Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
Sheffield Wednesday Football Club is a professional association football club based in Sheffield, England. The team competes in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Formed as an offshoot of The Wednesday Cricket Club in 1867, in 1868 they won the Cromwell Cup, only the second tournament of its kind, and in 1877 they won the inaugural Sheffield Challenge Cup, the oldest county cup in England. They were founding members and inaugural champions of the Football Alliance in 1889, in 1992 they became founder members of the Premier League. The club has spent most of its history in English footballs top flight. The Owls, as they are nicknamed, have won four league titles, Wednesday have also competed in UEFA cup competitions on four occasions, reaching the quarter-finals of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1963. Since 1899 the club has played its matches at Hillsborough stadium. Although no contemporary evidence has found to support the claim. Nevertheless, an 1842 article in Bells Life magazine states the club was founded as far back as 1816, the club was so named because it was on Wednesdays that the founding members had their day off work. They were initially based at the New Ground in Darnall, and often went by the name of Darnall Wednesday, in 1855 they were one of six clubs that helped build Bramall Lane, and held a wicket there for many years. The proposal proved very popular, with over 60 members signing up for the new team on the first night and they played their first match against The Mechanics on 19 October the same year, winning by three goals and four rouges to nil. On 1 February 1868, Wednesday played their first competitive match as they entered the Cromwell Cup. A week after their semi-final, they went on to win the cup, beating the Garrick club in the final after extra time, a key figure during the formative years of the football club was Charles Clegg, who joined the Wednesday in 1867. His relationship with the club lasted for the rest of his life and he also became president and chairman of the Football Association, and was known as the Napoleon of Football. In 1876 Wednesday acquired Scot James Lang, although he was not employed by the club, he was given a job by a member of the Sheffield Wednesday board that had no formal duties. He is now acknowledged as the first professional player in England. With Lang in their team the club became one of the strongest in the region. In 1880 the club entered the FA Cup for the first time, but although they had had Lang on their books a decade earlier, the club officially remained staunchly amateur, and this stance almost cost the club its very existence
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its derives from the River Sheaf. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 569,700, Sheffield is the third largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000, in the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Known as the Steel City, many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffields gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007, the economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber. The city is in the foothills of the Pennines, and the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin. 61% of Sheffields entire area is space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have inhabited since at least the late Upper Palaeolithic period. The earliest evidence of occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes and it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts in and around Sheffield. Gradually, Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira, a Celtic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield. The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, however, date from the half of the first millennium. In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, after the Norman conquest, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, from 1570 to 1584, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler. If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, Britain, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has also achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett. One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire. They play in the Northern Premier League Division One South, at level 8 of the English football league system, founded in 1857, the club is the oldest club now playing association football. Sheffield F. C. initially played games under the Sheffield rules, the club competes in the Rules derby with near neighbours Hallam. On the pitch, the clubs finest hour came in 1904 when they won the FA Amateur Cup and they also finished as runners up of the FA Vase in 1977. In 1855, members of a Sheffield cricket club organised informal kick-abouts without any official rules, – subsequently two members, Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, formed the Sheffield Football Club. The inaugural meeting of the club took place on 24 October 1857 at Parkfield House in the suburb of Highfield, initially, Sheffield FC games were played among club members themselves and took the format of Married v Singles or Professionals v the Rest. Creswick and Prest were responsible for drawing up the rules of play. They were referred to as the Sheffield Rules, and were the first official set of rules, at the time, before the formation of the Football Association, many different kinds of football were popular in England. For example, each of the public schools played football according to their own individual rules. The Sheffield Rules were later adopted by the Sheffield Football Association when it was formed in 1867, sheffields near neighbour, Hallam, was formed in 1860 and in the same year the two clubs first met each other in a local derby which is still contested today. By 1862 there were 15 clubs in the Sheffield area and they became