Nottingham Forest F.C.
Nottingham Forest Football Club is a professional association football club based in Nottinghamshire, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. The club, often referred to as Forest, have played matches at the City Ground since 1898. Founded in 1865, Forest were founder members of the Football Alliance in 1889, since then, they have mostly competed in the top two League tiers, bar five seasons in the third tier. Forest won the FA Cup in 1898 and 1959, Forest were founded in 1865 as Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club by a group of shinty players shortly after their neighbours Notts County, in 1862. They joined the Football Alliance in 1889, and won the competition in 1892, in their early years Forest were a multi-sports club, as well as their roots in bandy and shinty, the baseball club Forest deployed were British champions in 1899. Forests charitable approach to the sport helped teams like Liverpool, Arsenal, in 1886, Forest donated a set of football kits to help Arsenal establish themselves – the North London team still wear red. Forest also donated shirts to Everton and helped secure a site to play on for Brighton, Forest claimed their first major honour when they won the 1898 FA Cup, beating Derby County 3–1 at Crystal Palace. However, for much of the first half of the 20th century the club spent life in the Second Division and had to seek re-election in 1914 after finishing bottom. In 1949 the club were relegated to the Third Division, but were promoted back two years later as champions having scored a record 110 goals in the 1950–51 season. They therefore became the first team to defeat the Wembley hoodoo, by this time Forest had replaced Notts County as the biggest club in Nottingham and went on to become runners-up in the First Division and FA Cup semi-finalists in 1967. However, after a successful period for the club, Forest were relegated from the First Division in 1972. Clough became the most successful manager in the history of Nottingham Forest, cloughs first game in charge was the third round FA Cup replay against Tottenham Hotspur, a 1–0 victory thanks to a goal by Scottish centre-forward Neil Martin. Nottingham Forest became one of the few teams to win the First Division Championship a year after winning promotion from the Second Division and they also won the European Super Cup and two League Cups. The club reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup in 1983–84 but were knocked out by Anderlecht in controversial but uncertain circumstances. The case was dismissed and Anderlecht was acquitted from all charges Nottingham Forests next major trophies came in 1989 when they won the Football League Cup. Cloughs side retained the League Cup in 1990 when they beat Oldham Athletic 1–0, in Forests team that day was young Irish midfielder Roy Keane, who had joined the club the previous summer. In the summer of 1991, Brian Clough broke Forests transfer record fee by signing the top scorer, Millwall striker Teddy Sheringham
The name derived from the color of their shirts or loose fitting blouses. The red shirts were started by Giuseppe Garibaldi, during his years of exile, Garibaldi was involved in a military action in Uruguay, where, in 1843, he originally used red shirts from a stock destined for slaughterhouse workers in Buenos Aires. Later, he spent time in retirement in New York City. Both places have been claimed as the birthplace of the Garibaldian red shirt, Garibaldi was later hailed as the Hero of Two Worlds on the basis of these exploits. In Uruguay, calling on the Italians of Montevideo, Garibaldi formed the Italian Legion in 1843, red shirts sported by Argentinian butchers in the 1840s are not otherwise documented, however, and the famous camicie rosse did not appear during Garibaldis efforts in Rome in 1849–50. There is a Garibaldi-Meucci museum on Staten Island, in New York, during the pre-Civil War era, rival companies of volunteer firemen were the great working-class heroes of the city. Their courage, their spirit, and the lively comradeship they demonstrated inspired fanatic followers throughout New York. Volunteer fire companies varied in the completeness and details of their uniforms, when Garibaldi returned to Italy after his New York stay, the red shirts made their first appearance among his followers. Garibaldi remained a hero among European immigrants back in New York. The Garibaldi Guard fought in the American Civil War, 1861–65, as part of their uniform, they wore red woolen Garibaldi Shirts – at least, all enlisted men did. The New York Tribune sized them up, The officers of the Guard are men who have held important commands in the Hungarian, Italian, many of them were in the Sardinian and French armies in the Crimea and in Algeria. Giuseppe Garibaldis son, Ricciotti Garibaldi, later led redshirt volunteer troops that fought with the Greek Army in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and the First Balkan War of 1912–13. However, they had nothing to do with any proto-Fascist ideology, Garibaldis men were patriots, of different political leanings, banded together in the name of national freedom and unity
