George F. Edmunds
George Franklin Edmunds was a Republican U. S. Senator from Vermont. Before entering the U. S. Senate, he served in a number of high-profile positions, including Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Vermont State Senate. Edmunds was born in Richmond and began to study law while still a teenager, he became active in local politics and government. After terms in the Vermont House of Representatives and Vermont State Senate, Edmunds was appointed to the U. S. Senate in 1866, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Solomon Foot, he was subsequently elected by the Vermont General Assembly, reelected in 1868, 1874, 1880, 1886. Edmunds served from April 1866 until resigning in November 1891; as a longtime member of the U. S. Senate, he served in a variety of leadership posts, including chairman of the Committee on Pensions, the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Private Land Claims, the Committee on Foreign Relations, he was the leader of the Senate's Republicans in his roles as President pro tempore of the Senate and chairman of the Republican Conference.
Edmunds was an unsuccessful candidate for president at the 1880 and 1884 Republican National Conventions. After leaving the Senate he practiced law in Philadelphia, he lived in retirement in Pasadena, where he died in 1919. He was buried at Green Mount Cemetery in Vermont. George F. Edmunds was born in Richmond, Vermont on February 1, 1828, he attended the local schools and was tutored. Edmunds began studying law as a teenager, spending time in both the office of his brother in law and the office of David A. Smalley and Edward J. Phelps, he was admitted to the bar as soon as he was eligible in 1849. He practiced in Burlington, became active in politics by serving in local offices including Town Meeting Moderator. While practicing law, one of the students who studied under him was Russell S. Taft, who served as Lieutenant Governor and as Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court. A Republican, he was elected to the Vermont House of Representatives in 1854, he served until 1860, was Speaker from 1857 to 1860.
He moved to the Vermont State Senate in 1861, where he served until 1862. While in the State Senate, Edmunds was chosen to serve as President pro tempore. After the death of U. S. Senator Solomon Foot in March 1866, Governor Paul Dillingham was expected to appoint someone from the west side of the Green Mountains, in keeping with the Republican Party's Mountain Rule, he first considered former Governor J. Gregory Smith; when Smith indicated that he would not accept, Dillingham turned to Edmunds, who had favorably impressed Dillingham during their service together in the State Senate, whose residence in Burlington was on the west side of the state. Edmunds subsequently won reelection in 1868, 1874, 1880 and 1886, served from April 1866 until resigning in November 1891. In the Senate, Edmunds took an active part in the attempt to impeach President Andrew Johnson in 1868, he was influential in providing for the electoral commission to decide the disputed presidential election of 1876 and served as one of the commissioners, voting for Republicans Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler.
He was the author of the Edmunds Act against polygamy in Utah and the Sherman Antitrust Act to limit monopolies. In 1882 President Chester A. Arthur nominated Senator Roscoe Conkling to replace the retiring Ward Hunt as a Justice of the United States Supreme Court; when Conkling declined, Arthur chose Edmunds, who declined. The appointment went to Samuel Blatchford. Edmunds served as chairman of the Committee on Pensions from 1869 to 1873, the Committee on the Judiciary from 1872 to 1879 and again from 1881 to 1891, the Committee on Private Land Claims from 1879 to 1881 and the Committee on Foreign Relations in 1881, he was President pro tempore of the Senate from 1883 to 1885 and chairman of the Republican Conference from 1885 to 1891. While serving in Congress he continued to practice law, as did many other members of Congress at the time, he held retainers from railroads and other corporations, including those which could be affected by Senate action. An acerbic debater, he favored the status quo or slow progress.
He was known for making his colleagues feel the sting of his criticisms, some thought him better at opposing than offering constructive alternatives. David Davis joked that he could make Edmunds vote against any measure by phrasing the request for votes in the New England town meeting way: "Contrary-minded will say no." One friend trying to interest him in a presidential bid pleaded, "But, think how much fun you would have vetoing bills."Edmunds took special delight in goading southern senators into blurting out statements that would embarrass the Democratic Party. To those southerners opposed to any federal role in protecting blacks' right to vote, Edmunds seemed the epitome of Yankee evil. One southern correspondent in 1880 wrote, "When I look at that man sitting alone in the Senate, isolated in his gloom of hate and bitterness, silent, watchful and pitiless, I am reminded of the worst types of Puritan character... You see the impress of the purer persecuting spirit that burned witches, drove out Roger Williams, hounded Jonathan Edwards for doing his sacred duty, maligned Jefferson, like a toad squatted at the ear of the Constitution it had failed to pervert."But Edmunds had admirers.