members of The Football Association on 30 November 1863 but continued to use their own set of rules. On 2 January 1865, the club played its first fixture outside Sheffield against Nottingham, by this time the club had decided only to play teams outside Sheffield in order to seek a bigger challenge. On 31 March 1866, there was a match between a team representing the city of Sheffield and one representing London, at Battersea Park, Rules that differed only slightly from the FA rules were used. The game, played as an aside, was won by London by 2 goals. However the matter of rules remained a problem with Sheffield clubs continuing to play by their own rules, Sheffield clubs finally adopted the FA rules in 1878. They would reach the 4th Round of the competition in 1877–78 and their reluctance to play against local clubs led to the formation of Thursday Wanderers in 1876, a team of players registered to Sheffield who wished to play in the Sheffield Challenge Cup. The Wanderers operated from 1876 to 1879, winning the cup in their final year, after the legalisation of professionalism, the staunchly amateur Sheffield suggested to the FA the creation of a cup exclusively for amateur clubs. The FA Amateur Cup was inaugurated in 1893 and Sheffield themselves won the competition in 1904 and they joined their first league competition in 1889 when entering the Midland League, but left after just one season when they finished bottom of the table
Hallam Football Club is an English football club based in Crosspool, Sheffield, South Yorkshire. They play in the Northern Counties East League Division One, at level 10 of the English football league system, founded in 1860, it is second only to local rivals Sheffield F. C. in the list of the oldest association football clubs in the world. Games between these two clubs are known as the Rules derby, in 1867 the club made history by winning the worlds first ever football tournament, the Youdan Cup. The club still possess this historic trophy, the club had in excess of 300 members by the 1850s, and in 1860 it decided to form a football club to oppose Sheffield F. C. formed three years earlier. On Boxing Day 1860 the two played each other on Sandygate Road for the first time. The match report for the game in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph states that the game was played between 16 of Sheffield and 16 of Hallam and Stumperlowe. Shaw was directly instrumental, with Charles Alcock of the London-based Football Association, shaw and Alcock were the respective captains in the first game between a Sheffield XI and a London XI, in 1871, in which the preferred rules were experimented. In 1867, Hallam won the first ever football competition, the Youdan Cup. The trophy was subsequently lost by the club, and didnt resurface again until 1997 when a Scottish antiques collector who had come into possession of the silver trophy sold it to the club for £2,000. In 2014 the trophy featured on the BBC programme Antiques Roadshow, Club chairman Chris Taylor subsequently said the club had no plans to sell the trophy. Although professionalism began to creep into the game during the 1870s and 80s and they also reached the final of the Sheffield and Hallamshire Senior Cup for the first time in 1904, but lost 1–6 to Barnsley reserves at Bramall Lane. In 1911 the club first competed in an FA cup competition, eventually, in 1917, Hallam decided they could no longer keep playing, and suspended playing operations, only re-joining the Sheffield Amateur League after hostilities had ended, in 1919. In 1924 Hallam pulled off one of their greatest ever results when they knocked out five-time Amateur Cup winners Bishop Auckland in front of over 2,000 at Sandygate Road, two years later the club entered the FA Cup for the first time. After winning the Sheffield Amateur League for the time in 1927. At the end of the 1932–33 season the landlord of the Plough Inn public house decided to lease the Sandygate Road ground to other teams as Hallam werent providing enough bar takings. Although the club retained its affiliation with the local FA, Hallams eviction from their ground saw them refrain from playing any football for a period of 15 years. A year later Hallam won the Sheffield Senior Cup for the first time when they beat Stocksbridge Works at Hillsborough in front of 7,240 spectators, and in 1952 they entered the Yorkshire League. That same season an Amateur Cup tie with Dulwich Hamlet was switched to Hillsborough stadium because of increased ticket demands – the attendance of over 13,000 proving to be a club record
Bramall Lane is a football stadium in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is the home of Sheffield United and it was also used by Sheffield Wednesday and Sheffield F. C. for major matches. This is because Sheffield Wednesday are a club and used to own this ground. It has been the home of Sheffield United since the establishment in 1889. It is the oldest major stadium in the still to be hosting professional association football matches. The stadium was built on a Sheffield road named after the Bramall family, the Bramalls owned The Old White House on the corner of Bramall Lane and Cherry Street, and subsequently built the Sheaf House, now a public house that still stands at the top of Bramall Lane. The stadium was opened as a cricket ground. It was also used for games in the 19th century by Sheffield F. C. and Sheffield Wednesday. Bramall Lane is one of two grounds which has hosted England football internationals, an England cricket test match and an FA Cup Final. It also regularly hosted FA Cup Semi Finals and replays between 1889 and 1938, the ground has also hosted rugby league games for the Sheffield Eagles, a Billy Graham Evangelist meeting in 1985 and a pair of rock concerts by Bruce Springsteen in 1988. The record attendance for the ground is 68,287, set at an FA Cup 5th Round tie between Sheffield United and Leeds United on 15 February 1936. Bramall Lane opened as a ground in 1855, having