Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Old Tom Morris
Thomas Mitchell Morris, otherwise known as Old Tom Morris, was a Scottish golfer. He was born in St Andrews, Fife, the home of golf and location of the St Andrews Links, Young Tom Morris, also a golfer, was his son. Morris served four years as apprentice and a five years as journeyman under Robertson. From the early 1840s, Robertson often chose Morris as his partner in challenge matches, played by alternate shot format and it was said the two never lost a team match played on even terms. The team became known as The Invincibles, as Robertsons employee, Morris was in somewhat of an awkward position. Morris was then hired by Prestwick Golf Club, which was just starting up, at Prestwick, he designed, laid out, and maintained the course, ran his own golf equipment business selling gutties and clubs, gave instruction to players, and ran events. He was influential in beginning The Open Championship in 1860, Morris returned to St Andrews as greenskeeper and professional in 1865, at a then-generous salary of ₤50 per year. He was sought out by the Royal and Ancient, which passed a motion in 1864 calling for his rehiring. St Andrews was then in poor condition, and his first task was to correct this. He did so by widening the fairways, enlarging the greens, applying greenkeeping techniques he had developed at Prestwick and he stayed in the post until 1903, a total of 39 years, and was kept on afterward by the R & A at full salary. Morris worked as a greenkeeper, clubmaker, ballmaker, golf instructor and he came second in the first Open Championship in 1860, and won the following year. He followed this up with victories in 1862,1864 and 1867. He still holds the record as the oldest winner of The Open Championship at 46, also, he was part of the only father/son couple being winner and runner-up. Morris held the record for the largest margin of victory in a major championship and he became the second player to break 80 over the Old Course, scoring 79, Robertson had been the first to do it. Their partnership, although not exclusive, would continue until the death of Young Tom in 1875, Morris played a role in designing courses across the British Isles. He began by assisting Robertson lay out ten holes at Carnoustie in 1842, Morris was also the father of modern greenkeeping. He introduced the concept of top-dressing greens with sand, which significantly helped turf growth and he introduced many novel ideas on turf and course management, including actively managing hazards and yardage markers. He was the first to use a push mower to cut greens and he created a new first green on the Old Course, and was responsible for the initial design of the New Course 1895 and Jubilee course in 1897
Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, the game is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, there are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough, sand traps, and hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, while the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, one theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries, the game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England, the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504, to many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green, while many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee, the hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice, this is called a double dogleg, a regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land. This gave rise to the golf links, particularly applied to seaside courses
A hazard is an area of a golf course in the sport of golf which provides a difficult obstacle, which may be of two types, water hazards such as lakes and rivers, and man-made hazards such as bunkers. Special rules apply to playing balls that fall in a hazard, for example, a player may not touch the ground with his club before playing a ball, not even for a practice swing. A ball in any hazard may be played as it lies without penalty, if it cannot be played from the hazard, the ball may be hit from another location, generally with a penalty of one stroke. The Rules of Golf govern exactly from where the ball may be played outside a hazard, bunkers are shallow pits filled with sand and generally incorporating a raised lip or barrier, from which the ball is more difficult to play than from grass. A bunker is a depression near the green or fairway that is filled with sand. It is difficult to hit the ball out of the bunker, a club called a sand wedge is designed for extracting the ball from a bunker, a process requiring well-developed skill. After a player is using the bunker, it is the job of either the player or that players caddy to rake the area of the sand disturbed during play. Specific rules of golf govern play from a bunker, for example, a player may not ground ones club in a bunker, that is, the club cannot touch the ground prior to the swing. There are three types of bunkers used in golf course architecture and all are designed to be impediments to the progress toward the green. Fairway bunkers are designed primarily to gather up wayward tee shots on par 4 and par 5 holes, greenside bunkers are designed to collect wayward approach shots on long holes and tee shots on par 3 holes, they are located near and around the green. Water hazards, like bunkers, are natural obstacles designed to add beauty and difficulty to a golf course. Water hazards are typically either streams or ponds, situated between the ground and the hole. Two types of water hazards exist, lateral water hazards and water hazards, lateral hazards are usually adjacent to the fairway being played, while water hazards generally cross the fairway being played forcing the player to hit over the water hazard. United States Golf Association - water hazard rules
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
The Open Championship
