History of Monaco
Part of Ligurias history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for primarily political reasons. Since that point, excepting a period of French occupation. The Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period, approximately 400,000 BC. Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos, the Roman emperor Julian wrote of Herculess construction of Monacos port and a coastal road. The road was dotted with altars to Hercules, and a dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco. The name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port, monoeci meaning Single One or Monoikos meaning Single House could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the travels of Hercules theme, documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, after the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.
The Roman poet Virgil called it that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea, either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time. No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground, the port is mentioned in Pliny the Elders Natural History and in Tacitus Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century. Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks, though these raids left the area almost entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, and by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, on June 10,1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco.
This date is cited as the beginning of Monacos modern history. The Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family, francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Menton in 1346 and Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions, in 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. The principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice
The 1840s was a really active and extremely turbulent decade that ran from January 1,1840, to December 31,1849. Throughout the decade, many countries worldwide saw many revolts as well as uprisings, asides from uprisings, the United States began to see a shifting population that migrated to the West Coast, as the California Gold Rush ensued in the latter half of the decade. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, the capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1845, George Tupou I united Tonga into a kingdom, on August 29,1842, the first of two Opium Wars ended between China and Britain with the Treaty of Nanking. One of the consequences was the cession of modern-day Hong Kong Island to the British, Hong Kong would eventually be returned to China in 1997. Other events, July 3,1844 – The United States signs the Treaty of Wanghia with the Chinese Government, the 1840s comprised the end of the Tenpō era, the entirety of the Kōka era, and the beginning of the Kaei era. The decade saw the end of the reign of Emperor Ninko in 1846, emperors Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị and Tự Đức ruled Vietnam during the 1840s under the Nguyễn dynasty.
1848 – British and German governments lay claim to New Guinea, First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi on February 6,1840, at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. The treaty between the British Crown and Māori made New Zealand colony and is considered the point of modern New Zealand. July 20,1845 – Charles Sturt enters the Simpson Desert in central Australia, may 25,1846 – The Royal Geographical Society awards Paweł Edmund Strzelecki a Gold Medal for exploration in the south eastern portion of Australia. The British attempted to impose a puppet regime on Afghanistan under Shuja Shah, by 1842, mobs were attacking the British on the streets of Kabul and the British garrison was forced to abandon the city due to constant civilian attacks. During the retreat from Kabul, the British army of approximately 4,500 troops and 12,000 camp followers was subjected to a series of attacks by Afghan warriors. All of the British soldiers were killed except for one and he, after the Battle of Kabul, Britain placed Dost Mohammad Khan back into power and withdrew from Afghanistan.
March 24,1843 – Battle of Hyderabad, The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, the Sikh Empire was founded in 1799, ruled by Ranjit Singh. When Singh died in 1839, the Sikh Empire began to fall into disorder, there was a succession of short-lived rulers at the central Durbar, and increasing tension between the Khalsa and the Durbar. In May 1841, the Dogra dynasty invaded western Tibet, marking the beginning of the Sino-Sikh war and this war ended in a stalemate in September 1842, with the Treaty of Chushul. The British East India Company began to build up its strength on the borders of the Punjab. Eventually, the increasing tension goaded the Khalsa to invade British territory, under weak, the hard-fought First Anglo-Sikh War ended in defeat for the Khalsa
History of Liechtenstein
Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia. Liechtensteins borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons, Roman villas have been excavated in Schaanwald and Nendeln. The late Roman influx of the Alemanni from the north is memorialized by the remains of a Roman fort at Schaan, the area, part of Raetia, was incorporated into the Carolingian empire, and divided into countships, which became subdivided over the generations. Because the duchy of Swabia lost its duke in 1268 and was never restored, until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German gained ground, and in 1300 an Alemannic population called the Walsers entered the region. In the 21st century, the village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect. The medieval county of Vaduz was formed in 1342 as a subdivision of the Werdenberg county of the dynasty of Montfort of Vorarlberg.