been leased by Michael Ellison from the Duke of Norfolk at an annual rent of £70. The site was then away from the industrial area. It was built to host the matches of cricket clubs and originally had six clubs playing there, one of whom was the Wednesday Cricket Club. Bramall Lane opened on 30 April 1855 as a ground with a match between The Eleven and The Twenty Two, The Eleven, despite being the senior team. A team representing Yorkshire played the first county match at the ground on 27 August 1855, against Sussex, although the first county game had been played eight years earlier, the official Yorkshire County Cricket Club was not formed until 1863. The idea came from Ellison, who was using his own finances to support the club and it was the clubs headquarters until 1893, when they moved to Headingley in Leeds. In 1897, Jack Brown and John Tunnicliffe recorded a first wicket score of 378 against Sussex—a ground record that has never been beaten, browns score of 311 and Yorkshires innings of 681 for 5 declared were also records when the cricket ground closed
The primary grapes used in the production of Champagne are black Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier but also white Chardonnay. Champagne appellation law only allows grapes grown according to rules in specifically designated plots within the appellation to be used in the production of champagne. Royalty became associated with Champagne in the 17th, 18th, the leading manufacturers made efforts to associate their Champagnes with nobility and royalty through advertising and packaging, which led to popularity among the emerging middle class. Patricia Harmsworth, Viscountess Rothermere, the English socialite, was nicknamed Bubbles after her love of champagne, wines from the Champagne region were known before medieval times. The Romans were the first to plant vineyards in this area of north-east France, with the region being cultivated by at least the 5th century, later, churches owned vineyards and monks produced wine for use in the sacrament of Eucharist. French kings were anointed in Reims, and Champagne was served as part of coronation festivities. The Champenois were envious of the reputation of the wines made by their Burgundian neighbours to the south, however, the northerly climate of the region gave the Champenois a unique set of challenges in making red wine. At the far extremes of sustainable viticulture, the grapes would struggle to fully and often would have bracing levels of acidity. The wines would be lighter bodied and thinner than the Burgundy wines they were seeking to outdo, the oldest recorded sparkling wine is Blanquette de Limoux, which was apparently invented by Benedictine Monks in the Abbey of Saint-Hilaire, near Carcassonne in 1531. They achieved this by bottling the wine before the initial fermentation had ended, Merret presented a paper at the Royal Society, in which he detailed what is now called méthode champenoise, in 1662. French glass-makers at this time could not produce bottles of the quality or strength. As early as 1663 the poet Samuel Butler referred to brisk champagne, in France the first sparkling Champagne was created accidentally, the pressure in the bottle led it to be called the devils wine, as bottles exploded or corks popped. In 1844 Adolphe Jaquesson invented the muselet to prevent the corks from blowing out, initial versions were difficult to apply and inconvenient to remove. Even when it was produced as a sparkling wine, Champagne was for a very long time made by the méthode rurale. Champagne did not use the méthode champenoise until the 19th century, the 19th century saw an exponential growth in Champagne production, going from a regional production of 300,000 bottles a year in 1800 to 20 million bottles in 1850. In 2007, Champagne sales hit a record of 338.7 million bottles. In the 19th century Champagne was noticeably sweeter than the Champagnes of today, the trend towards drier Champagne began when Perrier-Jouët decided not to sweeten his 1846 vintage prior to exporting it to London. The designation Brut Champagne was created for the British in 1876 and they include codification of the most suitable growing places, the most suitable grape types, and a lengthy set of requirements specifying most aspects of viticulture
Dronfield is a town in North East Derbyshire in the North Midlands region of England. It comprises the three communities of Dronfield, Dronfield Woodhouse and Coal Aston and it is sited in the valley of the small River Drone, and lies between the town of Chesterfield and the city of Sheffield. The Peak District National Park lies 3 miles to the west, the towns name means open land infested with drones. The town is known to have been in prior to the 1086 Domesday Book. In 1662 Charles II granted the town a market, although this later ceased, the industrial history of the town includes coal mining, the wool trade, the production of soap and steel, and engineering. Today a range of manufacturing firms still operate within the town, Dronfields population has increased dramatically in post-war years from 6,500 in 1945 to its current size of just over 21,000. The football ground to the north of the town is currently the home of Sheffield F. C. the worlds oldest football club, Dronfield was in existence before the 1086 Domesday Book, though little is known about its early history. It suffered after the Norman conquest when William the Conqueror sought to bring the North of England under control and its name derives from the Old English drān and feld, meaning open land infested with drones. The Church of St John the Baptist was built by 1135 when Oscot was rector, the Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary was established in 1349 in the hall of the chantry priests. However, due to the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the subsequent suppression of the guilds and chantries in 1547, it became a local inn which still operates today as the Green Dragon Inn. During the 16th