England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Wanderers Football Club is an English amateur football club based in London. Founded as Forest Football Club in 1859, the changed its name to Wanderers in 1864. The club played friendly matches until the advent of the FA Cup in 1871. They won the FA Cup three times in succession during the late 1870s, a feat which has only been repeated once. Among the players who represented the club were C. W. Alcock, the father of modern sport. The club took its name from never having a stadium of its own but playing at various locations in London. By the 1880s the clubs fortunes had declined and it was reduced to playing only a match against Harrow School. The club was reformed in 2009, reportedly with the endorsement of the descendants of the Alcock family, since 2011, the revived club has competed in the Surrey South Eastern Combination. Alcock, who had just left Harrow School, his brother John F. Alcock, J. Pardoe, several Old Foresters also played for the Forest club, as Forest School was located less than a mile north of the ground. Forests first match against another club took place on 15 March 1862, both this match, and a return fixture between the two teams the following month, involved fifteen players on each team. The following year, the club played its first match under the name Wanderers Football Club, during this period the club played a number of home matches at Battersea Park and Middlesex County Cricket Clubs Lillie Bridge Grounds. Wanderers subsequently made Kennington Oval its semi-permanent home in 1869, the club played 151 matches at The Oval. In the 1870–71 season, the Wanderers finally turned around their fortunes, for the following season the FA, following a suggestion by Alcock, initiated the Football Association Challenge Cup, a knock-out tournament open to all member clubs. The club beat the Royal Engineers 1–0 to become the first ever winners of the cup, the goal being scored by Morton Betts. The following season, under the original rules, Wanderers, as holders. In the final Wanderers beat Oxford University 2–0 to retain the cup, the club was unable to replicate this success over the next two seasons, although the team did manage a club record 16–0 victory over Farningham in the first round of the 1874–75 FA Cup. In October 1875, Wanderers travelled to Scotland for the first time, to play a match against the team from north of the border. Despite fielding their strongest team, Wanderers were outclassed by the Scots, the London club gained its revenge four months later, however, when Queens Park travelled to London for a re-match and lost 2–0
Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
Morton Peto Betts was a leading English sportsman of the late 19th century. He was notable for scoring the first goal in an English FA Cup Final and he was educated at Harrow School and at Trinity College, Cambridge. Betts most notable moment came when he scored the goal in the 1872 FA Cup Final for Wanderers. In the match, he played under the pseudonym A. H. Chequer and this was because Betts used to play for Harrow Chequers. Betts goal was a relatively simple tap-in, coming as a result of Walpole Vidals successful dribble through the Royal Engineers defence, Betts usually played football as a full-back, though his one appearance for England national team was as a goalkeeper. By this time, he was with the Old Harrovians Football Club, for twenty years, Betts was a board member of the Football Association. His sporting career also featured first-class cricket appearances for Middlesex County Cricket Club, switching between football and cricket duties frequently, he is also associated with Essex County Cricket Club. He played for Essex in 1884, before they became a first-class county and he spent his final years living in France, and died aged 66, shortly before the outbreak of World War I. Giller, Norman,2004, Football and all That, Hodder and Stoughton, pp15–16, ISBN 0-340-83589-3 Morton Betts at ESPNcricinfo
Queen's Park F.C.
Queens Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. Queens Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having founded in 1867. Queens Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, the clubs home is a Category 4 stadium, the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queens Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, gentlemen from the local YMCA took part in football matches in the local Glasgow area which gave the club its name. During the inaugural meeting, debate raged over the clubs name, proposals included, The Celts, The Northern and Morayshire. Perhaps such choice of names suggest a Highland influence within the new club, after much deliberation, Queens Park was adopted and carried, but only by a majority of one vote. Although Queens was not the first club in Britain, that going to Edinburgh and John Hopes Football Club, formed in 1824. Opposition first came in the form of a now defunct Glaswegian side called Thistle F. C. on 30 November 1872, Scotland faced England at the West of Scotland Cricket Club ground at Hamilton Crescent. For the one and only time all eleven Scots players were from Queens Park and they wore blue jerseys,4,000 spectators watched Scotland play with a 2–2–6 formation and England with a 1–1–8 line-up. Queens Park formed the Scottish Football Association on 13 March 1873, the match against Dumbreck on 25 October was the first match to be played at Hampden Park. It was also the first match which saw Queens Park players wear their black and white hooped jerseys. David Wotherspoon, a Queens Park player and committee member, has credited with the introduction of the black. Most importantly, it was the first Scottish Cup tie and Scottish competitive match for the club, in the final, Queens defeated Clydesdale 2–0 at Hampden. Success in the Scottish Cup followed in the two years with final victories over Renton and Third Lanark. In drawing 2–2 with Clydesdale in the 1875 semi-final, Queens conceded their first ever goals, defeat for the club was first experienced with a 2–1 defeat to Vale of Leven in the 5th round in December 1876. Third Lanark and Rangers eliminated the Spiders before Queens reclaimed the cup in 1880 with a win over Thornliebank, Dumbarton were beaten in the final in successive years. In 1881, Queens had to them twice after Dumbarton successfully appealed that the crowd at Kinning Park had encroached following a 2–1 defeat. Dumbarton got revenge in 1883 but Queens won again in 1884 without even having to play the final after Vale of Leven refused to play on the date stipulated by the SFA, in the early days of Englands FA Cup, Scottish clubs were often invited to compete
A walkover or W. O. is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can apply to elections. The word is used generally by extension, particularly in politics. The strict and extended meanings of walkover as a word are both found from 1829. The word originates from horseracing in the United Kingdom, where an entrant in a race run under Jockey Club rules has at least to walk over the course before being awarded victory. This outcome was quite common at a time there was no guaranteed prize money for horses finishing second or third so there was no incentive to run a horse in a race it could not win. The term is used in tennis, in reference to a players unopposed victory as a result of the opponents failing to start the match for any reason. The only Olympic Games walkover for a medal was at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The only time it has happened at the FIFA World Cup was in the 1938 edition, after the England team declined to take Austrias entry, FIFA gave Sweden a walkover. A walkover is usually the sign of a strong mandate or unanimous support. It can, however, be interpreted by critics of the faction the walkover is awarded to as a sign of electoral fraud or gerrymandering to prevent other candidates from participating. The circumstances of such an interpretation are usually controversial, walkovers can thus often be a sign of an illiberal democracy. Many liberal democracies in history, including the United States, have had uncontested elections because support for one candidate was so strong. In the 1820 election, James Monroe also ran unopposed, though New Hampshire elector William Plumer cast a vote for John Quincy Adams as a symbolic measure, walkovers are called acclamation in Canada. Other multi-party systems that have held uncontested presidential elections include Germany, Singapore, Ireland, Algeria, Iceland, running without opponents is not always a guarantee of winning. Many elections require that the winner has not only the most votes of all candidates but a fraction of all votes cast. In this case electors may be able to cast a vote or none of the above vote, spoil their papers. In such cases, the members of the body usually appoint someone to the vacant seat
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the players or the teams rankings is either zero or otherwise greatly reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select. If the players play in different teams in other leagues. The games can be held between separate teams or between parts of the same team, international competitions like the Olympic Games may also hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport. In the early days of football, known simply as football or soccer. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby, since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are used to warm up players for a new season/competitive match. There is generally nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with, although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may even be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. Frequently such games take place between a club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. International teams also play friendlies, generally in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments and this is essential, since national squads generally have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies mostly take place during club league seasons and this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. Players can be booked in international friendlies, and can be suspended from international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period. Caps and goals scored also count towards a players career records, in the UK and Ireland, exhibition match and friendly match refer to two different types of matches. A bounce game is generally a non-competitive football match played between two sides usually as part of an exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may also use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract, usually these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring, joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado, in more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. and Jorge Castro have been involved in exhibition fights