The 15th century brought three wars and some devastation, over the centuries, the family acquired huge landed estates, mostly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria. All of these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords, particularly under various lines of the Habsburg family. Liechtenstein was invaded by both Austrian and Swedish troops during the Thirty Years War of 1618–1648, during the 17th century the country was afflicted by a plague and by a witch hunt, in which more than 100 persons were persecuted and executed. Prince Johann Adam Andreas of Liechtenstein bought the domain of Schellenberg in 1699 and this Prince of Liechtenstein had wide landholdings in Austria and Moravia, but none of his lands were held directly from the Emperor. Thus, the prince was barred entry to the Council of Princes. The territory took the name of the family now ruled it. The French under Napoleon occupied the country for a few years, soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation.
Then, in 1818, Johann I granted a constitution, although it was limited in its nature,1818 saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois. However, the first visit by a prince would not occur until 1842. In 1862, a new Constitution was promulgated, which provided for a Diet representative of the people, in 1868, after the German Confederation dissolved, Liechtenstein disbanded its army of 80 men and declared its permanent neutrality, which was respected during both World Wars. Liechtenstein did not participate in World War I, claiming neutrality, until the end of the war, Liechtenstein was closely tied to Austria. In response, the Allied Powers imposed an embargo on the principality
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1,1880, and ended on December 31,1889. They occurred at the period of the Second Industrial Revolution. Most Western countries experienced an economic boom, due to the mass production of railroads. The modern city as well as the rose to prominence in this decade as well. The 1880s were part of the Gilded Age, which lasted from 1874 to 1907, aceh War War of the Pacific Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, and Egypt becomes a British protectorate. American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890 and this would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of almost the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881, The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed,1884, International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C.
held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885, Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa, the United States had five Presidents during the decade, the most since the 1840s. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, may to August,1883, Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically,36,000 people were killed, the majority being killed by the resulting tsunami. September 1887, The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people, the 1880s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts,13 March 1881 — Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia. 19 September 1881 — James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 — Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria,3 April 1882 — Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 - Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland,1880, Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable.
In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils, in the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heavisides work. 1880–1882, Development and commercial production of lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17,1880, based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edisons system was based on creating a power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would connect the station with other buildings, Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States
Helge von Koch
Niels Fabian Helge von Koch was a Swedish mathematician who gave his name to the famous fractal known as the Koch snowflake, one of the earliest fractal curves to be described. He was born into a family of Swedish nobility and his grandfather, Nils Samuel von Koch, was the Attorney-General of Sweden. His father, Richert Vogt von Koch was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal Horse Guards of Sweden and he received his Ph. D. in Uppsala in 1892. Von Koch wrote several papers on number theory, one of his results was a 1901 theorem proving that the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to a stronger form of the prime number theorem. He described the Koch curve in a 1904 paper entitled On a continuous curve without tangents constructible from elementary geometry, the Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal, Mortimer-Percy Volume). Gerald Edgar, ed. Classics on Fractals, contains an English translation of the paper On a continuous curve. Works by or about Helge von Koch at Internet Archive OConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F.
Helge von Koch, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, Helge von Koch at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England.
1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages, and, as a result, at its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Greece to Egypt and to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories, nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece and Cyprus. The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their language, which was recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script). They were primarily a people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region.
Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the eruption at Thera. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c.1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy, around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek.
The Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, which was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris, the Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. They often buried daggers or some form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility were buried with gold masks, armor. Mycenaeans were buried in a position, and some of the nobility underwent mummification. Around 1100–1050 BC, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed, numerous cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a dark age. During this period, Greece experienced a decline in population and literacy, the Greeks themselves have traditionally blamed this decline on an invasion by another wave of Greek people, the Dorians, although there is scant archaeological evidence for this view
1924 in Sweden
Events from the year 1924 in Sweden Monarch – Gustaf V Prime Minister – Ernst Trygger, Hjalmar Branting 1 January – Lennart Magnusson, fencer. 7 March – Sven Hjertsson, footballer,29 June – Eivor Alm, cross-country skier. 15 August – Petrus Kastenman, equestrian,5 November – Ingrid Sandahl, gymnast. 28 February - Hanna Ouchterlony, Salvationist 13 may - Wilhelmine Schröder, royal favorite 21 December - Anna Hierta-Retzius, womens right activist
History of Luxembourg
The history of Luxembourg consists of the history of the country of Luxembourg and its geographical area. Although its recorded history can be traced back to Roman times, over the following five centuries, the powerful House of Luxembourg emerged, but its extinction put an end to the countrys independence. After a brief period of Burgundian rule, the passed to the Habsburgs in 1477. After the Eighty Years War, Luxembourg became a part of the Southern Netherlands, after occupation by Revolutionary France, the 1815 Treaty of Paris transformed Luxembourg into a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands. The treaty resulted in the partitioning of Luxembourg, the first being in 1658. Although these treaties greatly reduced Luxembourgs territory, the latter established its formal independence, in the following decades, Luxembourg fell further into Germanys sphere of influence, particularly after the creation of a separate ruling house in 1890. It was occupied by Germany from 1914 until 1918 and again from 1940 until 1944, since the end of the Second World War, Luxembourg has become one of the worlds richest countries, buoyed by a booming financial services sector, political stability, and European integration.
In the territory now covered by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the oldest artefacts from this period are decorated bones found at Oetrange. However, the first real evidence of civilisation is from the Neolithic or 5th millennium BC, traces have been found in the south of Luxembourg at Grevenmacher, Diekirch and Weiler-la-Tour. The dwellings were made of a combination of tree trunks for the structure, mud-clad wickerwork walls. Pottery from this period has been found near Remerschen, the sites include Nospelt, Dalheim and Remerschen. What is present-day Luxembourg, was inhabited by Celts during the Iron Age, the Gaulish tribe in what is present-day Luxembourg during and after the La Tène period was known as the Treveri, they reached the height of prosperity in the 1st century BC. The Treveri constructed a number of oppida, Iron Age fortified settlements, near the Moselle valley in what is now southern Luxembourg, western Germany, the Romans, under Julius Caesar, completed their conquest and occupation in 53 BC.
The first known reference to the territory of present-day Luxembourg was by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War, the Treveri were more co-operative with the Romans than most Gallic tribes, and adapted readily to Roman civilization. Two revolts in the 1st century AD did not permanently damage their cordial relations with Rome, the land of the Treveri was at first part of Gallia Celtica, but with the reform of Domitian in c. 90, was reassigned to Gallia Belgica, Gallia Belgica was infiltrated by the Germanic Franks from the 4th century, and was abandoned by Rome in AD406. The territory of what would become Luxembourg by the 480s, became part of Merovingia Austrasia, with the Treaty of Verdun, it fell to Middle Francia, and in 855, to Lotharingia. With the latters division in 959, it fell to the Duchy of Upper Lorraine within the Holy Roman Empire
1867 in Sweden
Events from the year 1867 in Sweden Monarch – Charles XV1 August - Inauguration of the new Uppsala University Hospital. - The Lantmanna Party is created, - Emmy Rappe becomes head nurse in the newly established Surgical Clinic at the Uppsala Academic Hospital, where she opened the first professional training courses for nurses in Sweden. - The great Famine of 1866–68 spreads from Finland to Sweden and this is the last famine to take place in Sweden. - The great Swedish emigration to the United States begun, in part caused by the great famine, - Augusta Lundin open her fashion studio in Stockholm. 26 September – Anna Paues, philologist 30 September – Gulli Petrini, womens right activist and politician 13 December – Jenny Brandt, ballerina 4 January - Marianne Ehrenström, artist