis, Governor from 1879 to 1885 "There never lived such a stump speaker as." – George Edmund Badger, US Senator 1846 to 1855 "As war governor, Vance endeared himself forever to his people. He mitigated the horrors of war by insisting on the precedence of civil law, stoutly protected the state from the uncomfortable militarism of the Conf
1854 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 34th Congress were held during President Franklin Pierce's term at various dates in different states from August 1854 to November 1855. This midterm election was among the most disruptive in American history, auguring the collapse of the Second Party System. Both major parties, the Democratic Party and the Whig Party, organized as rivals for 20 years, lost critical voter support; the Whig Party disintegrated over the slavery issue as Northern voters opposing the Kansas–Nebraska Act, shifted against Democrats. The elected majority temporarily coalesced as the Opposition Party; this transitional party included Whigs, Free Soil members, American Party members or Know Nothings, the People's Party of Indiana, Anti-Nebraska candidates, a few disaffected Northern Democrats, members of the nascent Republican Party, which soon would amalgamate most of these factions, becoming the new rival to the Democrats. Candidates opposed to the Democratic Party won in the North through November 1854, while the American Party, ignoring slavery and opposing immigration by Catholics from Ireland and Germany, won seats from both major parties, but to the net loss of Democrats, in New England and the South in 1855.
Congress passed the Kansas–Nebraska Act in May 1854 after aggressive sponsorship by the Pierce Administration and Democrats led by Senator Stephen Douglas, including an outspoken contingent of radical pro-slavery legislators. It triggered the Bleeding Kansas conflict. With foreseen risks and negative results, the Act publicly discredited the Democratic Party, fueling new partisan and sectional rancor, it created violent uncertainty on the frontier by abruptly making slavery legal in territories part of the Louisiana Purchase and attractive to contemporary settlers. Settlers were expected to determine the status of slavery locally; this idea appealed to Democratic politicians and to some voters in its shape and intent, but proved unworkable in Kansas where the status of slavery would be disputed between more numerous settlers from the North and geographically closer settlers from the South. Some Southern voters who supported slavery Whigs, felt repealing the Missouri Compromise was politically reckless, that attempting to push slavery by law and force into territories where settlers predictably were unlikely to want it generated needless hostility, politically endangering its continued legal protection in the South.
These fears proved prescient. The election of the Speaker was the lengthiest and most contentious in history. More than 21 Representatives vied for the post. After two months and 133 ballots, American Party Representative Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, a Free Soiler, defeated Democrat William Aiken of South Carolina both by plurality and a margin of three votes. Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858. Election results in Wisconsin for 1854: United States elections, 1854 List of United States House of Representatives elections, 1824–54 United States Senate elections, 1854 and 1855 33rd United States Congress 34th United States Congress Dubin, Michael J.. United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989.
Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701. Moore, John L. ed.. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U. S. Elections. Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967. "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015. Office of the Historian
New Jersey's 5th congressional district
New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Democrat Josh Gottheimer. Republican Scott Garrett defeated Democrat Paul Aronsohn and independent candidate R. Matthew Fretz 55%–44% in the United States general elections, 2006. Gottheimer defeated Garrett in the 2016 general election, making Garrett the only one of the state's 12 incumbents to lose his seat; the redrawn New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is predominantly rural in area, but now the newly added suburban and urban Bergen County areas closer to New York City contain over 75% of voters. The district is western parts of New Jersey. A portion of the district is in suburban northern Bergen County, as well as the Urban Central. Most of the areas in the district have been favorable for Republicans; this is true of the western portion, which contains some of the most Republican areas in the Northeast. However, Bergen County has trended Democratic in recent elections, though not as overwhelmingly as in the more urbanized southern portion.
Due to a strong performance in Bergen County, Gottheimer unseated 14-year Republican incumbent Garrett in 2016. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the district contains all or portions of four counties and 79 municipalities. Bergen County Allendale, Bergenfield, Closter, Dumont, Fair Lawn, Franklin Lakes, Glen Rock, Harrington Park, Hillsdale, Ho-Ho-Kus, Mahwah, Midland Park, New Milford, Norwood, Old Tappan, Paramus, Park Ridge, Ridgewood, River Edge, River Vale, Rochelle Park, Saddle River, Upper Saddle River, Washington Township, Woodcliff Lake and WyckoffPassaic County Ringwood and West MilfordSussex County Andover Borough, Andover Township, Frankford Township, Franklin Borough, Fredon Township, Green Township, Hampton Township, Hardyston Township, Lafayette Township, Montague Township, Sandyston Township, Stillwater Township, Vernon Township, Walpack Township and Wantage TownshipWarren County Allamuchy Township, Blairstown Township, Frelinghuysen Township, Hardwick Township, Hope Township, Independence Township, Knowlton Township, Liberty Township, Mansfield Township, Oxford Township, Washington Township and White Township Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Josh Gottheimer, Official Website
Henry Winter Davis
Henry Winter Davis was a United States Representative from the 4th and 3rd congressional districts of Maryland, well known as one of the Radical Republicans during the Civil War. Born in Annapolis, his father, the Reverend Henry Lyon Davis, was a prominent Maryland Episcopal clergyman and was for some years president of St John's College at Annapolis; the son graduated at Kenyon College at Gambier, Ohio in 1837, from the law department of the University of Virginia in 1841, began the practice of law in Alexandria, but in 1850 removed to Baltimore, where he won a high position at the bar. Davis was a man of scholarly tastes, an orator of unusual ability and great eloquence and fearless in fighting political battles, but impulsive to the verge of rashness, impractical and autocratic, he wrote an elaborate political work entitled The War of Ormuzd and Ahriman in the Nineteenth Century, in which he described the American Republic and the Russian Empire as the ultimate opponents in the struggles of humanity.
