The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Lakota and Dakota. By the 1850s, Arapaho bands formed two tribes: the Northern Southern Arapaho. Since 1878, the Northern Arapaho have lived with the Eastern Shoshone on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming and are federally recognized as the Arapahoe Tribe of the Wind River Reservation; the Southern Arapaho live with the Southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma. Together, their members are enrolled as Arapaho Tribes, it is uncertain. Europeans may have derived it from the Pawnee word for "trader", iriiraraapuhu, or it may have been a corruption of a Crow word for "tattoo"; the Arapahoe autonym is Inun-ina. They refer to their tribe as Hinono'eiteen; the Cheyenne called them Hetanevoeo/Hetanevo ` eo'o. The Caddo called them Detseka'yaa, the Wichita Nia'rhari's-kûrikiwa'ahûski, the Comanche Saria Tʉhka / Säretika, all names signifying "dog-eaters".
The Pawnee and other tribes referred to them with names signifying "dog-eaters". The Northern Arapahoe, who called themselves Nank'haanseine'nan or Nookhose'iinenno, were known as Baantcline'nan or Bo'oociinenno to the Southern Arapahoe, whereas the latter were called by their northern kin Nawathi'neha or Noowunenno'; the Northern Arapaho were known as BSakuune'na'. The Cheyenne adapted the Arapahoe terms and referred to the Northern Arapahoe as Vanohetan or Vanohetaneo / Váno'étaneo'o and to the Southern Arapahoe as Nomsen'nat or Nomsen'eo; the Arapaho recognize five main divisions among their people, each speaking a different dialect and representing as many distinct but cognate tribes. Through much of Arapaho history, each tribal nation maintained a separate ethnic identity, although they came together and acted as political allies; each spoke mutually intelligible dialects. Dialectically, the Haa'ninin, Beesowuunenno', Hinono'eino were related. Arapaho elders claimed that the Hánahawuuena dialect was the most difficult to comprehend of all the dialects.
In his classic ethnographic study, Alfred Kroeber identified these five nations from south to north: Nanwacinaha'ana, Nawathi'neha or Nanwuine'nan / Noowo3iineheeno'. Their now-extinct language dialect – Nawathinehena – was the most divergent from the other Arapaho tribes. Hánahawuuena, Hananaxawuune'nan or Aanû'nhawa, occupying territory adjacent to, but further north of the Nanwacinaha'ana, spoke the now extinct Ha'anahawunena dialect. Hinono'eino or Hinanae'inan spoke the Arapaho language. Beesowuunenno', Baasanwuune'nan or Bäsawunena resided further north of the Hinono'eino, their war parties used temporary brush shelters similar to the dome-shaped shade or Sweat lodge of the Great Lakes Algonquian peoples. They are said to have migrated from their former territory near the Lakes more than the other Arapaho tribes, they spoke the now extinct Besawunena dialect. Haa'ninin, A'aninin or A'ani, the northernmost tribal group. In Blackfoot they were called Atsina. After they separated, the other Arapaho peoples, who considered them inferior, called them Hitúnĕna or Hittiuenina.
They speak the nearly extinct Gros Ventre language dialect, there is evidence that the southern Haa'ninin tribal group, the Staetan band, together with bands of the political division of the Northern Arapaho, spoke the Besawunena dialect. Before their historic geo-political ethnogensis, each tribal-nation had a principal headman; the exact date of the ethnic fusion or fission of each social division is not known. The elders say that the Hinono'eino and Beesowuunenno' fought over the tribal symbols – the sacred pipe and lance. Both sacred objects traditionally were kept by the Beesowuunenno'; the different tribal-nations lived together and the Beesowuunenno' have dispersed for at least 150 years among the distinct Arapaho tribal groups. By the late eighteenth century, the four divisions south of the Haa'ninin or Gros Ventre consolidated into the Arapaho. Only the Arapaho and Gros Ventre identified as separate tribal-nations. While living on the Great Plains, the Hinono'eino divided into two geo-political social divisions: Northern Arapaho or Nank'haanseine'nan, Nookhose'iinenno.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1, 1880, ended on December 31, 1889. The decade occurred at the core period of the Second Industrial Revolution; the modern city as well as the sky-scraper rose to prominence in this decade as well, contributing to the economic prosperity of the time. The 1880s were part of the Gilded Age, in the United States, which lasted from 1874 to 1907. Aceh War War of the Pacific First Boer War Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, Egypt becomes a British protectorate. Sino-French War American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his fugitive people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890. France colonizes Indochina German colonization. Increasing colonial interest and conquest in Africa leads representatives from Britain, Portugal, Belgium and Spain to divide Africa into regions of colonial influence at the Berlin Conference.
This would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881: The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed ending the war between the Boers and Britain. 3 May 1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act was signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur. 1884: International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C. held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885: Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa. The United States had five Presidents during the most since the 1840s, they were Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison. May to August, 1883: Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically. September 1887: The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people. Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, assassination attempts include: 13 March 1881 – Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia.
19 September 1881 – James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 – Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria. 3 April 1882 – Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 – Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland, assassinated in the Phoenix Park by the Invincibles. 1880: Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable. In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils. In the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heaviside's work. 1880–1882: Development and commercial production of electric lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17, 1880. Based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edison's system was based on creating a central power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would connect the station with other buildings, allowing for electric power distribution.
Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States. It was located at 255–257 Pearl Street in Manhattan on a site measuring 50 by 100 feet, just south of Fulton Street, it began with one direct current generator, it started generating electricity on September 4, 1882, serving an initial load of 400 lamps at 85 customers. By 1884, Pearl Street Station was serving 508 customers with 10,164 lamps. 1880–1886: Charles F. Brush of Euclid and Brush Electric Light Company installed carbon arc lights along Broadway, New York City. A small generating station was established at Manhattan's 25th Street; the electric arc lights went into regular service on December 20, 1880. The new Brooklyn Bridge of 1883 had seventy arc lamps installed in it. By 1886, there was a reported number of 1,500 arc lights installed in Manhattan. 1881–1885: Stefan Drzewiecki of Podolia, Russian Empire finishes his submarine-building project. The crafts were constructed at Nevskiy Machinery works at Saint Petersburg.
Altogether, 50 units were delivered to the Ministry of War. They were deployed as part of the defense of Kronstadt and Sevastopol. In 1885, the submarines were transferred to the Imperial Russian Navy, they were soon declared "ineffective" and discarded. By 1887, Drzewiecki was designing submarines for the French Third Republic. 1881–1883: John Philip Holland of Liscannor, County Clare, Ireland builds the Fenian Ram submarine for the Fenian Brotherhood. During extensive trials, Holland test-fired the gun using dummy projectiles. However, due to funding disputes within the Irish Republican Brotherhood and disagreement over payments from the IRB to Holland, the IRB stole Fenian Ram and the Holland III prototype in November 1883. 1882: William Edward Ayrton of London and John Perry of Garvagh, County Londonderry, Ireland build an electric tricycle. It had a range of 10 to 25 miles, powered by a lead acid battery. A significant innovation of the vehicle was its use of electric lights, here playing the role of headlamps.
1882: James Atkinson of Hampstead, England invented the Atkinson cycle engine. By use of variable engine strokes from a complex crankshaft, Atkinson was able to increase the efficiency of his engine, at the cost of some power, over traditional Otto-cycle engines. 1882: Schuyler Wheeler of Mas
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by small, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s; the Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, soleil levant, which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari; the development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting.
They constructed their pictures from brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner, they painted realistic scenes of modern life, painted outdoors. Still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were painted in a studio; the Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting outdoors or en plein air. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration. Impressionism emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, Winslow Homer in the United States, were exploring plein-air painting; the Impressionists, developed new techniques specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.
The public, at first hostile came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style. By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism is a precursor of various painting styles, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and Cubism. In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war—the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art; the Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of style. Historical subjects, religious themes, portraits were valued; the Académie preferred finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes blended to hide the artist's hand in the work. Colour was restrained and toned down further by the application of a golden varnish.
The Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of such artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille—met while studying under the academic artist Charles Gleyre, they discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. Following a practice that had become popular by mid-century, they ventured into the countryside together to paint in the open air, but not for the purpose of making sketches to be developed into finished works in the studio, as was the usual custom. By painting in sunlight directly from nature, making bold use of the vivid synthetic pigments that had become available since the beginning of the century, they began to develop a lighter and brighter manner of painting that extended further the Realism of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school.
A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were led by Édouard Manet, whom the younger artists admired. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, Armand Guillaumin. During the 1860s, the Salon jury rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style. In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, they condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting; the jury's worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists. After Emperor Napoleon III saw the rejected works of 1863, he decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, the Salon des Refusés was organized.
While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visi
The 1850s was a decade that ran from January 1, 1850, to December 31, 1859. The 1850s was a turbulent decade, as wars such as the Crimean War and shook European politics, as well as the expansion of colonization towards the Far East, which sparked conflicts like the Second Opium War. At the mean time, The United States saw its peak on mass migration to the American West, that made the nation experience an economic boom, as well as a increasing population. Crimean War fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire; the majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. On 8 October 1856, the Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River. Second War of Italian Independence known as Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War; the Indian Mutiny: revolt against British colonial rule in India Bleeding Kansas: battles erupt in Kansas Territory between proslavery and "Free-State" settlers, directly precipitating the American Civil War.
Reform War in Mexico Taiping Rebellion in Qing China. Nian Rebellion in Qing China. Miao Rebellion in Qing China. Red Turban Rebellion in Qing China. Punti-Hakka Clan Wars in Qing China. Panthay Rebellion in Qing China. Moldavia and Wallachia form Romania. Gideon T. Stewart attempts to create a Prohibition Party. Dissolution of the Mughal Empire by the British. Establishment of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, granting independence to the Voortrekkers by the British. Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, assassination attempts include: Eight were killed and 142 wounded in Paris in a failed assassination attempt on Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution by natural selection in November 1859. Epidemiology begins when John Snow traces the source of an outbreak of cholera in London to a contaminated water pump. Discovery of Neanderthal fossils in Neanderthal, Germany Solar flares discovered by Richard Christopher Carrington University of Sydney established at 1850 Distinction between coats and jackets begins to blur Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transpacific telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods.
First commercially successful sewing machine made by Isaac Singer Ukrainian settlers bring Carniolan honeybees to the Primorsky Krai The word girlfriend first appears in writing in 1855. The word boyfriend first appears in writing in 1856. Charles Dickens publishes Bleak House, Hard Times, Little Dorrit and A Tale of Two Cities Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Scarlet Letter in 1850 Herman Melville publishes Bartleby, the Scrivener in 1853 Note: Names of country leaders shown below in bold face have remained in power continuously throughout the entirety of the decade American texts from the 1850s American speeches from the 1850s