Charles W. Alcock
Charles William ″C. W. ″ Alcock was an influential English sportsman and administrator. He was an instigator in the development of both international football and cricket, as well as being the creator of the FA Cup. Alcock was born in Sunderland, and his moved to Chingford, then part of Essex. According to JB Smart, he was born as simply Charles, educated at Harrow School, Alcock was a keen schoolboy footballer, and formed the Forest club with his elder brother, John, in Chingford in 1859. He was then a prime mover in the 1863 foundation of Forests more famous successor, for their influence on the game of football the Wanderers were considered as early as 1870 to be the MCC of football. As a player, Alcock was renowned as a hard-working centre-forward with an accurate shot, on 6 March 1875, he captained England against Scotland, scoring a goal in a 2–2 draw. See also England v Scotland Alcock was one of those responsible for the first ever soccer match with Scotland. The first two of these took place in 1870, with matches in 1871 and 1872. After the 1870 games there was resentment in Scotland that their team did not contain more home grown players, the fault lies on the heads of the players of the north, not on the management who sought the services of all alike impartially. To call the team London Scotchmen contributes nothing, the match was, as announced, to all intents and purposes between England and Scotland. Alcock then proceeded to offer further challenges with a Scottish team drawn from Scotland, although not currently recognised by FIFA as official, the Scotsman newspaper described the 1870 and 1871 games as international and in italics. One reason for the absence of a response to Alcocks early challenges may have been different football codes being followed in Scotland at the time. A written reply to Alcocks letter above states, Mr Alcocks challenge to meet a Scotch eleven on the borders sounds very well and is doubtless well meant. But it may not be well known that Mr Alcock is a very leading supporter of what is called the association game. Devotees of the rules will find no foemen worthy of their steel in Scotland. Charles W Alcock, Hon Sec of Football Association and Captain of English Eleven, instead he represented his country as umpire, with the England captaincy awarded to Cuthbert Ottaway. Thus, the FA Cup – the worlds first national football tournament, fifteen teams took part in the first competition in 1872, with Alcock captaining the winning Wanderers side. It was only fitting that the final should be played at The Oval, after joining the FA committee in 1866, Alcock served as FA Secretary from 1870 to 1895, before serving as Vice-President
Where more than two competitors can play in each match, such as in a shootout poker tournament, players are removed when they can no longer play until one player remains from the group. This player moves on to the next round, some competitions are held with a pure single-elimination tournament system. Others have many phases, with the last being a final stage called playoffs. The round before the quarterfinals is sometimes called the round of sixteen, Last Sixteen, or pre-quarterfinals, earlier rounds are typically numbered counting forwards from the first round, or by the number of remaining competitors. If some competitors get a bye, the round at which they enter may be named the first round, with the matches called a preliminary round. Many Olympic single-elimination tournaments feature the bronze medal if they do not award bronze medals to both losing semifinalists. The FIFA World Cup has long featured the third place match, the number of distinct ways of arranging a single-elimination tournament is given by the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers. Brackets are set up so that the top two seeds could not possibly meet until the round, none of the top four can meet prior to the semifinals. If no seeding is used, the tournament is called a random knockout tournament. One version of seeding is where brackets are set up so that the quarterfinal pairings would be the 1 seed vs. the 8 seed,2 vs.7,3 vs.6 and 4 vs. This may be done after each round, or only at selected intervals, in American team sports, for example, the MLS, NFL and WNBA employ this tactic, but the NBA does not. MLB does not have teams in its playoff tournament where re-seeding would make a large difference in the matchups. In international fencing competitions, it is common to have a group stage, participants are divided in groups of 6–7 fencers who play a round-robin tournament, and a ranking is calculated from the consolidated group results. Single elimination is seeded from this ranking, the single-elimination format enables a relatively large number of competitors to participate. There are no dead matches, and no matches where one competitor has more to play for than the other, the format is less suited to games where draws are frequent. In chess, each fixture in a single-elimination tournament must be played multiple matches, because draws are common. In association football, games ending in a draw may be settled in extra time, another perceived disadvantage is that most competitors are eliminated after relatively few games. Variations such as the tournament allow competitors a single loss while remaining eligible for overall victory
Harrow School /ˈhæroʊ/ is an independent boarding school for boys in Harrow, London, England. There is some evidence that there has been a school on the site since 1243, Harrow is one of the original nine public schools that were regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. For the academic year 2016/17, Harrow charges boarders up to £12,450 per term, being the fourth most expensive boarding school in the Headmasters, the school has an enrolment of 805 boys spread across twelve boarding houses, all of whom board full-time. It remains one of four all-boys, full-boarding schools in Britain, harrows uniform includes straw hats, morning suits, top hats and canes. The school in its current form was founded in February 1572 under a Royal Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I to John Lyon, a wealthy local farmer. In the original charter, six governors were named, including two members of the Gerard family of Flambards, and two members of the Page family of Wembley and Sudbury Court. It was only after the death of Lyons wife in 1608 that the construction of the first school building began and it was completed in 1615 and remains to this day, however it is now much larger. Lyon died in 1592, leaving his assets to two causes, the lesser was the School, and by far the greater beneficiary was the maintenance of a road to London,10 miles away. The school owned and maintained road for many years following Lyons death. At first the subject taught was Latin, and the only sport was archery. Both subjects were compulsory, archery was dropped in 1771, although most boys were taught for free, their tuition paid for by Lyons endowment, there were a number of fee-paying foreigners. It was their presence that amplified the need for boarding facilities, by 1701 for every local there were two foreign pupils, these generated funds for the School as fees increased. It is now known as The John Lyon School and is a prominent independent school and it maintains close links with Harrow. The majority of the boarding houses were constructed in Victorian times. The 20th century saw the innovation of a dining hall. Presently there are about 800 boys boarding at Harrow, according to a 2009 article, the school has expanded overseas, opening additional schools in Beijing, China, Shanghai, China, Bangkok, Thailand, and New Territories, Hong Kong. Boys at Harrow have two uniforms, the photograph was placed on the front cover of the News Chronicle the next morning under the tagline Every picture tells a story. The picture was reproduced in other national publications and became
Barnes Rugby Football Club
Barnes Rugby Football Club, formerly known simply as the Barnes Club, is a rugby union club which is claimed by some sources to be the worlds first and oldest club in any code of football. It is claimed that Barnes RFC was founded in as early as 1839 but there is no actual evidence, if the claim is true, then Barnes is the worlds oldest football club in all codes. The club, from Barnes, London, also played a role in the early years of association football. The club currently play in the tier of the English league system. Accounts of the date that the club was formed are contradictory, club records give 1839, while other accounts give credit to eminent club member Ebenezer Cobb Morley and its earliest recorded result was in November 1862 versus Richmond, played at Barn Elms. The club won that match and the replay that followed later in the year, the Barnes Club was a founder member of the Football Association and Morley is often said to be the father of The Football Association. On December 19,1863, Barnes participated in the first ever match under FA rules and it also competed in the first ever FA Cup and continued to do so through to the 1885–86 competition. The first three secretaries of the FA were members of Barnes, Barnes forward Charles Morice represented England in the first ever international football match between Scotland and England played at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow in 1872. Of the only and original clubs forming the Football Association the Barnes Club alone has throughout the ages been an active and this is a matter of historical fact. For many years the club played at the Harrodian Club before moving to its Barn Elms location in 1987 when the grounds were sold to form a school, Barnes RFC first XV has been promoted eight times since being positioned in Surrey Division Three in 1987
Civil Service F.C.