The Open Championship, often referred to as The Open or the British Open, is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf. Held in the United Kingdom, it is administered by The R&A and is the only major outside the United States, the Open is currently the third major of the year, between the U. S. Open and the PGA Championship, and is played in mid-July. The current champion is Henrik Stenson, who won the 145th Open at Royal Troon in 2016 with a score of −20. The Open was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland, the inaugural tournament was restricted to professionals and attracted a field of eight golfers who played three rounds of Prestwicks twelve-hole course in a single day. Willie Park Sr. won with a score of 174, beating Old Tom Morris, the following year the tournament was opened to amateurs, eight of them joined ten professionals in the field. James Ogilvie Fairlie was the organiser of the first Open Championship held at Prestwick in 1860. With the untimely death of Allan Robertson, aged 43 in 1859, originally, the trophy presented to the events winner was the Challenge Belt, a red leather belt with a silver buckle. The Challenge Belt was retired in 1870, when Young Tom Morris was allowed to keep it for winning the tournament three consecutive times, because no trophy was available, the tournament was cancelled in 1871. In 1872, after Young Tom Morris won again for a time in a row. The present trophy, The Golf Champion Trophy, better known by its name of the Claret Jug, was then created. Prestwick administered The Open from 1860 to 1870, in 1871, it agreed to organise it jointly with The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers. In 1892 the event was doubled in length from 36 to 72 holes, the 1894 Open was the first held outside Scotland, at the Royal St Georges Golf Club in England. Because of a number of entrants, a cut was introduced after two rounds in 1898. In 1920 full responsibility for The Open Championship was handed over to The Royal & Ancient Golf Club, the early winners were all Scottish professionals, who in those days worked as greenkeepers, clubmakers, and caddies to supplement their modest winnings from championships and challenge matches. The Open has always dominated by professionals, with only six victories by amateurs. The last of these was Bobby Jones third Open and part of his celebrated Grand Slam, Jones was one of six Americans who won The Open between the First and Second World Wars, the first of whom had been Walter Hagen in 1922. These Americans and the French winner of the 1907 Open, Arnaud Massy, were the winners from outside Scotland and England up to 1939. The first post-World War II winner was the American Sam Snead, in 1947, Northern Irelands Fred Daly was victorious
Prestwick is a town in South Ayrshire on the south-west coast of Scotland, about 30 miles south-west of Glasgow. It adjoins the town of Ayr on the Firth of Clyde coast. It had a population of 14,901 at the 2011 census, the town is served by Glasgow Prestwick Airport, which serves many European destinations as well as transatlantic and other international cargo flights. The town was the first home of the Open Golf Championship, Prestwick lies on the south-west coast of Scotland, approximately 30 miles to the south west of Glasgow. It adjoins the town of Ayr, the centre of which is approximately 2 miles south. To the north of Prestwick is the village of Monkton. Prestwicks name comes from the Old English for, priests farm, preost meaning priest, the town was originally an outlying farm of a religious house. George T. Flom suggested that the name was of Old Norse origin, in this case, it would mean priests bay. From Robert the Bruce to James VI, King of Scots, numerous Kings have traversed the coastal walks in and around Prestwick, Bruce is reputed to have been cured of leprosy by the waters of the well at St Ninians church. The well still exists behind the church, Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, formerly Prestwick International Airport, opened in the 1930s. The airport was a gateway for over half a century. Though a period of decline in the 1980s and 1990s saw it lose its status as Scotlands primary transatlantic airport, in July 2005, the airport was the main transport hub for world leaders attending the G8 conference in Gleneagles. The airport now caters to one low-cost airline, Ryanair, in addition, BAE Systems, Goodrich Corporation, Spirit AeroSystems and GE Aircraft Engines have maintenance/manufacturing facilities adjacent to the airfield. Ryanair also has facilities at Prestwick. Prestwick has a Royal Navy Air Station, also known as HMS Gannet, Prestwick is on the Ayrshire Coast Line between Glasgow Central and Ayr. Three trains per hour call at both Prestwick Town and Prestwick Airport stations, with services at peak times. Glasgow is approximately 50 minutes from Prestwick by rail, the line continues south to the port of Stranraer on the Wigtownshire coast, but a change of trains at Ayr is usually required. The bus routes run through Prestwick are usually run by Stagecoach Western including an express service to
Ayrshire is a historic county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. It is also, under the name the County of Ayr and its principal towns include Ayr, Kilmarnock and Irvine. Like the other counties of Scotland, it currently has no function, instead being sub-divided into the council areas of North Ayrshire, South Ayrshire. It has a population of approximately 366,800, the three islands were part of the County of Bute until 1975 and are not always included when the term Ayrshire is applied to the region. The same area is known as Ayrshire and Arran in other contexts, Ayrshire is one of the most agriculturally fertile regions of Scotland. Ayrshire shares with Dumfries and Galloway some rugged hills country known as the Galloway Hills and these hill lie to the west of the A713 and they run south from the Loch Doon area almost to the Solway Firth. To the east of this route through the hills lie the Carsphairn and Scaur Hills which lie to the south east of Dalmellington, glen Afton runs deep into these hills. Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, serving Glasgow and the West of Scotland more generally, is located more than 30 miles away from Glasgow in Ayrshire. Moreover it has a niche in history as the only place in Britain visited by Elvis Presley. The area that today forms Ayrshire was part of the south of the Antonine Wall which was briefly occupied by the Romans during the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius. It was inhabited by the Damnonii, who are presumed to have been Britons, later, it formed part of the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, which was incorporated into the Kingdom of Scotland during the 11th century. In 1263, the Scots successfully drove off of the Norwegian leidang-army in a known as the Battle of Largs. A notable historic building in Ayrshire is Turnberry Castle, which dates from the 13th century or earlier, the historic shire or sheriffdom of Ayr was divided into three districts or bailieries which later made up the county of Ayrshire. The three districts were, Carrick in the south and it was situated between the Doon and the wild district of Galloway in the adjoining Stewartries, an area that was little else than a vast tract of hills and mosses. Cunninghame in the north included the royal burgh of Irvine was that part of the county which lay north of the Irvine water. The area used to be heavily industrialised, with making, coal mining and in Kilmarnock numerous examples of production-line manufacturing. In more recent history, Digital Equipment had a manufacturing plant near Ayr from about 1976 until the company was taken over by Compaq in 1998. Some supplier companies grew up to service this site and the more distant IBM plant at Greenock in Renfrewshire, however, unemployment in the region is above the national average
Willie Dunn Sr.