century Dronfield with its sheep farmers had a significant number of working in the wool trade, engaged in spinning and weaving and also the production. Soaper Lane, being next to the river, was the centre of the soap-making and tanning industry in the town, with a dye works also situated there. In 1662 Dronfield was granted a market by Charles II, but in the 18th century, due to the proximity of Sheffield and Chesterfield, further mines were opened at Coal Aston in 1785 and Carr Lane in Dronfield Woodhouse in 1795. The town also benefited from trade with the mining and grindstone industries in the Peak District. The wealth of the Rotheram family, who became the Lords of the Manor of Dronfield, was based on the lead trade, the Wilson-Cammell steelworks was built in the town in 1872-3, following the completion of the Midland Main Line through the town in April 1869. Bessemer steel was first blown at the site in March 1873, steelworkers and their families moved too. It is estimated that 1,500 townspeople made the trip to Workington, dronnies, as the people of Workington called the newcomers, formed Workington AFC in 1888. The historic Victorian quadrangle and library, as well as the sixth-form block, the remains of the modern school were subsequently demolished and mobile cabins were used as classrooms until 1996 when the school was rebuilt
Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England has been the home ground of Sheffield Wednesday F. C. since opening in 1899. It is a 39,732 capacity stadium, making it the largest club ground in England outside of the Premier League until Newcastle United and it is located in the Sheffield suburb of Owlerton. Although the ground has received little investment since Euro 1996, it is regarded as a beautiful ground oozing character. It has two large two-tiered stands and two large single-tiered stands, all of them covered, all four stands are of a similar capacity with the South Stand being the largest and the West stand the smallest. Only one corner of the ground is filled, between the West and North Stands and this area, known as the North West corner, is uncovered and is only used for visiting supporters when the West Stands upper and lower tiers are full. On the other corner of the West Stand is a screen which was installed in 2015. On 15 April 1989, the ground was the scene of the Hillsborough disaster in which 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death at an FA Cup semi-final. Plans by the club to renovate the stadium and expand capacity to 44,825 have been approved by Sheffield City Council with the aim of hosting World Cup matches. The playing surface has been upgraded to a Desso GrassMaster including a replacement of the Under-soil heating. The stadium previously played host to World Cup and European Championship football in 1966 and 1996 respectively, during the 1898–99 season Sheffield Wednesday were told that the land rented at Olive Grove would be needed for railway expansions. They were allowed to remain there for the rest of season but had to find a new ground for the next season. Several locations were considered but fell through for various reasons, an alternative was offered by the Midland Railway Company but it did not meet the requirements of the club. Finally James Willis Dixon of Hillsborough House, owner of the Silversmiths James Dixon & Sons, offered a 10-acre site at Owlerton, the land was part of the Hillsborough House estate which was being sold off by the Dixons. It was successfully bought for £5,000 plus costs, soil was dumped at both ends of the ground to level out the ground which was initially meadowland covered with dandelions. The 2,000 capacity stand at Olive Grove was then transported to the new site and was joined by a newly constructed 3,000 capacity stand for the start of the next season, the first match to be played was on 2 September 1899 against Chesterfield. The match was kicked off by the Lord Mayor of Sheffield William Clegg and it was a Chesterfield player, Herbert Munday, who scored the first goal at the new stadium but Wednesday came back to win the game 5–1. Despite the location of the several miles outside the city boundaries. The ground was known as the Owlerton Stadium until 1914, when it was renamed Hillsborough to coincide with a series of ground improvements, the ground took its new name from the newly created parliamentary constituency
History of Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
The History of Sheffield Wednesday F. C. covers almost 150 years of both success and failure of the football club from Sheffield, England. Established in 1867 the club would see early regional success followed by a transition to professionalism. Although it has spent the majority of its Football League years in the top flight its position within the league has varied from the top to almost slipping to the fourth tier. The club was initially a cricket team named The Wednesday Cricket Club after the day of the week on which they played their matches, the footballing side of the club was established to keep the team together and fit during the winter months. SWFC was born on the evening of Wednesday 4 September 1867 at a meeting at the Adelphi Hotel in Sheffield, the formation was announced two days later with the following statement in the Sheffield Independent newspaper, SHEFFIELD WEDNESDAY CRICKET CLUB AND FOOTBALL CLUB. From the great unanimity which prevailed as to the desirability of forming the club, the office bearers were elected as follows, – President, Mr. B. Chatterton, vice-president and treasurer, Mr. F. S. Chambers, about sixty were enrolled without any canvas, some of them being the best players of the town. Even at this first meeting it became apparent that football would soon come to eclipse the cricketing side of the club, the formation of the football club came within a decade of the first football club in the world, Sheffield F. C. being formed. Hallam F. C. was set up shortly afterwards and by 1867 