Civil Service Football Club is an English football club based in the city of London. However, the club is now a distinct entity and appears to have been so since the late nineteenth century. At what point the Civil Service Rugby Club became an entity from the Football Club is unclear. Certainly, the published by the official Football and Rugby clubs respectively do not refer to a joint history past even 1863. However, the club was still an entity when it became a founding member of the Rugby Football Union in 1871. However, in 1892 contemporary sources refer to Clapham Rovers as being unique in the respect that it played both codes, suggesting that the Civil Service had distinct teams by that point. The club was one of the founding sides of the Football Association on 26 October 1863, and lays claim to an earlier. It was represented at the meeting by Mr. Warne of the War Office. Civil Service was also one of the fifteen entrants to the first ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72, several members of the Civil Service took a prominent role in organising the first representative matches between sides representing England and Scotland in 1870. Civil Service played a significant role in the introduction and popularization of the game of football in Europe early in the 1900s through touring, undertaking their first continental tour in 1901, in recognition of their contributions the club is an honorary life member of Real Madrid and Slavia Prague. Early in the history the decision was taken to remain an amateur side in the face of the emergence of the professional game. Civil Service was subsequently active in the formation of amateur leagues including the Amateur Football Alliance, the Isthmian League. They also captured the Southern Amateur League title in 1913 and 1914, in later years clubs accumulation of honours was modest with a SAL title in 1939 and two more league triumphs in 1969 and 1971. More recently the club has seen the return of a measure of success. They captured the AFA Senior Cup in 1997 with a 4–3 win over Lensbury, the club has nine sides competing in the Southern Amateur League and a Vets side playing in the West London Veterans League. The club played in the first ever football match at Buckingham Palace in October 2013 to mark the Football Associations 150th anniversary. For notable Rugby players please see CS Rugby 1863 William A. Baillie-Hamilton - Represented Scotland in the international match in November 1870. William Heap Bailey - Represented Scotland in the international match in November 1870
Clapham Rovers F.C.
Clapham Rovers was from its foundation in 1869 a leading English sports organisation in the two dominant codes of football, association football and rugby union. It was a prominent club in the late 19th century but is now defunct, the club played variously on Clapham Common, Tooting Bec Common and Wandsworth Common and wore a cerise and French-grey kit. The club was formed on 10 August 1869 by a meeting arranged by W. E. Rawlinson, at this very first meeting it was agreed to play under both codes, with Association rules to be played one week, and Rugby the other. This peculiar feature in the constitution of the club obtained for the club the sobriquet of the Hybrid Club, the first match was played on 25 September 1869, against the Wanderers, at that time arguably the strongest Association club. Despite the prowess of their opponents The Rovers won by one goal to nil, at the close of the 1870 season only two matches had been lost, one under each rules, and in both instances the return match was won. Clapham Rovers were one of the fifteen teams to play in the very first edition of the FA Cup, the first ever FA Cup goal was scored by Clapham Rovers Jarvis Kenrick, in a 3–0 victory over Upton Park on 11 November 1871. Rovers greatest achievement was winning the FA Cup in 1879–80 with a 1–0 win over Oxford University at The Kennington Oval, the previous year, Clapham Rovers had also reached the final, but lost 1–0 to Old Etonians. Clapham Rovers were also one of ten members of the Surrey County Football Association. The clubs strength in rugby was borne out by their record, from 1870 to 1881 the club played 151 Rugby games, winning 80, losing 30, and drawing 41. During the 1870s they fielded a team that had four internationals, R. H. Birkett was captain, his brother, L. Birkett, and the Bryden brothers. Additionally Crampton, and Walker were well regarded forwards and Clapham was known to have the strongest combination of the time behind the scrummage. On 26 January 1871,32 members representing twenty-one London and suburban football clubs that followed Rugby School rules assembled at the Pall Mall Restaurant in Regent Street, E. C. Holmes, captain of the Richmond Club assumed the presidency. It was resolved unanimously that the formation of a Rugby Football Society was desirable and thus the Rugby Football Union was formed. A president, a secretary and treasurer, and a committee of thirteen were elected, R. H. Birkett represented The Rovers and was one of the thirteen original committee members. The first international match was played between Scotland and England in 1871 and The Rovers provided R. H. Birkett. In this match he scored Englands first ever try, when the club played one of the strongest and most well established clubs, Richmond, for the first time on 21 October 1871, they won the match by 1 goal and 2 tries. The date of the dissolution is unclear, although the last time they competed in the FA Cup was in the 1885–86 season. Their most successful player, Norman Bailey, was described as a Clapham Rovers player when he made the last of his 19 England appearances on 19 March 1887
Scottish Football Association
Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world and it is not to be confused with the Scottish Football Union, which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s. The Scottish Football Association sits on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game, the SFA is also a member of FIFA and founder member of UEFA. It is based at Hampden Park in Glasgow, in addition, the Scottish Football Museum is located there. Furthermore, Kilmarnock sent a letter stating their willingness to join, one of the most prominent roles of the chief executive is to hire and dismiss Scotland national football team managers. There was also a team, but this was disbanded in 2008. In womens football, there is the full Scotland womens national team, under-19. The Scottish Football Association encourages quality of governance in football clubs through a system of club licence awards, all SFA member clubs are assessed annually in four areas and, if appropriate, awarded a licence at gold, silver, bronze or entry level. As of January 2015, gold-level licences have been awarded to two clubs, Celtic and Hibernian. All clubs in the Scottish Professional Football League are required to be licensed at entry level or above, this has been extended to the Highland Football League and Lowland Football League
