1868 in Wales
- 22 January – Sixteen vessels are lost in a gale off the Burry estuary, with a total of thirty lives lost.
- 1 February – At the bridge over the Severn at Caersws an approach embankment, damaged by flood water, collapses under a train. The driver and fireman are killed.
- 14 August – Opening of the Bala and Dolgelly Railway, completing the Ruabon to Barmouth Line via Corwen and alongside Bala Lake.
- 20 August – 33 people die in a fire resulting from a collision between a mail train and a set of trucks at Llandulas station near Abergele, the greatest loss of life in a railway accident in Wales.
- October – Work begins on Nant-y-Ffrith reservoir.
- 2 December – The United Kingdom general election leaves Gladstone's Liberals the dominant party in Wales, with 21 seats.
- Among the Conservative members who lose their seats are Crawshay Bailey and Henry Austin Bruce, the latter replaced by two MPs for the expanded constituency of Merthyr Tydfil: Richard Fothergill and Henry Richard.
- Richard Davies becomes MP for Anglesey.
- Love Jones-Parry wins Caernarvonshire from Douglas Pennant.
- George Osborne Morgan is elected for the first time in Denbighshire.
- Farmers in Cardiganshire are evicted for returning a Liberal MP, Thomas Lloyd.
- Norwegian Seamen's Church opens in Cardiff.
- John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, sponsors restoration work at Caerphilly Castle.
- First publication of the Welsh-language periodical, Baner America, in the USA.
- Y Dydd is founded, with Samuel Roberts (S. R.) as editor.
- Iron Age crannog is discovered on an island in Llangorse Lake, near Brecon.
Arts and literature
- Robert Elis (Cynddelw) – Geiriadur Cymreig Cymraeg
- John Ceiriog Hughes – Oriau eraill
- Jabez Edmund Jenkins – Rhiangerdd – Gwenfron o'r Dyffryn
- Griffith Jones (Glan Menai) – Enwogion Sir Aberteifi
- Rhys Gwesyn Jones – Caru, Priodi, a Byw
- John Phillips (Tegidon) – Y Ddeilen ar y Traeth
- William Forbes Skene – The Four Ancient Books of Wales
- William Lewis Barrett is appointed flautist at the Italian Opera of Lutz.
- Gŵyl Ardudwy music festival is founded by John Roberts (Ieuan Gwyllt).
- Publication of Llyfr Tonau ac Emynau, edited by Edward Stephen (Tanymarian) and Joseph David Jones.
- 29 May – Sydney Nicholls, Wales rugby international player (d. 1946)
- 10 June
- 2 August – Sir Alfred Edward Lewis, banker (d. 1940)
- 28 August – Thomas Charles Williams, minister (d. 1927)
- 28 November - Arthur Linton, cyclist (d. 1896)
- 29 December – William Owen Jones (Eos y Gogledd), musician (d. 1928)
- date unknown
- 13 January – John Parry, Mormon convert, 79
- 22 June – Owain Meirion, poet, 65
- 17 August – William Nevill, 4th Earl of Abergavenny, 76
- 11 September – Maria James, poet, 74
- 24 November – Sir John Dorney Harding, lawyer, 59
- date unknown
- "Impact of scour and flood risk on railway structures" (PDF). Rail Safety and Standards Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2010.