The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States
The 1840s was a really active and extremely turbulent decade that ran from January 1,1840, to December 31,1849. Throughout the decade, many countries worldwide saw many revolts as well as uprisings, asides from uprisings, the United States began to see a shifting population that migrated to the West Coast, as the California Gold Rush ensued in the latter half of the decade. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, the capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1845, George Tupou I united Tonga into a kingdom, on August 29,1842, the first of two Opium Wars ended between China and Britain with the Treaty of Nanking. One of the consequences was the cession of modern-day Hong Kong Island to the British, Hong Kong would eventually be returned to China in 1997. Other events, July 3,1844 – The United States signs the Treaty of Wanghia with the Chinese Government, the 1840s comprised the end of the Tenpō era, the entirety of the Kōka era, and the beginning of the Kaei era. The decade saw the end of the reign of Emperor Ninko in 1846, emperors Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị and Tự Đức ruled Vietnam during the 1840s under the Nguyễn dynasty. 1848 – British, Dutch, and German governments lay claim to New Guinea, First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi on February 6,1840, at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. The treaty between the British Crown and Māori made New Zealand colony and is considered the point of modern New Zealand. July 20,1845 – Charles Sturt enters the Simpson Desert in central Australia, may 25,1846 – The Royal Geographical Society awards Paweł Edmund Strzelecki a Gold Medal for exploration in the south eastern portion of Australia. The British attempted to impose a puppet regime on Afghanistan under Shuja Shah, by 1842, mobs were attacking the British on the streets of Kabul and the British garrison was forced to abandon the city due to constant civilian attacks. During the retreat from Kabul, the British army of approximately 4,500 troops and 12,000 camp followers was subjected to a series of attacks by Afghan warriors. All of the British soldiers were killed except for one and he, after the Battle of Kabul, Britain placed Dost Mohammad Khan back into power and withdrew from Afghanistan. March 24,1843 – Battle of Hyderabad, The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, the Sikh Empire was founded in 1799, ruled by Ranjit Singh. When Singh died in 1839, the Sikh Empire began to fall into disorder, there was a succession of short-lived rulers at the central Durbar, and increasing tension between the Khalsa and the Durbar. In May 1841, the Dogra dynasty invaded western Tibet, marking the beginning of the Sino-Sikh war and this war ended in a stalemate in September 1842, with the Treaty of Chushul. The British East India Company began to build up its strength on the borders of the Punjab. Eventually, the increasing tension goaded the Khalsa to invade British territory, under weak, the hard-fought First Anglo-Sikh War ended in defeat for the Khalsa
The 1850s was a decade that ran from January 1,1850, to December 31,1859. At the mean time, The United States saw its peak on mass migration to the American West, that particularly made the nation experience an economic boom, as well as a rapidly increasing population. Crimean War fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. On 8 October 1856, the Second Opium War between several powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River. Second War of Italian Independence, also known as Franco-Austrian War, moldavia and Wallachia are unified and form Romania. Gideon T. Stewart attempts to create a Prohibition Party, dissolution of the Mughal Empire by the British. First commercially successful sewing machine made by Isaac Singer Ukrainian settlers bring Carniolan honeybees to the Primorsky Krai The word girlfriend first appears in writing in 1855, the word boyfriend first appears in writing in 1856. Nikola Tesla American texts from the 1850s American speeches from the 1850s
The 1860s were an extremely different decade with numerous cultural, social, and political upheavals in Europe and America. Revolutions were prevalent in Germany and the Ottoman Empire, the abolition of slavery in America led to the breakdown of the Atlantic Slave Trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and ’30s. After the Civil War, turmoil continued in Reconstruction, with the rise of white supremacist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan, replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico with the establishment of the Second Mexican Empire. Juárez eventually manages to recover his position, on 18 October 1860, the first Convention of Peking formally ended the Second Opium War. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865, the Paraguayan War starts in South America, with the invasion of Paraguay by the Triple Alliance. It will kill almost 60% of the country’s population, the main phase of the New Zealand Wars between British colonials and the Māori population begins with the First Taranaki War in 1860. The most significant campaign is the Invasion of Waikato in 1863, the Kingdom of Prussia under Bismarck invaded Denmark in 1864, which ended in the division of Schleswig, the location of a pro-German revolt, between Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Though Prussia and Austria had both fought side by side in war, Prussia later attacked Austria in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. The technological and logistical superiority of Prussias armed forces obliterated Austria and its allies, by the end of these conflicts, Prussia was seen as the most powerful state in Germany, and had total hegemony over the other German states. The NGF was formed after the Austro-Prussian war, uniting the states of north Germany, the Bhutan War between the British Empire and Bhutan lasted from 1864 to 1865. It ended in a British victory and the loss of some Bhutanese territory to British India, beginning of the Reconstruction era under President Andrew Johnson. 1863–64 January Uprising in the Russian Empire, on 19 July 1864 the fall of Nanjing formally ended the 14-year Taiping Rebellion. Italian Unification under King Victor Emmanuel II, Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th and last of the Tokugawa shoguns loses control to the Meiji Emperor, the samurai class fails to survive while the daimyōs turn to politics. The Dominion of Canada is created by the British North America Act on July 1,1867, President of the United States Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, April 14,1865. King of Madagascar Radama II is captured by soldiers and strangled to death, manuel Isidoro Belzu, President of Bolivia is assassinated. Father of Canadian Confederation, Thomas DArcy McGee is assassinated by Patrick J. Whelan, sakamoto Ryōma, a prominent figure in the Bakumatsu era in Japan and part of the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate, is assassinated along with Nakaoka Shintarō at a Kyoto inn in 1867. The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is completed in 1869, the Suez Canal in Egypt is opened in 1869