Scottish Football League
The Scottish Football League was a league featuring professional and semi-professional football clubs mostly from Scotland. From its foundation in 1890 until the breakaway Scottish Premier League was formed in 1998, after 1998, the SFL represented levels 2 to 4 of the Scottish football league system. In June 2013, the SFL merged with the SPL to form the Scottish Professional Football League, the SFL was associated with a title sponsor from the 1985–86 season. As this sponsor has changed over the years the league was known in turn as the Fine Fare League, B&Q League, Bells Scottish Football League, the SFL also organised two knock-out cup competitions, the Scottish League Cup and the Scottish Challenge Cup. Organised football in Scotland began in 1873 with the formation of the Scottish Football Association, during the next 15 years or so, clubs would play friendly matches, Scottish Cup ties and local cup ties. The Football League, initially containing clubs from the North West and this had been done in response to the professionalisation of football in England in 1885, with the regular diet of league fixtures replacing the haphazard arrangement of friendlies. Many Scottish players, known as the Scotch Professors, moved to the English league clubs to receive the high salaries on offer. This prompted Scottish clubs into thinking about forming their own league, in March 1890, the secretary of Renton wrote to thirteen other clubs inviting them to discuss the organisation of a league. All of the clubs accepted the invitation, except Queens Park and these concerns were to prove well-founded, as six of the founder members would leave the league before 1900. The Scottish Football League was inaugurated on 30 April 1890, the first season of competition, 1890–91, commenced with 11 clubs because St Bernards were not elected. The eleven original clubs in membership were Abercorn, Cambuslang, Celtic, Cowlairs, Dumbarton, Heart of Midlothian, Rangers, Renton, St Mirren, Third Lanark and Vale of Leven. Renton were expelled five games of the 1890–91 season for playing against St Bernards. Renton raised an action against the SFA in the Court of Session and won, in the 1890–91 season, Rangers and Dumbarton were level at the top of the league on 29 points. The teams drew 2–2 in a match, but no further thought had been given to separating teams by another method. Goal average was introduced for the 1921–22 season and replaced by goal difference for the 1971–72 season, the league proved to be highly successful, and in 1893 a Second Division was formed by the inclusion of a number of clubs previously in the Scottish Football Alliance. Promotion was initially based on a ballot of clubs, automatic promotion was not introduced until 1922, in 1923, the League decided to introduce a Third Division. The Western Football League was used as its backbone but the new set-up lasted only three years before it collapsed under heavy financial losses, from 1926 until 1946, the League returned to two divisions. Post-World War II reforms saw the League resume with three divisions, postwar seasons saw the divisions renamed A, B and C with the last section also including reserve sides
Marlow Football Club is an English football club based in Marlow, Buckinghamshire. The club are members of the Southern Football League and play at the Alfred Davis Memorial Ground. They are the football club in England to have applied for entry into the FA Cup every season since its inception in 1871. Their current manager is former Reading Town boss Mark Bartley who took over following the relegation from the Southern Football League in 2012. He was assisted by Marcus Richardson and is now assisted by Neville Roach, the club was formed at a meeting at the Compleat Angler Hotel on 22 November 1870. Cuthbert Ottaway, the first captain of England, played for The Blues at the beginning of its history, in 1871–72 the club competed in the first-ever FA Cup, losing 2–0 to Maidenhead. In 1881–82 they reached the semi-finals, losing 5–0 to Old Etonians, instead, they joined the Spartan League in 1908, but resigned midway through their third season in the league. In 1919 the club left its Crown Meadow ground to move to Star Meadow, resulting in them leaving the Great Western Suburban League, in 1928 they moved to a new ground, which was named after their long-serving secretary, Alfred Davis. They rejoined the Spartan League in 1928, winning Division Two West in 1929–30, in 1965 they joined Division Two of the Athenian League, and were promoted to Division One after finishing third in 1970–71. When the league disbanded in 1984 they joined Division Two North of the Isthmian League and they were transferred to Division Two South the following season, and in 1986–87 they finished second and were promoted to Division One. The following season they won Division One and were promoted to the Premier Division, in 1991–92 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time since 1892, but lost 6–0 to West Bromwich Albion. The following season Marlow reached the round of the FA Cup. They were drawn at home to Tottenham, but the match was switched to White Hart Lane, Two seasons later they reached the third round again, defeating Oxford United in the first round, before losing 2–0 at Swindon Town in the third. They remained in the Premier Division until being relegated at the end of the 1994–95 season, Two seasons later they were relegated again. In 2004 they were transferred to Division One West of the Southern League, the 2011–12 season saw the club finish bottom of Division One Central of the Southern League and the club was relegated to the Premier Division of the Hellenic Football League. The club managed to promotion a season later back to the Southern League, under manager Mark Bartley. After two seasons in the Southern League Division One Central, Marlow were shuffled over to the Southern League Division One South & West ahead of the 2015–16 season. Marlow play their games at the Alfred Davis Memorial Ground, Oak Tree Road, Marlow, Buckinghamshire
Maidenhead United F.C.
