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Scaramouche (1952 film)

Scaramouche is a 1952 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Technicolor romantic swashbuckler film based on the 1921 novel Scaramouche by Rafael Sabatini as well as the 1923 film version starring Ramón Novarro. The film stars Stewart Granger, Eleanor Parker, Janet Leigh, Mel Ferrer, it was directed by George Sidney and produced by Carey Wilson from a screenplay by Ronald Millar and George Froeschel. The original music score was composed by the cinematography by Charles Rosher. In France just prior to the French Revolution, Queen Marie Antoinette asks her cousin Noel, the Marquis de Maynes, to uncover the identity of "Marcus Brutus", a dangerous pamphleteer rousing hatred of the aristocracy. Meanwhile, André Moreau, a nobleman's bastard, kidnaps his beloved Lenore to keep her from marrying another man. Afterwards, Moreau learns. While traveling to meet his parent, Moreau runs into Aline de Gavrillac, the Queen's ward, when her carriage breaks down in the road, they are attracted to each other, but Moreau's ardor cools when he learns that she is his half-sister.

He hides that information from her because of sympathy after he learns the Comte de Gavrillac has died. By chance, de Maynes encounters Marcus Brutus, who turns out to be Moreau's best friend, Philippe de Valmorin. A master swordsman, de Maynes provokes de Valmorin into a duel toys with his inexperienced opponent before killing him. Enraged, Moreau does no better than his dead friend. After de Maynes disarms him several times, Moreau chooses discretion over valor and flees for his life, vowing to kill de Maynes the same way he slew de Valmorin. Chased by de Maynes's henchmen, led by the Chevalier de Chabrillaine, Moreau hides out in the commedia dell'arte troupe in which Lenore performs. Forced to disguise himself as the character Scaramouche, he discovers a hidden talent as a performer. Burning for revenge, Moreau seeks out de Maynes' fencing instructor and trains diligently in secret for weeks, while performing with the troupe. However, de Maynes appears during one such training session, they fight for a second time.

Moreau is still overmatched, is saved only by Aline's unexpected arrival, enabling Moreau to escape. Moreau decides to seek out Doutreval's teacher, taking the troupe to Paris for that purpose. There, Dr. Dubuque, a deputy of the new National Assembly, seeks his help; the aristocrats in the assembly are systematically killing off the deputies representing the common people by provoking them into duels. Moreau is not interested; each day, he shows up at the assembly to challenge de Maynes, only to find his enemy absent on trivial but official duties, arranged by Aline and Lenore working together to protect the man they both love. However, other nobles in the National Assembly are eager to fight the newcomer, challenging him on a daily basis. Moreau wins every time. In the meantime, de Maynes becomes engaged to Aline. Overhearing de Maynes' intention to confront Moreau that night, Aline persuades him to take her out instead. At the suggestion of de Chabrillaine, they attend a performance of the De Binet Troupe, where Andre seizes his opportunity for revenge.

The two men engage in a prolonged duel that ranges throughout the theater and back onto the stage itself. At the end, Moreau has de Maynes at his mercy, helpless as Philippe de Valmorin had been, but something he cannot explain stays his hand. Moreau stalks off, leaving de Maynes alive. Moreau learns from Philippe's father that his father is not the Comte de Gavrillac, but rather the old Marquis de Maynes, the Comte de Gavrillac's friend, he realizes that he is not related to Aline after all, so they can be married. Lenore, after giving him her blessing, consoles herself with a certain Corsican officer. Lewis Stone played the villain, the Marquis de la Tour d'Azyr, in the 1923 silent version; the studio planned to adapt the novel in late 1938, with production set to commence in early 1939, though pre-production did not start until 1950. The film was meant to be a MGM musical starring Gene Kelly, with Ava Gardner as Lenore and Elizabeth Taylor co-starring as Aline, their commitments to the film were confirmed in early 1951.

At one point, other than Kelly, Fernando Lamas and Ricardo Montalban were considered for the lead."I always felt that Scaramouche should have been a musical," said George Sidney. "It would have needed the most crafty score but it could have been exciting."However, when Stewart Granger was contracted by the studio after his success in King Solomon's Mines, one of his stipulations was that he star in the then-upcoming Scaramouche project. Ava Gardner was announced as Granger's co-star. Ricardo Montalban was signed to play the villain. Talbot Jennings wrote the first script, Casey Wilson was assigned as producer and George Sidney as director. Montalban was dropped and it was announced Granger would play both the hero and the villain. Elizabeth Taylor was mentioned as a female lead in addition to Gardner. Granger was cast in Constable Pedley which required location filming in snow; this meant. Granger went on to shoot part of The Wild North

Gibraltar Rock State Natural Area

Gibraltar Rock State Natural Area is a natural area in southern Wisconsin, United States, 68 acres in size, is located along the 1,000-mile-long Ice Age Trail. Located in Columbia County, Gibraltar Rock State Natural Area is 68 acres in size; the Wisconsin River Valley and Lake Wisconsin are located within view of the higher-elevation points in the natural area. The Gibraltar Rock State Natural Area is located along the Ice Age Trail, a thousand miles long, it is located 1.2 miles from the intersection of Highway 113 and County Highway V in the town of West Point. Wisconsin County Road V runs past the area, with a parking lot located off the road that allows access to it. From there, a walking trail leads off to gain access to Gibraltar Rock. Early on, the Van Ness family had a house on the property. Other early families living in the area includes the Richmond family. During the 1920s, Wisconsin landscape architect Jens Jensen started efforts to protect the area. Forming a group at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1920, the group was able to acquire the land in 1927.

They named the area Richmond Park. The Gibraltar Rock State Natural Area became a Wisconsin-designated natural area in 1969, it was owned by the county until 2007, when they transferred ownership to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. A celebration was held following the transfer of ownership; the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources manages the Gibraltar Rock State Natural Area. Howard Van Ness made several paintings depicting the area prior to its designation as a state natural area. Friends of Gibraltar Rock exists and does "biological indexing of the flora and fauna in the area." The views from the natural area are a major tourist draw. The 1.4-mile track for the area does not have wheelchair access. People are not allowed to climb the rocks in the park; the natural area is located on the outer part of the Magnesian Escarpment/Black River Escarpment, with the soil for the area being glaciated sandy loams, which sit on top of the Galena-Platteville dolomite cap and St. Peter sandstone.

Inside the natural area is a 200-foot-tall flat-topped butte called "Gibraltar Rock." It is the highest point in Columbia County. There is a 0.75-mile-long trail leading up to the Rock. Cliff goldenrod, ferns, pale corydalis and red cedar, little blue-stem, side oats grama, prairie drop-seed, blue-eyed grass, bird's foot violet, pasque flower, aster, whorled milkweed, prairie smoke are located within the natural area