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, pessimistic, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896. The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1,1880, and ended on December 31,1889. They occurred at the period of the Second Industrial Revolution. Most Western countries experienced an economic boom, due to the mass production of railroads. The modern city as well as the rose to prominence in this decade as well. The 1880s were also part of the Gilded Age, which lasted from 1874 to 1907, aceh War War of the Pacific Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, and Egypt becomes a British protectorate. American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890 and this would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of almost the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881, The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed,1884, International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C. held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885, Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa, the United States had five Presidents during the decade, the most since the 1840s. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, may to August,1883, Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically,36,000 people were killed, the majority being killed by the resulting tsunami. September 1887, The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people, the 1880s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts,13 March 1881 — Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia. 19 September 1881 — James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 — Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria,3 April 1882 — Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 - Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland,1880, Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, London, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable. In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils, in the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heavisides work. 1880–1882, Development and commercial production of lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, Ohio, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17,1880, based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edisons system was based on creating a power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would then connect the station with other buildings, Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States
The phrase, The Gay Nineties, was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by an economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. As of January 23,2017, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s. On December 29,1890,365 troops of the US 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns, surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek, the Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day earlier, the Sioux had been cornered and agreed to themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do. the process of disarming the Sioux, the 7th Cavalry quickly suppressed the Sioux fire, and the surviving Sioux fled, but US cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time it was over, about 146 men, women, twenty-five troopers also died, some believed to have been the victims of friendly fire as the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions. Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with a number later dying from hypothermia. The incident is noteworthy as the engagement in history in which the most Medals of Honor have been awarded in the military history of the United States. This was the last tribe to be invaded which broke the backbone of the American Indian Wars,1891, Chilean Civil War fought from January to September. José Manuel Balmaceda, President of Chile, and the Chilean Army loyal to him face Jorge Montts Junta, the latter was formed by an alliance between the National Congress of Chile and the Chilean Navy. 1891, Tobacco Protest in Qajar dynasty Persia, on March 20,1890, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Shah of Iran granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production, sale, and export of tobacco for fifty years. In exchange, Talbot paid the shah an annual sum of £15,000 in addition to a quarter of the profits after the payment of all expenses. Now they were forced to seek permits from the Tobacco Régie as well as required to inform the concessionaires of the amount of tobacco produced, during the spring of 1891 mass protests against the Régie began to emerge in major Iranian cities. Initially it was the bazaaris who led the opposition under the conviction that it was their income, the reference to the Hidden Imam, a critical person in Shia Islam, meant that Shirazi was using the strongest possible language to oppose the Régie. Initially there was skepticism over the legitimacy of the fatwa, however Shirazi would later confirm the declaration,1892, The Johnson County War in Wyoming. Actually this range war took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County, the combatants were the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and the Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1900, and ended on December 31,1909. The term nineteen-hundreds can also equally be used for the years 1900–1999, the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are nineteen-oh-six, nineteen-six, which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, nineteen-oh-six is the most common, nineteen-six is less common, nineteen-ought-six is recognized, the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an ohs or aughts decade. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power, battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a battle of the Unification War between Rashidi and Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Hail, demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1,1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20,1902 — Cuba gains independence from the United States, june 7,1905 — The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, and Norway achieves full independence. October 5,1908 — Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, April 19,1902 — A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000. May 8,1902 — In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre, April 7,1906 — Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. September 18,1906 — A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong, January 14,1907 — An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. December 28,1908 — An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina, Sicily and Calabria, April 26,1900 — The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless. The fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers, warehouses, may 3,1901 — The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10,1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, August 10,1903 — Paris Métro train fire. December 30,1903 — A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, February 7,1904 — The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15,1904 — A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York Citys East River kills 1,021, june 28,1904 — The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants. January 22,1906 — The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, the 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts, July 29,1900 — King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci
As of the start of 1871, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 18 – The member states of the North German Confederation, the King of Prussia is declared the first German Emperor as Wilhelm I of Germany in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. January 21 – Giuseppe Garibaldis group of French and Italian volunteer troops in support of the French Third Republic win a battle against the Prussians in Dijon, february 9 – United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries is founded. March 7 – José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco, becomes Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil, march 21 – John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne marries Princess Louise. March 21 – Otto von Bismarck becomes first Chancellor of the German Empire, march 22 In North Carolina, William Holden becomes the first governor of a U. S. state to be removed from office by impeachment. The United States Army issues an order for the abandonment of Fort Kearny, march 26 – The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris. March 27 – The first rugby union International results in a 4–1 win by Scotland over England, march 29 First Surgeon General of the United States appointed. The Royal Albert Hall in London is opened by Queen Victoria, april – The Stockholms Handelsbank is founded. April 4 – New Jersey Detective Agency chartered, april 20 – U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Civil Rights Act. April 24 – Murder of servant girl Jane Clouson in Eltham, may 4 – The first supposedly Major League Baseball game is played. May 8 – The first Major League Baseball home run is hit by Ezra Sutton of the Cleveland Forest Citys, may 10 – Treaty of Frankfurt is signed confirming the frontiers between Germany and France. May 11 – The first trial in the Tichborne case begins in the London Court of Common Pleas, may 21 – Opening of the first rack railway in Europe, the Vitznau–Rigi Railway on Mount Rigi in Switzerland. May 30 – French Third Republic, Government suppression of the Paris Commune rebellion is completed, june 1 – Bombardment of the Selee River Forts, Koreans attack two United States Navy warships. June 10 – United States expedition to Korea, Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 members of the United States Marine Corps in a naval attack on the Han River forts on Ganghwa Island in Korea. June 18 – The University Tests Act removes restrictions limiting access to Oxford, Cambridge, july 20 British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada. C. W. Alcock proposes that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association, july 21 – August 26 – First ever photographs of Yellowstone National Park region taken by the photographer William Henry Jackson during the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871. July 22 – The foundation stone of the first Tay Rail Bridge is laid, july 28 – The Annie, the first boat ever launched on Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park region. August 29 – The abolition of the han system is carried out in Japan, August 31 – Adolphe Thiers becomes the President of the French Republic
As of the start of 1872, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 12 – Yohannes IV is crowned Emperor of Ethiopia in Axum, february 2 – The government of the United Kingdom buys a number of forts on the Gold Coast from the Netherlands. February 4 – A great solar flare and associated geomagnetic storm makes northern lights visible as far south as Cuba, february 13 – Rex, the most famous parade on Mardi Gras, parades for the first time in New Orleans for Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich of Russia. February 20 – The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York City, march 1 – In the United States, Yellowstone National Park is established as the worlds first national park. March 5 George Westinghouse receives a United States patent for the failsafe automatic railway air brake, the Tichborne case is decided in London against the claimant Arthur Orton. March 11 – Work begins erecting the Seven Sisters Colliery in South Wales, march 16 –1872 FA Cup Final, In the first ever final of the FA Cup, the worlds oldest football competition, Wanderers F. C. defeat Royal Engineers A. F. C. 1–0 at The Oval in Kennington, London, march 26 – The 7. 