Maidenhead United Football Club is a semi-professional English football club in Maidenhead, Berkshire. They currently play in the National League South, the tier of English football. The club was founded in 1870 and moved to their current ground at York Road the following year, the Football Association have acknowledged that it is the oldest senior football ground continuously used by the same club. On 16 February 1871 the club played their first game on the York Road site against Marlow, the club were one of the original 15 entrants for the first-ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72. The following season reached the last four before losing to Oxford University. Maidenhead reached the quarter-finals in the two seasons, but in 1876 withdrew, returning the following season. They also entered the first-ever Berks & Bucks Cup competition in 1878, in 1904 Maidenhead joined the Great Western Suburban League. Maidenhead Norfolkians, meanwhile, were founded in 1884 and were members of the South Bucks & East Berks League before also joining the West Berks League. In 1904 they joined Maidenhead FC in the Great Western Suburban League, Norfolkians played at Kidwells Park which can still be seen to this day, but as a public park – it once staged a Berks & Bucks Cup Final. After the Great War the two clubs amalgamated as Maidenhead Town and adopted the black and white stripes. They had immediate success winning the Great Western League, in 1920 the name United was adopted and two years later they entered the Spartan League. They won the three times in their nineteen-year stay. In 1936 Maidenhead reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup losing 4–1 to Ilford at West Ham in front of 18,000 spectators and it was that season that the ground record attendance of 7,989 was set when Southall came to York Road in the quarter-final. In the 1929–30 season the club’s goal-scoring record for a season was set when Jack Palethorpe scored 65 goals in 39 games and he went on to play for Sheffield Wednesday and scored in the Owls FA Cup win in 1935. Following the end of the Second World War the club entered the Corinthian League and they also made three appearances in the First Round Proper of the FA Cup. In 1963 United joined the Athenian League, but were unable to repeat their Corinthian success and they had a flirtation with promotion to the Premier Division in 1979 and 1980 under Geoff Anthony, and then again in 1985 under Brian Caterer and Colin Lippiatt. It took four seasons to get out of Division Two, which was achieved under the guidance of Martyn Spong in 1991. An Isthmian League record of 13 straight wins at the start of the season was the springboard to success, following the departure of Spong to Enfield, Gary Goodwin, John Clements and then John Watt took on the manager’s job with mediocre results, the club regularly finishing mid-table
Amateur Football Alliance
The Amateur Football Alliance is a County Football Association in England. It is unusual among County FAs in not serving a particular geographical area and it was founded in 1907, as the Amateur Football Defence Foundation, quickly changed to Amateur Football Association, when The FA required all county associations to admit professional clubs. Its aim was, as the decline of amateurism at the highest levels of football set in, to protect and it prides itself on the skill and competitiveness of its leagues, and on its traditions of fair play and respect for opponents and match officials. Many leagues still maintain rules that require clubs to provide food and drink to their opponents, the inaugural meeting of the Amateur Football Association was held in the Crown Room of the Holborn Restaurant on 7 July 1907. They were addressed by Alfred Lyttelton MP, before B. A. Glanville of Clapham Rovers proposed the formation of the Association, lord Alverstone was elected as the first president of the new society, and the Corinthians offered to provide a trophy for a new cup competition. Furthermore, the FA asked the Scottish, Welsh and Irish Football Association not to recognise the formation of the AFA, a number of teams were forced to choose between one association or the other. Cambridge University pledged their allegiance to the Amateur Football Association and in response, both the Leicestershire and Essex Football Association were early supporters of the actions of the Football Association against the AFA. Past members of the AFA include Ipswich Town, Barnet, Cambridge City, the Casuals, sir Stanley Rous, who was president of FIFA, was also the president of the AFA. The AFAs flagship competition is the AFA Senior Cup which is contested by AFA-affiliated clubs on Saturday afternoons, the AFAs heartland is in London and the Home Counties, but it has member clubs throughout the nation. In A Class of Their Own, A History of English Amateur Football, official website of the Amateur Football Alliance History from The AFA and London Society of Association Referees
Crystal Palace F.C.
Crystal Palace Football Club is a professional football club based in South Norwood, London, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club was founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building by the owners of the FA Cup Final stadium which was situated inside the historic Palace grounds. The club played their games at the Cup Final venue until 1915, but then the First World War forced them to move out and play at Herne Hill Velodrome. In 1924, the moved to their current home at Selhurst Park. Palace have been FA Cup finalists twice, in 1990 and 2016, the club were denied a place in Europe at the end of that season due to the partial UEFA ban on English clubs caused by the Heysel Stadium disaster. Palace were one of the founding members of the Premier League. The club were winners of the Full Members Cup in 1991 when they beat Everton in the Wembley final, Palace have been second tier champions twice and hold the record for the most play-off wins for promotion to the top flight, winning the final four times. In 1973, the changed its original nickname from The Glaziers to The Eagles. The club had played in claret and blue colours. Palace have rivalries with Brighton & Hove Albion, with whom they contest the M23 derby, in 1895, the Football Association had found a new permanent home for the FA Cup Final at the site of the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building. There had been an amateur Crystal Palace team as early as 1861, the owners of the venue wanted a professional club to play there and tap into the vast crowd potential of the area. Crystal Palace Football Club, originally nicknamed The Glaziers, was formed on 10 September 1905 under the guidance of Aston Villa assistant secretary Edmund Goodman, the club applied to enter the Football League alongside Chelsea and Southampton, but was the only unsuccessful team of the three. The club instead found itself in the Southern League Second Division for the 1905–06 season, the club was successful in its inaugural season and was promoted to the First Division, crowned as champions. Palace remained in the Southern League up until 1914, their one highlight the 1907 shock First Round victory over Newcastle United in the FA Cup. The outbreak of the First World War led to the Admiralty requisitioning the Crystal Palace, Three years later the club moved again to the Nest due to the folding of Croydon Common F. C. The club joined the Football League Third Division in the 1920–21 season, finishing as champions, during this period, Palace also won the London Challenge Cup three times in 1913,1914, and 1921. Palace moved to the purpose-built stadium Selhurst Park in 1924, the ground the club plays at today, the opening fixture at Selhurst Park was against Sheffield Wednesday, Palace losing 0–1 in front of a crowd of 25,000. Finishing in twenty-first position, the club was relegated to the Third Division South, before the Second World War Palace made good efforts at promotion, never finishing outside the top half of the table and finishing second on three occasions
Hitchin Town F.C.