One Democrat with no reason to appreciate him wrote a colleague that among all the Republicans, "Edmunds made the most impression upon me. I could
Edmund G. Ross
Edmund Gibson Ross was a politician who represented Kansas after the American Civil War and was governor of the New Mexico Territory. His vote against convicting President Andrew Johnson of "high crimes and misdemeanors" allowed Johnson to stay in office by the margin of one vote; as the seventh of seven Republican U. S. Senators to break with his party, Ross proved to be the person whose decision would result in conviction or acquittal; when he chose the latter, the vote of 35–19 in favor of Johnson's conviction failed to reach the required two-thirds vote. Ross lost his bid for re-election two years later. Ross is best known for casting the decisive vote which acquitted Andrew Johnson during his 1868 Presidential Impeachment trial; some people have claimed that Ross voted against the conviction due to concerns about his colleague Samuel C. Pomeroy receiving patronage from Benjamin Wade, as a means to receive patronage favors from Johnson. Others claim Ross cast his vote because he genuinely believed that Johnson had the right to replace Edwin M. Stanton, since he had been appointed during the Lincoln Administration.
Still others give voice to the opinion that, though the Kansas Senator did believe Johnson guilty of breaking the Tenure of Office Act, he did not believe that offense worthy of impeachment. Kansas newspapers thought that Ross voted against his radical leanings in supporting Johnson because of the influence of his old Colonel in the civil war, Thomas Ewing Jr. an ardent Johnson supporter at the time. In life, Ewing wrote Ross that he felt Ross was “preeminent for courage” among men – not only for his physical courage in battle but for opposing Johnson’s impeachment. “In making decision, you knew well that it could consign you to private life and the vehement denunciation of all your party friends.” However, there is significant evidence. Edmund G. Ross is one of eight U. S. Senators featured in Profiles in Courage, the 1956 Pulitzer Prize-winning history co-written by then-Senator John F. Kennedy and Theodore Sorensen in commemoration of past acts of political courage in Congress. Upon retirement from the Senate, Ross went back into the newspaper business launching a publication in Coffeyville, Kansas.
From 1885 to 1889, he served as governor of New Mexico Territory, appointed by President Grover Cleveland. He served as secretary of the New Mexico Bureau of Immigration from 1894 to 1896. In 1896, Ross published his book History of the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, he is interred at the Fairview Memorial Park Cemetery in New Mexico. Bumgardner, Edward, 1949; the Life of Edmund G. Ross; the Fielding-Turner Press, Kansas City, Missouri. Lamar, Howard R. "Edmund G. Ross as Governor of New Mexico Territory." New Mexico Historical Review 36#3: 177+ Roske, Ralph J. "The Seven Martyrs?." American Historical Review 64#2: 323-330. In JSTOR Ruddy Richard A. Edmund G. Ross: Soldier, Abolitionist online review United States Congress. "Edmund G. Ross". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-03-18 Works by Edmund Gibson Ross at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Edmund G. Ross at Internet Archive Andrew Johnson: Saved by a Scoundrel "Edmund G. Ross". Find a Grave. Retrieved March 18, 2009
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states. The amendment supersedes Article I, §3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures, it alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, allowing for state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held. The amendment was proposed by the 62nd Congress in 1912 and became part of the Constitution on April 8, 1913 on ratification by three-fourths of the state legislatures. Sitting Senators were not affected by the Amendment's provisions until their existing terms expired, so the Amendment took six years to implement; the transition began with two special elections in 1913 and 1914 - the first in Maryland and the second in Alabama. The transition began in earnest with the November 1914 election, was complete on 4 March 1919 when the Senators chosen at the November 1918 election took office.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures; when vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. Under Article I, § 3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, each state legislature elected its state's senators for a six-year term; each state, regardless of size, is entitled to two senators as part of the Connecticut Compromise between the small and large states.
This contrasted with the House of Representatives, a body elected by popular vote, was described as an uncontroversial decision. There were many advantages to the original method of electing senators. Prior to the Constitution, a federal body was one where states formed nothing more than permanent treaties, with citizens retaining their loyalty to their original state. However, under the new Constitution, the central government was granted more power than before. Additionally, the longer terms and avoidance of popular election turned the Senate into a body that could counter the populism of the House. While the Representatives operated in a two-year direct election cycle, making them accountable to their constituents, the senators could afford to "take a more detached view of issues coming before Congress". State legislatures retained the theoretical right to "instruct" their senators to vote for or against proposals, thus giving the states both direct and indirect representation in the federal government.