Association football was becoming very popular, the Wednesday played their first football match in October 1867 against the Mechanics Club at Norfolk Park, a game which they won by three goals and four rouges to nil. They went on to win the cup, beating Cromwells own team, Wednesday were joined by the Clegg brothers, Charles and William in 1870. Charles became the clubs first international player when he played in the very first international on 30 November 1872, William represented the Wednesday in the next international on 8 March 1873. Both players would go on to be associated with the club for the rest of their lives, although it would be Charles who became most heavily involved in football eventually rising to become president and chairman of the Football Association. Both the Cleggs received knighthoods in later life, in 1876 Wednesday were joined by James Lang. The directors of the club had seen him playing for Glasgow against the Sheffield FA representative side. He was subsequently invited to come to Sheffield and play for the club and given a job, working in a owned by one of the directors. This is now acknowledged as the first case of professionalism in the game, sheffields first annual tournament, the Sheffield FA Challenge Cup, was inaugurated in 1876 and won by Wednesday who beat Heeley, their chief rivals at the time, in the final 4–3 after extra time. They would go on to win the first Warncliffe Cup in 1879. By this time Wednesday had become the dominant force in local football, in 1879 a number of Wednesday players were involved in a team referred to as The Zulus
Park & Arbourthorne ward—which includes the districts of Arbourthorne, Gleadless, and Norfolk Park—is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield, England. It is located in the part of the city and covers an area of 1.74 square miles. The population of this ward in 2001 was 17,500 people in 7,800 households, the ward population at the 2011 Census was 19,133. It is one of the five wards that form the Sheffield Heeley parliamentary constituency, Arbourthorne is part of the city of Sheffield, England. It lies in the S2 postcode and is the home of Arbourthorne Community Church, Sheffield Springs Academy, Norfolk, much of the area is council housing although some is now private sector. Gleadless is a village, since 1967 a suburb of Sheffield located in the southeastern portion of the city. The name comes from the Old English Glida Leah meaning a clearing in a wood. Gleadless is served by the Purple and Blue Sheffield Supertram lines at Gleadless Townend tram stop on Ridgeway Road, Norfolk Park is a residential area of Sheffield that surrounds Norfolk Heritage Park close to the city centre. A privately operated student village is located in the next to the park. Norfolk Park is on the blue and purple tram lines with three stops, Park Grange Croft Park Grange, and somewhat slightly further is Granville Road/Sheffield College tram stop, sources for the History of Arbourthorne Produced by Sheffield City Councils Libraries and Archives
The Sheffield Rules were a code of football devised and played in the English city of Sheffield between 1857 and 1877. They were devised by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest for use by the newly founded Sheffield Football Club, the rules were subsequently adopted as the official rules of Sheffield Football Association upon its creation in 1867. They spread beyond the city boundaries to other clubs and associations in the north, six years after the creation of the Sheffield Rules the Football Association rules were created. These were influenced by the Sheffield game but ongoing disputes meant that the Sheffield rules continued to be used, during this time many of the elements of the rules were incorporated into the association game. Regular games were played between Sheffield and London using both sets of rules and this led to an agreement on a single set of laws administered by the Football Association in 1877. The rules had a influence on how the modern game of football developed. Among other things they introduced into the laws of the game the concepts of corners, throw-ins, the abolition of the fair catch also led to their teams to be the first to head the ball. Games played under the rules are credited with the development of heading. The first inter-club football match and competitive tournament were played using Sheffield Rules. The oldest recorded football match in Sheffield occurred in 1794 when a game of mob football was played between Sheffield and Norton that took place at Bents Green, the game lasted three days, which was not unusual for matches at the time. It was noted that there were some injuries no-one was killed during the match. The Clarkehouse Road Fencing Club had been playing football since 1852, the city was home to a number of sports clubs and the popularity of cricket had led to the chairman of Sheffield Cricket Club to suggest the construction of Bramall Lane. By the 1850s there were versions of football played in public schools. Each school played by their own code despite an attempt by Cambridge University to unify them in 1848 and their rules were generally inaccessible outside of the schools. There the football tended to be unorganised and fairly lawless games known as mob football, although there are matches between small, equal numbered teams it remained a minority sport until the 1860s. During the winter months in 1855 the players of Sheffield Cricket Club organised informal football matches in order to retain fitness until the start of the new season, two of the players were Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, both of whom were born in Yorkshire. Creswick came from a Sheffield family of silver plate manufacturers that dated back several centuries, after being educated at the citys Collegiate School he became a solicitor. Prests family had moved from York while he was a child and his father bought a wine merchants that William subsequently took over