Hitchin Town Football Club is an English semi-professional football club based in Hitchin, Hertfordshire. They will compete in the Southern Football Leagues Premier Division for the 2016–17 season and their most recent league honour has been the Southern League Division One Central, finishing play-off winners in 2010–11, their second season in the competition. The original Hitchin club, Hitchin F. C. were formed in 1865, the club took part in the inaugural FA Cup competition in 1871–72, reaching the quarter-finals before losing to runners-up Royal Engineers. In 1905, Hitchin defeated Chelsea 3–2 to become the first away team to win at Stamford Bridge, Hitchin turned professional during the early years of the 20th century, but following financial difficulties and a fire at their ground, the club folded in 1911. Hitchin Town F. C. were formed in 1928, the club colours were settled as yellow and blue, replacing the old clubs white and magenta — green replaced blue after only a few seasons. The new club were admitted to the Spartan League, and their first season, 1928–29, was a success — Hitchin won the Herts Charity Shield, promotion to the top flight of the Spartan League was won in 1930–31 and Hitchin won the AFA Senior Cup a year later. Reg Smith, a future England player, led Hitchin to the Spartan League championship in 1934–35 before moving on to Millwall a year later. The club moved from the Spartan League to the Athenian League for the 1939–40 season, the Athenian League returned for 1945–46, and Hitchin finished 10th out of 14 clubs. The next season saw an improvement to sixth, but Hitchin did not achieve a higher than mid-table until the 1953–54 campaign — Hitchin finished as runners-up. The club reached the quarter-finals of the FA Amateur Cup, two years later, Hitchin beat Wycombe Wanderers 1–0 in the same competition in front of 7,878 spectators, but the club once again failed to progress beyond the quarter-finals. Peter Hammond became the first Hitchin player to represent his country in 1958, former Arsenal player and England international Laurie Scott was appointed manager the same year. Scott worked to bring the club more into line with their professional counterparts. The club met Football League opposition in the FA Cup for the first time during 1958–59, Hitchin travelled to Crystal Palace two years later in the same competition and lost 6–2. Meanwhile, Scott prepared his team for an assault on the Athenian League title, scotts team finished fifth during 1960–61, and lost in the semi-finals of the Cup. Hitchin came sixth the year, and 1962–63 saw another fifth-place finish. The move to the Isthmian League coincided with a time of financial strife at the club, the club finished in the bottom half of the division during their first five seasons in the league, as the club struggled to attract players of a sufficient quality. The club were not helped by corruption behind the scenes — some supposedly amateur players were receiving salaries, and when this emerged and it took some time for the clouds to disperse, and the result was the departure of Scott. The late 1960s saw the arrival of Vince Burgess as manager, led by Burgess, Hitchin finished as Isthmian League runners-up in 1968–69 and won the London Senior Cup a year later
Rugby union, known in some parts of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using a ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts on each try line. Historically an amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, World Rugby, originally the International Rugby Football Board and from 1998 to 2014 the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886. Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland, early exponents of the sport included Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Georgia, Madagascar, New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga, Rugby union is played in over 100 countries across six continents, there are 101 full members and 18 associate members of World Rugby. The Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place four years with the winner of the tournament receiving the Webb Ellis Cup. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are major annual competitions. The origin of football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895, despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first football team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with pupils from Rugby. Other important events include the Blackheath Clubs decision to leave the Football Association in 1863, despite the sports full name of rugby union, it is known simply as rugby throughout most of the world. The first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England, by 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is also the year of the first rugby tournament, the Melrose Sevens. During the early history of union, a time before commercial air travel. The first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe, All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, and were far more successful than critics had expected. After Morgan began singing, the crowd joined in, the first time a national anthem was sung at the start of a sporting event, in 1905 France played England in its first international match
1872 FA Cup Final
The 1872 FA Cup Final was a football match between Wanderers and Royal Engineers on 16 March 1872 at Kennington Oval in London. It was the final of the first staging of the Football Association Challenge Cup, which became the cup competition in English football. Fifteen teams entered the competition in its first season and, due to the rules in place at the time, Wanderers reached the final having won only one match in the four preceding rounds. In the semi-finals, they drew with the Scottish club Queens Park, the final was decided by a single goal, scored after fifteen minutes by Morton Betts of Wanderers, who was playing under the pseudonym A. H. Chequer. The Engineers were praised for their use of passing, then referred to as the Combination Game. Despite this they could not manage to score a goal, the winning Wanderers team did not receive the trophy until the following month, when it was presented to them at a special reception at the Pall Mall Restaurant. Wanderers and Royal Engineers were among fifteen teams who entered the inaugural FA Cup competition, Wanderers were paired with Harrow Chequers, a team consisting of former pupils of Harrow School, and the Engineers were set to face Reigate Priory. Neither match actually took place, however, as in cases the away team withdrew from the competition, sending the home team through to the next round on a walkover. In the second round, both teams played matches and emerged victorious. Wanderers defeated Clapham Rovers 3–1 in December and the Engineers beat Hitchin 5–0 the following month, at the quarter-final stage, Wanderers drew 0–0 with Crystal Palace. The Engineers beat Hampstead Heathens 2–0, in the semi-finals Wanderers took on the leading Scottish club Queens Park who, due to a combination of walkovers and byes, had reached this stage of the competition without actually playing a match. The Engineers also drew their semi-final at the Oval 0–0, as was common at the time, both teams focused mainly on attack rather than defence, the Engineers lining up with seven forwards and Wanderers with eight. Wanderers forward Morton Betts played under the pseudonym A. H. Chequer and this, however, is unlikely to be true, as in the early amateur era of football players were not required to be formally registered with clubs. Cuthbert Ottaway, a captain of the England national team. Wanderers captain C. W. Early in the game, Edmund Creswell of the Royal Engineers suffered a broken bone in a melee. He refused to leave the pitch but due to his injury was forced to spend the remainder of the match as a passenger on the wing, Wanderers took the lead fifteen minutes into the game when Betts opened the scoring from an acute angle after Robert Vidals long dribble. After twenty minutes Alcock put the ball past the Engineers goalkeeper, William Merriman, Wanderers continued to exert further pressure on the Engineers goal and only Merrimans skill was able to prevent them from increasing their lead. One newspaper later described his performance as perfect, despite a late rally from the Engineers, Wanderers were able to hold on to their lead and the game ended in a 1–0 victory
York Road (stadium)
York Road is a football stadium in Maidenhead, Berkshire, England. The Magpies have continued to home matches here, without a break. The current capacity of the ground is 3,000 and holds a B grading, the clubs record attendance is 7,989 for the 1936 FA Amateur Cup quarter-final against Southall. A further 2,000 spectators are estimated to have watched the match from the adjacent railway embankment. The ground record attendance was set on Easter Monday 1947 when 8,277 people paid total receipts of £494 to watch the Berks & Bucks Senior Cup Final between Slough Town and Wycombe Wanderers. The ground facilitates fans in a mixture of covered stands, covered and uncovered traditional terraces. As well as the facilities for lower-league football, the ground hosts Stripes Bar which can be hired out for functions. The ground is located just a few minutes away from the town centre
West Ham Park
West Ham Park is a public park in the London Borough of Newham. Spanning 77 acres, the park has been managed by the City of London Corporation since 1874, previously it was the grounds of Ham House, owned by the Gurney family and demolished in 1872. In 1874 John Gurney gave a contribution towards the purchase of Ham House and grounds by the Corporation of the City of London. It features a garden, childrens playgrounds and many sporting facilities, football pitches, cricket nets, tennis courts. Plants grown in the Nursery are also used to add floral embellishment to State occasions, guided tours of the nursery and Park are available by prior arrangement with the Park Office. Also central park is the biggest park in east London, west Ham Park pages on the City of London website
Reigate Priory F.C.