The Senate was part of a formal bicameralism, with the members of the Senate and House responsible to distinct constituencies. Members of the Constitutional Convention considered the Senate to be parallel to the British House of Lords as an "upper house", containing the "better men" of society, but improved upon as they would be conscientiously chosen by the upper houses of state republican legislatures for fixed terms, not inherited for life as in the British system, subject to a monarch's arbitrary expansion, it was hoped that they would provide abler deliberation and greater stability than the House of Representatives due to the senators' status. According to Judge Jay Bybee of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, those in favor of popular elections for senators believed that two primary problems were caused by the original provisions: legislative corruption and electoral deadlocks. There was a sense that senatorial elections were "bought and sold", changing hands for favors and sums of money rather than because of the competence of the candidate.
Between 1857 and 1900, the Senate investigated three elections over corruption. In 1900, for example, William A. Clark had his election voided after the Senate concluded that he had bought votes in the Montana legislature, but analysts Bybee and Todd Zywicki believe this concern was unfounded. In more than a century of legislative elections of U. S. senators, only ten cases were contested for allegations of impropriety. Electoral deadlocks were another issue; because state legislatures were charged with deciding whom to appoint as senators, the system relied on their ability to agree. Some states could not, thus delayed sending representatives to Congress. Deadlocks started to become an issue in the 1850s, with a deadlocked Indiana legislature allowing a Senate seat to sit vacant for two years. Between 1891 and 1905, 46 elections were deadlocked across 20 states; the business of holding elections cause
Alfred O. P. Nicholson
Alfred Osborn Pope Nicholson, a Tennessee Democratic politician and lawyer, was twice a United States Senator from that state. Nicholson was born near Tennessee in Williamson County, he attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, graduating in 1827. He was admitted to the bar in 1831, opening a law practice in Columbia, Tennessee, he edited the Western Mercury, a paper published in Columbia, from 1832 to 1835. He served in the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1833 to 1839. In 1840 he was appointed, on an interim basis, to succeed to the U. S. Senate seat vacated by the death of Senator Felix Grundy, he served in that office from December 25, 1840 to February 7, 1842. From 1843 to 1845 he served in the Tennessee State Senate, moving to Nashville during this period, edited the Nashville Union from 1844 to 1846. From 1846 to 1847 he served as a director, as president, of the Bank of Tennessee. In 1853 President Franklin Pierce wished to appoint him to the Cabinet, he edited the Washington Union from 1853 to 1856 and subsequently served as public printer to the United States House of Representatives.
In 1858 Nicholson was again elected to the United States Senate from Tennessee by the Tennessee General Assembly. He served from March 4, 1859 to March 3, 1861, when he withdrew from participation in the Senate in anticipation of Tennessee secession from the Union, which occurred the next month. In 1861, he was formally expelled from the Senate, as were all Senators from the states joining the Confederacy with the sole exception of his fellow Tennessean Andrew Johnson, a loyal Unionist. After the war, Nicholson served as Chief Justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1870 until his death, he died on March 1876 in Columbia, Tennessee. He was buried in Columbia's Rose Hill Cemetery. List of United States Senators censured United States Congress. "Alfred O. P. Nicholson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-03-23 "Alfred O. P. Nicholson". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-03-23
Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson assumed the presidency as he was vice president of the United States at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded, he favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. Johnson's main accomplishment as president is the Alaska purchase. Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina, never attended school. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee, he served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms, he became Governor of Tennessee for four years, was elected by the legislature to the U.
S. Senate in 1857. In his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862; as Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America, Johnson remained with the Union. He was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state's secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee. In 1864, Johnson, as a War Democrat and Southern Unionist, was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln, who wished to send a message of national unity in his reelection campaign; when Johnson was sworn in as vice president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech, after which he secluded himself to avoid public ridicule. Six weeks the assassination of Lincoln made him president. Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to reform their civil governments.
When Southern states returned many of their old leaders, passed Black Codes to deprive the freedmen of many civil liberties, Congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the Southern actions. Johnson vetoed their bills, Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency. Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1866, Johnson went on an unprecedented national tour promoting his executive policies, seeking to destroy his Republican opponents; as the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnson's ability to fire Cabinet officials. When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. After failing to win the 1868 Democratic presidential nomination, Johnson left office in 1869. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, gained it in his eyes when he was elected to the Senate again in 1875, making Johnson the only former president to serve in the Senate.