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, located 128 miles north of London, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making, bicycle and it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination, in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the thirteenth highest amount in Englands 111 statistical territories. In 2015, Nottingham had an population of 321,550 with the wider urban area. Its urban area is the largest in the east Midlands and the second largest in the Midlands, the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50. 9bn, the city is also ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It is also a sporting centre, and in October 2015 was named Home of English Sport. The city also has rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, and the Aegon Nottingham Open. This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UKs first City of Football, on 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a Unesco City of Literature, joining Norwich, Melbourne, Prague and Barcelona as one of only a handful in the world. The title reflects Nottinghams literary heritage, with Lord Byron, DH Lawrence and it has two universities, the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University, which are attended by over 70,610 students. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog, when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as Snotingaham, the homestead of Snots people. Some authors derive Nottingham from Snottenga, caves, and ham, Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall, a settlement also developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later, defences, consisted initially of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century. The ditch was later widened, in the mid 13th century, a short length of the wall survives, and is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, and is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John and it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of an export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham Alabaster
The Hillsborough disaster was a human crush at Hillsborough football stadium in Sheffield, England on 15 April 1989, during the 1988–89 FA Cup semi-final game between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest. With 96 fatalities and 766 injured it is the worst disaster in British sporting history, the crush occurred in the two standing-only central pens in the Leppings Lane stand, allocated to Liverpool supporters. In the days and weeks after the disaster, police fed false stories to the press suggesting that hooliganism, blaming of Liverpool fans persisted even after the Taylor Report of 1990, which found the main cause of the disaster was a failure of control by South Yorkshire Police. Following the Taylor report, the DPP ruled there was no evidence to justify prosecution of individuals or institutions, the first coroners inquest into the Hillsborough disaster, completed in 1991, ruled all deaths on the day as accidental. Private prosecutions brought by the Hillsborough Families Support Group against Duckenfield, in 2009, Hillsborough Independent Panel was formed to review all evidence. The panel report resulted in the findings of accidental death being quashed. The inquest also found that the design of the stadium contributed to the crush, Public anger over the actions of his force during the second inquest led the SYP chief constable David Crompton to be suspended following the verdict. Kick-off was scheduled for 3,00 pm on 15 April, at the time of the disaster, most English football stadiums had high steel fencing between the spectators and the playing field in response to both friendly and hostile pitch invasions. Hooliganism had affected the sport for years, and was particularly virulent in England. From 1974, when these security standards were put in place and it emphasised the general situation at Hillsborough was satisfactory compared with most grounds. Risks associated with confining fans in pens were highlighted by the Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety at Sports Grounds after the Bradford City stadium fire in May 1985. It made recommendations on the safety of crowds penned within fences, and capable of being opened immediately from the inside by anyone in an emergency. Hillsborough hosted five FA Cup semi-finals in the 1980s, Police believed there had been a real chance of fatalities had swift action not been taken, and recommended the club reduce its capacity. In a post-match briefing to discuss the incident, Sheffield Wednesday chairman Bert McGee remarked, the incident nonetheless prompted Sheffield Wednesday to alter the layout at the Leppings Lane end, dividing the terrace into three separate pens to restrict sideways movement. This 1981 change and other changes to the stadium invalidated the stadiums safety certificate. The safety certificate was never renewed and the capacity of the stadium was never changed. After the crush in 1981, Hillsborough was not chosen to host an FA Cup semi-final for six years until 1987, serious overcrowding was observed at the 1987 quarter-final between Sheffield Wednesday and Coventry City and again during the semi-final between Coventry City and Leeds United at Hillsborough. Leeds were assigned the Leppings Lane end, other accounts told of fans having to be pulled to safety from above