Reigate Priory Football Club is a football club based in Reigate, Surrey, England. They are currently members of the Surrey Elite Intermediate League and play at Park Lane, the club can trace its history as far back as 1870, not long after The Football Association was formed in 1863. In 1871 the club was one of only 15 teams that played for a £20 silver trophy, the team were drawn in the first round against the Royal Engineers, who went on to lose in the final. Reigate Priory withdrew before the game, and Royal Engineers were awarded a walkover, Reigate Priory was also present when the Surrey County F. A. decided to become affiliated to the Football Association on 16 March 1882. The club was one of the original 10 teams present at the meeting took place in Guildford. At the same time, a County Senior Cup competition was introduced, the first winners of this trophy, Priory were victorious six times in the competition before the end of the 20th century. The club is one of the oldest football clubs in the still playing on its original ground. It numbers among its former members WW Read, with whom it enjoyed a long, in 2008 the club became founder members of the Surrey Elite Intermediate League. As of the 2014-15 season, the club is enjoying its 7th consecutive season in the Surrey Elite Intermediate League,1 team and reserves Reigate Priory play their home games at Park Lane, Reigate, Surrey, RH2 8JX
Crystal Palace National Sports Centre
The National Sports Centre at Crystal Palace in south London, England is a large sports centre and athletics stadium. The sports centre building was designed by the LCC Architects Department under Sir Leslie Martin between 1953–54 and is a Grade II* listed building, the athletics stadium has a capacity of 15,500, which can be increased to 24,000 with temporary seating. The current 15,500 seater athletics stadium was built on the site of the ground by M J Gleeson. From 1999 to 2012 it hosted the London Grand Prix, the stadium can be expanded to 24,000 with temporary seating if required. With the opening of the London Olympic Stadium in 2012, its future as a stadium hosting athletics events is in doubt. Crystal Palace F. C. has submitted plans to rebuild the stadium as a 40,000 seater football stadium without a running track, but with a new indoor aquatic and sports centre as part of the complex. The current athletics stadium is on the land as a previous football ground. In 1905, the owners wanted their own club to play at the venue. They were forced to leave by the military, in 1915, the largest domestic attendance ever at the stadium was in the 1913 Cup final between Aston Villa and Sunderland, when 121,919 spectators squeezed into the stands. The previous world record had been the 1901 Cup Final, when 114,815 amassed to watch Tottenham Hotspur, Tottenham Hotspur F. C. However, Spurs plans were cancelled due to their failure to obtain the Olympic Stadium. AC London used the stadium during the 2015–16 season, four more teams won the FA Cup during this time, after replays at other grounds. All but two of the finalists from that era a century ago are still playing in either the Premier League or the Football League Championship, the exceptions being Bradford City, and Bury. Newcastle United appeared in the most finals at the ground, five, results of finals at Crystal Palace FA Cup Wins at Crystal Palace Crystal Palace FA Cup Final appearances Goals Scored in FA Cup Finals at Crystal Palace Goals Conceded in F. A. Cup Finals at Crystal Palace On 2 December 1905, the ground held the first England Rugby Union international match against New Zealand in England. On Wednesday 18 August 1965, the ground was the venue of the Rugby league match in which the Commonwealth XIII rugby league team were defeated 7–15 by New Zealand. It also played host to Fulham Rugby League in the mid-1980s for a couple of seasons, London County Cricket Club was a short-lived cricket club founded by the Crystal Palace Company. In 1898 they invited W. G. Grace to help form a first-class cricket club. Grace accepted the offer and became the secretary, manager
Clapham Common is a large triangular urban park in Clapham, south London. Originally common land for the parishes of Battersea and Clapham, it was converted to parkland under the terms of the Metropolitan Commons Act 1878 and it is 220 acres of green space, with three ponds and a Victorian bandstand. It is overlooked by large Georgian and Victorian mansions and nearby Clapham Old Town, holy Trinity Clapham, an 18th-century Georgian church overlooking the park, is important in the history of the evangelical Clapham Sect. Half of the park is within the London Borough of Wandsworth, originally common land for the parishes of Battersea and Clapham, William Hewer was among the early Londoners to build adjacent to it. Samuel Pepys, the diarist, died at Hewers house in 1703, some later residents were members of the Clapham Sect of evangelical reformers, including Lord Teignmouth and Henry Thornton, the banker and abolitionist. J. M. W. Turner painted View on Clapham Common between 1800 and 1805, showing that even though the common had been drained, it remained quite a wild place. The common was converted to parkland under the terms of the Metropolitan Commons Act in 1878, as London expanded in the 19th century, Clapham was absorbed into the capital, with most of the remaining palatial or agricultural estates replaced with terraced housing by the early 1900s. During World War II, storage bunkers were built on the Battersea Rise side of the common, Clapham Common was the venue for one of the earliest known cricket events when a series of ten-a-side matches was held there on Monday,1 April 1700. The participants were all gentlemen though others could attend as spectators, classification of the event is uncertain, though it must presumably be viewed as a minor event given the limited social status of the participants, the relatively low stakes and the ten-a-side teams. It is nevertheless the earliest known organised match in Surrey, the earliest definite mention of cricket in the county was the 1597 court case in Guildford, half of the common is within the London Borough of Wandsworth and half within the London Borough of Lambeth. The roads surrounding the fall within the SW4 post code. Clapham Common is in the Clapham Common electoral ward, in 2010, residents of the Clapham Common ward elected two Conservative Councillors & one Lib Dem Councillor. In 2014, residents of the Clapham Common ward elected 3 Conservative Councillors and this was the first time the Conservatives had taken control of the Clapham Common ward since the 1960s. Clapham Common has a range of sporting facilities, including a track, bowling green, cricket, football, rugby and Australian rules football pitches. The park contains three ponds, two of which are historical features, and a more modern paddling pool known as Cock Pond, eagle Pond and Mount Pond are used for angling and contain a variety of species including carp to 20 lb, roach, tench and bream. Eagle Pond was extensively refurbished in 2002 when it was drained, landscaped and replanted to provide a better habitat for the fish it contained. Long Pond has a tradition of use for model boating. Holy Trinity Church is close to the side of the park
He also played first class cricket for Kent and was an accomplished athlete. Renny-Tailyour was born at Mussoorie, North-Western Provinces, India, while his Scottish father was serving in the army there. He grew up on the estate at Newmanswalls, Montrose, Angus. A lieutenant at the time of his achievements in the 1870s and 1880s. After retiring from service, he became managing director of the Guinness company. A forward, he played in the first FA Cup Final in 1872, the Royal Engineers lost 1-0 that day to the Wanderers, but returned in 1874 to face Oxford University, a match which they lost 2-0. The Engineers finally won the cup in 1875 - 2-0, after a 1-1 draw and this was his last cup final appearance. Renny-Tailyour was selected to represent Scotland on two occasions, first he appeared against England at The Oval in London on 17 November 1871. This match, however, is not regarded as an official international, Renny-Tailyour was selected again in 1873, when England hosted an official international between the two countries for the first time. His residence again proved to be a factor, as the fledgling Scottish Football Association was only able to fund eight players to travel to London and it was therefore necessary to supplement the team with three others based in the south. Renny-Tailyours goal in Scotlands 4-2 defeat at The Oval gave him the honour of scoring Scotlands first international goal and his family connections with Montrose led to him being appointed as the local football clubs Honorary President, 1887-88. FA Cup 1875 A middle order batsman and occasional bowler, Renny-Tailyours cricketing career was restricted by his army service. He played mostly minor cricket, for the Royal Engineers, I Zingari, Strathmore and Aberdeenshire, Renny-Tailyour also played for the Royal Engineers on the rugby field, and represented Scotland in one of that sports earliest internationals, against England at The Oval in 1872. List of Scottish cricket and rugby union players Brief profile from CricketArchive Versatile internationals, drop goal specialists and FA Cup Final connections
