1870 United States Census

The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. It was conducted by the Census Bureau from June 1, 1870 to August 23, 1871; the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African-American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The total population was 38,925,598 with a resident population of 38,558,371 individuals, a 22.6% increase from 1860. The 1870 Census' population estimate was controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers in New York and Pennsylvania; this was the first census in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 10,000. This was the last federal census conducted using the US Marshal Service as enumerators; the Census Act of 1850 established the primary machinery of the ninth census. The Census Bureau, working within the Department of the Interior, oversaw the recording and tabulation of results gathered by assistant marshals, who were hired and supervised by Federal marshals.

Two new structural changes during the 1870 Census occurred: marshals had to return the completed population questionnaire to the Census Office in September and penalties for refusing to reply to enumerator questions were extended to encompass every question on the questionnaires. The past-used slave questionnaires were redesigned to reflect the American society after the Civil War; the five schedules for the 1870 Census were the following: General Population, Agriculture, Products of Industry, Social Statistics. The general population saw a 22.6% increase to 38,555,983 individuals in 1870. Charges of an undercount, were brought against Francis Amasa Walker, the Superintendent of the 1870 Census. Mortality rates in 1870, in general, decreased as a fraction of the total population by <0.1% from 1860 and by 0.1% from 1850. The lower death rates indicate that the standard of living increased, due to some exogenous factor, over the period of twenty years from 1850 to 1870. In terms of products of industry, total U.

S. wealth increased by 17.3% from 1860 to 1870, to reach an assessed wealth of $14,178,986,732. The four largest state contributors to this wealth were New York, Massachusetts and Ohio, in that order. Most of the wealth was concentrated in the developed Northeast region, as newer states like Wyoming were beginning to develop their young economies; the 1870 Census was the first of its kind to record the nativity of the American population. This social statistic helped determine which areas were more composed of immigrants than native-born Americans. New York City had the most foreign-born individuals, with 419,094 foreigners, who comprised 44.5% of the city's total population. Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco had a great population of foreigners that made up a significant fraction of their total populations. Therefore, a great ethnic and cultural change was witnessed from 1860 to 1870, as part of the population growth was due to immigrants moving in and a shuffling of residents across state borders.

*The Constitutional Population excludes the populations of Native Americans "maintaining their tribal relations and living upon Government reservations" and "the newly acquired district of Alaska."**When considering Congressional Apportionment, the total State population of the Constitutional population was used. Schedule 1 of the 1870 census collected the following information Dwelling-houses numbered in the order of Visitation Families numbered in the order of visitation Names Age Sex Color Profession Value of Real Estate Value of Personal Estate Place of Birth Father's Birthplace* Mother's Birthplace* If born within the year, state month If married within the year, state month Attended School within the Year Cannot Read Cannot Write Deaf & dumb, insane, pauper, or convict Male Citizens of U. S. of 21 years of age or upwards Male Citizens of U. S of 21 years of age and upwards where rights to vote is denied on grounds other than rebellion or other crime***If born in another country **This question asked if one's right to vote is being denied due to a legal matter other than rebellion or conviction.

Such circumstances included being unable to pass a literacy test. Full documentation for the 1870 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Although Francis Walker, the Superintendent of the 1870 Census, defended the quality of the census, arguing that standardized and statistical approaches and practices were carried out across all regions of the United States, the public at the time was disappointed in the national growth rate and suspected underenumeration. With bitter complaints coming from New York and Philadelphia claiming up to a third of the population was not counted, the President made the rare move to order a recount in those areas. While it was thought a large fraction of the population was not counted for being indoors in the wintry cold, newer estimates resulted in only a 2.5% increase in Philadelphia's population and a 2% increase in New York's. This controversy of the 1870 undercount resurfaced in 1890, when the national growth rate between 1880 and 1890 was discovered to be much lower than it was between 1870 and 1880.

Critics asserted that the 1870 population must have been underenumerated by over 1.2 million people to account for the discrepancy between growth rates. Despite the fact that modern investigations have yet to quantify the exact effect of the undercount, most modern social scientists do not believe the undercount was as sev

Bogert Covered Bridge

Bogert Covered Bridge is a historic wooden covered bridge located at Allentown, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. It is a 145-foot-long, Burr Truss bridge, constructed in 1841, it has a gable roof. It was restored by the Allentown Parks Department. Bogert's Bridge was built in 1841-42, it takes its name from the Bogert family. Peter Bogert purchased the land. Settlers are said to have used it as a crossing. In the 1760s, a crude log bridge replaced by a wooden plank bridge, was built on the site; when American Indians complained that this bridge blocked their canoes, Bogert was called on to settle the dispute. The American Indians believed he treated them afterward calling Bogert "the Peacemaker." Bogert's Bridge is a Burr truss, named after a design created by Theodore Burr of Connecticut in the early 19th century. Its most distinctive feature is two long arch trusses resting on abutments at either end, it was built by local men. John Waltman of Allentown worked on the bridge as a carpenter's apprentice at the age 16.

The Pennsylvania Department of Highways took responsibility for the bridge from Lehigh County in 1945 because it carried S. 24th Street, which linked state routes Hamilton Street and Lehigh Street. The bridge served its role well for many years into the late 1950s, but at 3:15 a.m. on 19 February 1956, a speeding truck pulling a trailer smashed into the bridge, splintering seven of the bridge's 12-by-12-inch crossbeams. Its roof sagged in the middle. Lehigh county wanted to tear down the bridge, believing it had become a traffic hazard. However, that didn't stop more damage from being done to the bridge. On 30 May 30, 1957, a second accident involving a truck carrying an earthmover crashed into the bridge, smashing the roof and causing extensive damage. Although many thought Bogert's Bridge was doomed; the covered bridge was reconstructed by the Commonwealth and given to Allentown in 1964. Today, Bogert's is the oldest covered bridge in Lehigh County and among the oldest in the country, it is open to bicycle traffic only.

It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Historical and Notable Sites in Allentown, Pennsylvania

August Reinsdorf

August Reinsdorf was a German anarchist, sometimes credited as being "The Father of German Anarchy." August was a socialist anarchist who believed in the rights of the workers and the common man. He attempted to end dictatorship in Germany, his plan was to blow up the Emperor's carriage with dynamite by placing it under the bridge that the Emperor's carriage was planned to take. His plan was foiled by rain, which put the fuse out, he was discovered, he was executed in Halle on February 7, 1885. His assassination attempt on the Emperor was one of the first acts of terror in Germany related to politics and anarchy, his descendants moved to America, live there today. "The workers live in poor huts. Everything that the state does, has alone the tendency to keep these conditions eternally upright; the upper ten thousand rest on the shoulders of the large mass. Is this to last eternally? Isn't a change our obligation? Are we to put eternally the hands into the lap?"