Trent Bridge and is also the headquarters of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. As well as International cricket and Nottinghamshires home games, the ground has hosted the Finals Day of the Twenty20 Cup twice, in 2009 the ground was used for the ICC World Twenty20 and hosted the semi-final between South Africa and Pakistan. The site takes its name from the main bridge over the Trent, and is also close to Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Trent Bridge was first used as a ground in the 1830s. The first recorded match was held on an area of ground behind the Trent Bridge Inn in 1838. Trent Bridge hosted its first Test match in 1899, for England playing against Australia, the ground was first opened in 1841 by William Clarke, husband of the proprietress of the Trent Bridge Inn and himself Captain of the All England Cricket Team. He was commemorated in 1990 by the opening of the new William Clarke Stand which incorporates the Rushcliffe Suite, the West Park Sports Ground in West Bridgford was the private ground of Sir Julien Cahn, a furniture millionaire, who often played host to touring national sides. Trent Bridge is considered to be one of the best grounds in the world to watch cricket and this increased capacity from 15,358 to 17,500, and the work was completed in time for the 2008 Test match against New Zealand. The stand was opened on 5 June by Prince Philip. Bowling takes place from the Pavilion End and the Radcliffe Road End, with the wickets laid square of the Fox Road, William Clarke, in Test matches held at Trent Bridge, the highest team total is 658 for 8 declared, scored by England against Australia in 1938. The lowest team total is 60, scored by Australia against England in 2015, denis Compton scored 278 against Pakistan in 1954. Sachin Tendulkar also passed the 11,000 run mark in the npower 2nd Test on Trent Bridge on July 2007, in 2013, Ashton Agar achieved the highest test score by a no.11 batsman whilst on debut for Australia. Trent Bridge has a history of hosting football matches, Notts County Football Club played their important games at the ground from the 1860s, and moved there permanently in 1883 when Nottingham Forest left. Unfortunately for the team, games early and late in the season had to be played elsewhere due to the cricket and Notts County finally left in 1910. Trent Bridge even hosted a match, England beating Ireland 6–0 on 20 February 1897
The City Ground is a football stadium in West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, England, on the banks of the River Trent. It has been home to Nottingham Forest Football Club since 1898 and they are located on opposite sides of the River Trent. Nottingham Forest moved to their new ground on 3 September 1898 –33 years after their formation, to raise the £3,000 required to finance the move the club asked members, supporters and businessmen to subscribe to New Ground Scheme bearer bonds which cost £5 each. Over £2,000 was raised this way, the new ground was called the City Ground. It was only a few hundred yards from the old Town Ground at the end of Trent Bridge. Nottingham was granted its Charter as a City in 1897 and it was called the City Ground to commemorate this as the land on which it stands was at that time within the City boundary. In 1952 boundary changes resulted in the ground coming under the council of West Bridgford rather than the City. Opposite the City Ground, still within the City boundaries, lies Meadow Lane, the City Ground was wide open on three sides with no protection from the weather but the pitch was one of the finest in the country. This was due to the presence on the committee of J. W. Bardill, in 1935, the club had the opportunity to buy the ground from Nottingham Corporation for £7,000 but they declined. On 12 October 1957, a new East Stand opened at the City Ground costing £40,000, the visitors for the opening were Manchester United’s Busby Babes, just four months before eight of them died in the Munich air disaster. A new record attendance of 49,946 was set in October 1967 when Forest beat Manchester Utd 3-1 in a First Division fixture, on 11 September 1961, the floodlights at the ground were officially turned on for the first time as Forest faced Gillingham in the League Cup. The Main Stand was largely rebuilt in 1965 but on 24 August 1968 fire broke out during a First Division game against Leeds United, the stand was damaged by fire but thankfully, despite a crowd of 31,126, there were no injuries among the crowd. The fire started in the room, just before half-time. As a result, Forest played six matches at nearby Meadow Lane. Sadly many of the records, trophies, memorabilia etc. were lost in the fire. In December 1967 the City Ground was host to an England U23 match against Italy, Forest also won the Football League Cup twice during this era. The stand was renamed The Brian Clough Stand after Cloughs retirement, the stand also incorporates 36 executive boxes and a large dining area which was designed to be the focus of the club’s corporate hospitality arrangements. More major development took part in 1992–93 with the rebuilding of the Bridgford Stand, work started in April 1992 and when completed the Stand had a capacity of 7,710, the lower tier of 5,131 being allocated to away supporters
Forest Recreation Ground