Hugh Mitchell (Royal Engineers)
Hugh Mitchell was a Scottish member of the Royal Engineers who later became a barrister. Mitchell was born in Marylebone, London, the son of Lieut, Col. Hugh Mitchell of the Madras army and his wife Jessie née McCaskill. He was educated at Harrow School between 1864 and 1867 before going to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, at Harrow, he was a keen sportsman, representing the school at football, cricket and shooting. In 1878, he married Mary Catherine Katie Creswell, the sister of Col. Edmund Creswell who had played him in the 1872 FA Cup Final. They had seven children, including Philip Euen Mitchell, who served as Governor of Uganda, Fiji, Katie died in 1892 following the birth of her youngest child. Mitchell played as a forward who was described as a good charger and he was part of the Royal Engineers team who reached the final of the inaugural FA Cup tournament, scoring a goal in the semi-final replay over Crystal Palace. In the final, played at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872, the match ended in a 2–1 defeat, with the Scots goal being scored by Mitchells Royal Engineers team-mate, Lieut. He retained his place in the Scottish team for the match in the series, played the following February. Mitchell joined the Royal Engineers as a Lieutenant on 8 January 1870 and he was posted to Bermuda from 1873 to 1875 and then to Gibraltar before returning to England in 1878 where he worked in the War Office. Although he was promoted to the rank of Captain on 8 January 1882 and he became a student of the Inner Temple on 21 January 1881 and was called to the bar on 7 May 1884. He moved to South Wales where he operated on the South Wales and Chester Circuit and he practiced in Gibraltar and Tangier from 1896. He retired in 1926 and moved to South Africa where he died at Brakpan on 16 August 1937, works written by or about Hugh E. Mitchell at Wikisource Scotland international career summary
The Combination Game was a style of association football based around teamwork and cooperation. It would gradually favour the passing of the ball between players over individual dribbling skills which had been a feature of early Association games. It developed from scientific football and is considered to be the predecessor of the passing game of football. It originated in Britain and its origins are associated with clubs, Sheffield FC, The Royal Engineers AFC, Queens Park FC. Each of these claimants is supported by accounts from men who were notable in the early history of football. They are considered below in the order of earliest contemporary evidence of football playing styles. See Offside The change to the offside rule enabled the gradual transition from a dribbling to a passing game. The introduction of an offside rule in the FA rules of 1866/67 - at the behest of representatives of Charterhouse. A similar rule had originally been part of the earlier Cambridge rules, the earliest reference to the term combination game is made by C. W. Alcock in 1874 when he states that Nothing succeeds better than what I may call a combination game. As early as 1870 Alcock stated that he preferred playing football in a scientific way, an example of this was reported in a contemporary account of the November 1870 football match between England and Scotland Mr Alcock made a splendid run. And being cleverly supported by Mr Walker, a goal was obtained, as systematic forms of passing became more prevalent in association football, Alcocks views on combination would understandably change. Writing in 1883 he gives the definition of combination, Combination is the great object to be studied in the attainment of success in Association football. By combination I mean much more than the passing on which seems to be the one common idea of perfection among a large number of English Associationists. The superiority of the Association elevens of Scotland is not to be attributed to a skill of their forwards. As the game continued to evolve Alcock would state in 1891, last week a match took place in a field near Dragley Beck between the men of leather and the other trades of Ulverstone. The shoemakers &c challenged the other parties, and it was agreed that each side should have 15 men. The ball was placed about the centre of the ground, at a given signal, two opponents rushed forward, and the representative of leather, Roger Gaskell, took the ball in grand style, thereby winning the glaves. The action then became general, but leather was forced to be content with the laurels already won, as the other party won every bye that was played
In sports, dribbling is maneuvering of a ball by a single player while moving in a given direction, avoiding defenders attempts to intercept the ball. Such control may be exercised with the legs, hands, stick or swimming strokes, a successful dribble will bring the ball past defenders legally and create opportunities to score. In association football, a dribble is one of the most difficult skills to master. In typical game play, players attempt to propel the ball toward their opponents goal through individual control of the ball, dribbling is often invaluable especially in the third part of a pitch or at the wings, where most attacks take place. Dribbling creates space in tight situations where the dribbler is marked, however, dribbling, if poorly mastered and used, may result in the loss of possession either when the ball is intercepted or tackled by a defender. A skilful dribbler is often hard to dispossess, unsuccessful tackles may result in a free kick situation. Early references to dribbling come from accounts of football games in England. For example, Geoffrey Chaucer offered an allusion to such ball skills in fourteenth century England, in the Canterbury Tales he uses the following line, rolleth under foot as doth a ball. Similarly at the end of the 15th century comes a Latin account of a game which was played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire. It is included in a collection of the miracles of King Henry VI of England. Although the precise date is uncertain it certainly comes from between 1481 and 1500 and this is the first account of an exclusively kicking game and the first description of dribbling, he game at which they had met for common recreation is called by some the foot-ball game. In basketball, dribbling is the method of advancing the ball by oneself. It consists of bouncing the ball on the floor continuously with one hand while walking or running down the court, james Naismiths original rules said nothing about dribbling, merely stating that passing the ball was the legal way of advancing it. Players soon developed the strategy of passing to themselves, which Naismith himself both endorsed and admired for its ingenuity, and which evolved into the dribble as it is known today, the first known team to dribble was Yale University in 1897. The dribble allows for much faster advancement and thus opportunities for scoring. It also provides an opportunity for a crafty player on the team to steal the ball in mid-bounce. A double dribble may also be called if the player tries to dribble with both hands at the same time. Dribbling should be done with finger pads and the fingers should be relaxed and spread, The wrist should be pushing the basketball, skilled ball handlers bounce the ball low to the ground, reducing the risk of a defender reaching in to steal the ball