Early becoming imbued with strong anti-slavery views, though by inheritance he was himself a slaveholder, he began political life as a Whig. After the Whig Party disintegrated, he became a Know Nothing, served as a member of the Know Nothing–influenced American Party in the House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861. By his independent course in Congress he won the esteem of all political groups. In the contest over the speakership at the opening of the 36th United States Congress in 1859 he voted with the Republicans, incurring a vote of censure from the Maryland Legislature, which called upon him to resign. In the 1860 presidential election, not yet ready to become a Republican, he declined to be a candidate for the Republican nomination for Vice President of the United States, instead supported the Constitutional Union ticket of John Bell and Edward Everett. Defeated that year for reelection to Congress, in the winter of 1860 and 1861―between the secession of some Southern states and the beginning of the Civil War with the assault on Fort Sumter―Davis was involved in compromise measures.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected and the Civil War began, Davis became a Republican. He was re-elected in 1862 to the U. S. House of Representatives and became an aggressive Radical Republican, viewed as surprising given that Maryland was a slaveholding border state. From December 1863 to March 1865 Davis served as chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. In 1864, unwilling to leave the delicate questions concerning the French intervention in Mexico in the hands of President Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward, Davis brought in a report hostile to France, adopted by the House but not by the Senate. With other Radical Republicans, Davis was a bitter opponent of Lincoln's plan for the Reconstruction of the Southern states, which he thought too lenient. On February 15, 1864, he reported from committee a bill placing the process of Reconstruction under the control of Congress, stipulating that the Confederate states, as a condition of being re-admitted to the Union would disfranchise all important civil and military officers of the Confederacy, abolish slavery, repudiate all debts incurred by or with the sanction of the Confederate government.
In his speech supporting this measure, Davis declared that until Congress should recognize a government established under its auspices, there is no government in the rebel states save the authority of Congress. The bill, the first formal expression by Congress with regard to Reconstruction, did not pass both Houses until the closing hours of the session. President Lincoln on July 8 issued a proclamation defining his position. Soon afterward, on August 5, 1864, Davis joined Benjamin F. Wade of Ohio, who had piloted the bill through the Senate, in issuing the so-called Wade–Davis Manifesto, which violently denounced President Lincoln for encroaching on the domain of Congress and insinuated that the presidential policy would leave slavery unimpaired in the reconstructed states. In a debate in Congress some months he declared, "When I came into Congress ten years ago this was a government of law. I have lived to see it a government of personal will." He was one of the radical leaders who preferred John C.
Frémont to Lincoln in the 1864 election, but subsequently withdrew his opposition and supported the President for re-election. Joining the Unconditional Union Party, he early favored the enlistment of negroes, in July 1865 publicly advocated the extension of the suffrage to them, he was not a candidate for re-election to Congress in 1864. On Election Night, 1864, during a discussion, Lincoln said: "It has seemed to me that Winter Davis was growing more sensible to his own true interests and has ceased wasting his time by attacking me. I hope, he has been malicious against me but has only injured himself by it. His conduct has been strange to me. I came his friend, wishing to continue so. I had heard nothing but good of him, but he had scarcely been elected when I began to learn of his attacking me on all possible occasions."Davis died in Baltimore at the end of 1865. His remains were interred in Greenmount Cemetery. Henry W. Davis was a cousin of David Davis, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and a U.
S. Senator from Illinois, he was a first cousin of Brevet Brigadier General Moses B. Walker who served as an associate justice of the Texas Supreme Court. Anna Ella Carroll James Morrison Harris Thomas Hollid
Virginia's 5th congressional district
Virginia’s fifth congressional district is a United States congressional district in the commonwealth of Virginia. It is Virginia's largest district with an area of 10,181.03 square miles - and is larger in area than six US states. The district’s first representative in Congress was James Madison, who defeated James Monroe in the district's first congressional election. Madison and Monroe would go on to serve as the 5th Presidents of the United States; the current Congressman is Republican Denver Riggleman. The 5th was one of the first districts of Virginia to turn Republican in Presidential elections – though unlike the 6th where the decisive factor was ticket-splitting by Byrd Organization Democrats, here the decisive factor was the growth of middle-class Republicanism in the Charlottesville metropolitan area. In the decade preceding the Voting Rights Act, these were joined by a significant proportion of Virginia’s limited and entirely white electorate who preferred GOP positions on black civil rights.
The district was to be one of two in Virginia giving a plurality to segregationist George Wallace in 1968, has never supported a Democrat for President since Harry S. Truman. However, the district was continually represented in Congress by conservative Democrats until Virgil H. Goode, Jr. switched parties, first to independent and to Republican. In 2008 progressive Democrat Tom Perriello defeated Jr. by running on a progressive platform. Perriello lost to Republican Robert Hurt in 2010, it covers all or part of the following political subdivisions: The entirety of: Albemarle County Appomattox County Brunswick County Buckingham County Campbell County Charlotte County Cumberland County Fluvanna County Franklin County Greene County Halifax County Lunenburg County Madison County Mecklenburg County Nelson County Pittsylvania County Prince Edward County Rappahannock CountyPortions of: Bedford County Fauquier County Henry County Charlottesville Danville Virginia's 5th congressional district election, November 2010 Virginia's 5th congressional district election, November 2012 Virginia's 5th congressional district election, November 2014 Virginia's 5th Congressional District House Election, November 2016 Virginia's 5th Congressional District House Election, November 2018Took place on Tuesday, November 6, 2018, with Republican Denver Riggleman winning the election.
The incumbent, Tom Garrett, did not run for re-election. Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. Denver Riggleman's official House of Representatives website 5th CD Democratic Committee website 5th CD Republican Committee website