Willie Dunn, Sr. was a Scottish professional golfer who played during the mid-to-late 19th century. He was born in Musselburgh, Scotland, in 1821 and died there, Dunn had three top-10 finishes in the Open Championship, with his best result being seventh in the 1861 Open Championship. Willie Dunn, Sr. was born in Musselburgh, Scotland, along with his twin brother, Jamie, he played in many challenge matches between 1840–60. Dunn apprenticed under the Gourlay family and was keeper of the greens at Blackheath until 1864 when he returned to the Thistle Golf Club at Leith Links, Dunn placed seventh in the 1861 Open Championship, carding consistent rounds of 61-59-60=180. The 1861 Open Championship was a competition held at Prestwick Golf Club, Ayrshire. It was the second Open Championship and the first to open to amateurs as well as professionals, note, Dunn played only in the Open Championship. DNP = Did not play NT = No tournament F. = Competed, finish unknown T indicates a tie for a place Yellow background for top-10
Willie Park Sr.
William Willie Park Sr. was one of the pioneers of professional golf. He was a 4-time winner of the Open Championship, Park was born in Wallyford, East Lothian, Scotland. Like some of the early professional golfers, Park started out as a caddie. He later ran a golf equipment manufacturing business, on the course, he made his money from challenge matches against rivals such as Old Tom Morris, Willie Dunn and Allan Robertson, which were the most popular form of spectator golf in his era. Park, a tall, strong man, was a long hitter and an excellent putter. He had surpassed the older Willie Dunn by age 20, and travelled to St Andrews Links to play and he issued a public challenge in 1853 to Robertson, generally recognised as the best player, which was, however, not taken up. Custom of the time allowed the best player to refuse a challenge of this sort without damage to his reputation and he married Susanna Law in Inveresk, Scotland, on 29 March 1860. The couple would have ten children, parks brother Mungo and his son Willie Jr. both also won the Open Championship. Mungos victory came in 1874 and Willie Jr. had two wins, in 1887 and 1889, Park died on 25 July 1903. He is primarily best remembered as the winner of four Open Championships, including the event in 1860. His other victories came in 1863,1866 and 1875, Park was the co-holder of the record for most wins in the tournament until James Braid picked up his fifth win in 1910. Note, Park played only in The Open Championship, NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play T indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins. Yellow background for top-10 Golf in Scotland List of Caddie Hall of Fame inductees
British Newspaper Archive
The British Newspaper Archive web site provides access to searchable digitised archives of British newspapers. It was launched in November 2011, the British Library Newspapers section was based in Colindale in North London, until 2013, and is now divided between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The Library has an almost complete collection of British and Irish newspapers since 1840 and this is partly because of the legal deposit legislation of 1869, which required newspapers to supply a copy of each edition of a newspaper to the library. London editions of daily and Sunday newspapers are complete back to 1801. In total the collection consists of 660,000 bound volumes and 370,000 reels of microfilm containing tens of millions of newspapers with 52,000 titles on 45 km of shelves. After the closure of Colindale in November 2013, access to the 750 million original printed pages was maintained via an automated and climate-controlled storage facility in Boston Spa, in May 2010 a ten-year programme of digitisation of the newspaper archives with commercial partner DC Thomson subsidiary Brightsolid began. In November 2011, BBC News announced the launch of the British Newspaper Archive, the same newspapers from this partnership have also been made available to view on Findmypast and Genes Reunited. The digitisation project established a search facility which people could consult without having to visit the British Library newspaper depository in person. The Thomason Tracts and Burney collections are held at St Pancras, the section also has extensive records of non-British newspapers in languages that use the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. The Librarys substantial holdings of newspapers in the languages of Asia and the Middle East may be accessed at the Librarys reading rooms at St. Pancras. While access within the British Library is free, online access is via a system based on daily or item charges. As part of The Wikipedia Library, Brightsolid provided free one-year subscriptions to a number of experienced Wikipedia editors from July 2014. The agreement was terminated in 2016 because structural changes at their parent organisation mean that there is no longer interest in continuing the partnership with The Wikipedia Library. Reviews of the service have been mixed, with some early responses complimentary about the ability to access, however, there have been complaints of the excessive cost and the general policy of the British Library allowing a private company the rights to the newspapers. One writer noted that, The BNA demonstrates what happens to our cultural heritage when there is no political will for public investment, web site of the British Newspaper Archive