The Forest Recreation Ground is an open space and recreation ground in Nottingham, England, approximately one mile north of the city centre. This urban space is bounded by the neighbourhoods of Forest Fields to the north, Mapperley Park to the east, Arboretum to the south and it is best known as the site of the citys famous annual Goose Fair. The site of the Forest was one of the areas to be protected in perpetuity by the 1845 Nottingham Inclosure Act. In commemoration, the Mayor of Nottingham planted the Inclosure Oak which can still be seen at the Mansfield Road entrance to the Forest, joseph Paxton, a leading gardener and architect of the nineteenth century, was responsible for the criss-cross formation of walkways. For over 300 years the Forest has been home to sport, including racing, cricket. It was home to Nottingham Racecourse by 1773, and it remained there until it moved to its current location at Colwick, south east of Nottingham, Nottingham Forest Football Club first played their games on the Forest after their formation in 1865, hence the clubs name. Standing at the Mansfield Road entrance is Forest Lodge, built in 1857 and this Grade II listed building was originally used as a Police or Keepers Lodge and a police cell can still be seen at basement level. A red granite monument stands at the Monument Gate on Forest Road East, by comparison with its sporting heritage, the use of the Forest for the citys traditional Goose Fair is relatively recent. The fair has existed since at least 1541, but it moved to the Forest in 1928. The citys Goose Fair is held on the Forest in October of every year, other smaller travelling fairs and circuses take place on the recreation ground throughout the year, usually coinciding with local school holidays. The Forest Recreation Ground boasts floodlit hard courts and grass pitches for ball games. There is also a childrens playground. These facilities are maintained by Nottingham City Council, the Forest Recreation Ground supports many important habitats and species. Mature trees include oak, English elm, English oak, sessile oak, rowan, silver birch, common lime. Additionally, there have more recent plantings of London plane, beech, various maples. Perennials include autumn crocus, spring crocus, bluebell, ramsons, primrose, wild privet, hazel, with such an abundance of habitat, the Forest attracts many birds such as nuthatches, treecreepers, mistle thrushes, tawny owls, song thrushes, great spotted woodpeckers and chaffinches. The caves of the Rock Cemetery are a Geological County Wildlife Site, the thin turf here supports early and silver hairgrass, harebells, birds-foot trefoil and spiked sedge. Conspicuous insects include holly blue and clouded yellow butterflies, hornets, the Forest is home to a park-and-ride site, with spaces for more than 950 cars
Notts County F.C.
Notts County Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England. With records of games as early as 28 November 1862, Notts County is recognised as the oldest association football team in the world now playing at a professional level. Between 1888–89 and 2013–14 they played a total of 4,756 Football League matches – more than any other English team, the team plays in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system. County play their games at Meadow Lane in black and white striped shirts. The club has had spells in the top division of English football, most recently in 1991–92. Notable former managers of Notts County include Jimmy Sirrel, Howard Wilkinson, Neil Warnock, Howard Kendall, the club has had several owners. In the 21st century, a series of problems has seen the club owned by a supporters trust. Notts County are the oldest professional club in the world having been formed in 1862. Notts pre-dated The Football Association and initially played a game of its own devising, at the time of its formation, Notts County, like most sports teams, were considered to be a gentlemen-only club. Notts County are considered to be one of the pioneers of the game and are the oldest of the worlds professional association football clubs. In November 1872, the Notts County full-back Ernest Greenhalgh played for England against Scotland in the international match. In 1888, Notts County, along with 11 other football clubs and they finished their first league season in 11th place, but avoided the dubious honour of the wooden spoon, which went to Midlands rivals Stoke. However, Notts County did achieve their highest ever finish of third in 1890–91. On 25 March 1891, Notts County reached the FA Cup final for the first time, the Magpies were defeated 3–1 by Blackburn Rovers at The Oval, despite having beaten the same side 7–1 in the league only a week earlier. This achievement is also memorable for Notts County becoming the first club outside the top division to win the FA Cup, in 1910 they moved to Meadow Lane. Notts County were relegated in 1926 in what was to be their last season in the English top flight for half a century. The 1925–26 season was the last season that famed giant goalkeeper Albert Iremonger played for the club, in the 1946–47 season, the ground was used temporarily by Nottingham Forest after the River Trent flooded both Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Forest again used Meadow Lane in 1968, after fire destroyed the main stand at the City Ground, the golden age of the club came just after the end of World War II