He died months into his term. While some admire Johnson's strict constitutionalism, his strong opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is criticized, he is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, on December 29, 1808, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough, a laundress, he was of English, Scots-Irish, Irish ancestry. He had a brother William, four years his senior, an older sister Elizabeth, who died in childhood. Johnson's birth in a two-room shack was a political asset in the mid-19th century, he would remind voters of his humble origins. Jacob Johnson was a poor man, as had been his father, William Johnson, but he became town constable of Raleigh before marrying and starting a family. Both Jacob and Mary were illiterate, had worked as tavern servants, while Johnson never attended school. Johnson grew up in poverty. Jacob died of an apparent heart attack while ringing the town bell, shortly after rescuing three drowning men, when his son Andrew was three.
Polly Johnson became the sole support of her family. Her occupation was looked down on, as it took her into other homes unaccompanied. There were rumors that Andrew, who did not resemble his brother or sister, had been fathered by another man. Polly Johnson remarried, to Turner Doughtry, as poor as she was. Johnson's mother apprenticed her son William to James Selby. Andrew became an apprentice in Selby's shop at age ten and was bound to serve until his 21st birthday. Johnson lived with his mother for part of his service, one of Selby's employees taught him rudimentary literacy skills, his education was augmented by citizens who would come to Selby's shop to read to the tailors as they worked. Before he became an apprentice, Johnson came to listen; the readings caused a lifelong love of learning, one of his biographers, Annette Gordon-Reed, suggests that Johnson a gifted public speaker, learned the art as he threaded needles and cut cloth. Johnson was not happy at James Selby's, after about five years, both he and his brother ran away.
Selby responded by placing a r
Governor of Tennessee
The Governor of Tennessee is the head of government of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The governor is the only official in Tennessee state government, directly elected by the voters of the entire state; the current governor is Bill Lee, a member of the Republican Party, who took office on January 19, 2019. The Tennessee Constitution provides that the governor must be at least 30 years old and must have lived in the state for at least seven years before being elected to the office; the governor may serve no more than two terms consecutively. There are only two other U. S. states, New Jersey and Hawaii, where the governor is the only state official to be elected statewide. The Tennessee Constitution provides that “The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a governor.” Most state department heads and some members of boards and commissions are appointed by the governor. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's army and navy and the state militia, except when they have been called up into federal service.
The governor chairs the Tennessee Board of Regents and the University of Tennessee Board of Trustees and holds seats on the State Funding Board, State Building Commission, Board of Equalization, Tennessee Local Development Authority, School Bond Authority, Tennessee Industrial and Agricultural Development Commission. The Tennessee governor can veto laws passed by the Tennessee General Assembly and has line-item veto authority for individual spending items included in bills passed by the legislature. In either situation, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority of both houses of the legislature. If a governor exercises the veto authority after the legislature has adjourned, the veto stands, it is uncommon for Tennessee governors to use their veto power because it is so easy for the General Assembly to override a veto. The state constitution empowers the governor to call the General Assembly into special session, with the subjects to be considered limited to matters specified in the call.
As of 2010, the governor's salary was set at $170,340 per year. This is the ninth highest U. S. gubernatorial salary. Haslam and his predecessor, Phil Bredesen, both were independently wealthy before taking office and refused to accept state salaries for their service as governor. Tennessee does not elect a lieutenant governor. If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor due to the governor's death, removal, or resignation from office, the Tennessee Constitution provides for the Speaker of the Tennessee Senate to become governor; because this has the effect of making the speaker the lieutenant governor, the speaker is referred to by the title "lieutenant governor." And was granted this title by statute in 1951. Following the lieutenant governor/senate speaker in the line of succession are the speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives, the secretary of state, the comptroller. In the event the governor's office becomes vacant during the first 18 months of his term, a special election for the balance of the term must be held at the time of the next federal general election.
If the vacancy occurs after the first 18 months, whoever ascends to the governorship serves out the balance of the term. In either case, a partial term counts toward the two-term limit. Governor William Blount served from 1790 to 1796, when Tennessee was known as the Southwest Territory, he was replaced by the state's first governor. Other notable governors include Willie Blount, Sam Houston, future U. S Presidents James K. Polk and Andrew Johnson