4–7.9 Mw Lone Pine earthquake shakes eastern California with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X. Twenty-seven people were killed and fifty-six were injured. April 14 – The Third Carlist War begins in northern Spain, Don Carlos, Duke of Madrid, the Carlist pretender appoints General Rada commander-in-chief in Spain and calls for a general rising. May – The magazine Popular Science is first published in the United States, may 4 – Third Carlist War in Spain, The Carlist Army is defeated at the Battle of Oroquieta in Navarre. 1,000 government troops easily defeat the larger number of Carlists at Oroquieta. 50 Carlists are killed and Moriones take 700 prisoners but Don Carlos escapes, may 10 – Victoria Woodhull becomes the first woman nominated for President of the United States, although she is a year too young to qualify and does not appear on the ballot. May 22 Reconstruction, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Amnesty Act of 1872 into law, restoring civil rights to all. Georges Bizets comic opera Djamileh is premièred at the Opéra-Comique in Paris, june – Rangers F. C. play their first ever game on the public pitches of Glasgow Green in Scotland. June 14 – Trade unions are legalised in Canada, july 4 – The Society of Jesus is pronounced illegal in the German Empire. August 22 – The Australian Overland Telegraph Line is completed, providing a link between Australia and the rest of the world for the first time. September – Thomas Hardy anonymously publishes his novel Under the Greenwood Tree, september 1 – A group of Icaiche Maya under Marcos Canul attack Orange Walk Town in British Honduras, the British send troops against them. September 18 – Upon the death of King Charles XV of Sweden and Norway, september 26 – The first Shriners Temple is established in New York City. October 1 The Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College begins its first academic session, First case reports in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, of the Great Epizootic of 1872 which will substantially disrupt life in North America by mid-December
As of the start of 1873, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 Japan adopts the Gregorian calendar, the California Penal Code goes into effect. January 17 – American Indian Wars, The First Battle of the Stronghold is fought during the Modoca War, February 11 – The Spanish Cortes deposes King Amadeus I and proclaims the First Spanish Republic. February 12 Emilio Castelar, the foreign minister, becomes prime minister of the new Spanish Republic. February 20 The University of California opens its first medical school in San Francisco, British Naval Officer John Morseby discovers the site of Port Moresby and claims the land for Britain. March 3 – Censorship, The United States Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any obscene, lewd, march 4 – Ulysses S. Grant is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. March 15 – The Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity is founded at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, march 19 – German Modernist composer Max Reger is born in Brand, Bavaria. March 22 – Emancipation Day for Puerto Rico, Slaves are freed, march 29 – The Rio Tinto Company is formed in Spain, following the February 17 purchase of the Rio Tinto mine from the Spanish government by a British investment group. April 1 – The British steamer RMS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, april 4 – The Kennel Club, the worlds first kennel club, is founded in the United Kingdom. April 15–17 – American Indian Wars, The Second Battle of the Stronghold is fought, april 19 –11 perish in a train derailment due to a bridge washout in the village of Richmond Switch in Richmond, Rhode Island. May – Henry Rose exhibits barbed wire at an Illinois county fair, which is taken up by Joseph Glidden and Jacob Haish, may 5 – Battle of Eraul, Carlists under General Dorregaray defeat Republicans at Eraul, near Estella during the Third Carlist War. May 9 Der Gründerkrach, The Wiener Börse crash in Austria-Hungary ends the Gründerzeit and heralds the global Panic of 1873, the Battle of Montejurra at Navarra, Spain, is fought during the Third Carlist War. May 20 Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive United States patent#139121 for using copper rivets to strengthen the pockets of denim work pants, Levi Strauss & Co. begin manufacturing the famous Levis brand of jeans, using fabric from the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire. In Chipping Norton, England, rioters attempt to free the Ascott Martyrs –sixteen women sentenced to imprisonment for attempting to dissuade strikebreakers, may 23 The Canadian Parliament establishes the North-West Mounted Police. The Preakness Stakes horse race is run for the first time in Baltimore, may 27 Classical archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovers Priams Treasure. Laan brings order to the created by the dockworker riots of Tripoli. The city of Khiva falls to Imperial Russian forces, under the command of General Konstantin von Kaufman, june 4 – American Indian Wars, The Modoc War ends with the capture of Kintpuash. June 9 – Alexandra Palace in London is destroyed by only a fortnight after its opening
As of the start of 1874, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January – The Pangkor Treaty, by which the British extended their control over, first the Sultanate of Perak, january 1 – New York City annexes The Bronx. January 2 – Ignacio María González becomes head of state of the Dominican Republic for the first time, in a brilliant action the Carlists were routed, losing 200 prisoners and 80 horses, while Despujol was promoted to Brigadier and became Conde de Caspe. January 23 Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria, marries Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia, camille Saint-Saëns composition Danse macabre receives its première. February 21 – The Oakland Daily Tribune publishes its first issue, february 23 – Walter Clopton Wingfield patents a game called sphairistike which is more commonly called lawn tennis. Carlists, under General Nicolás Ollo, entrenched at Somorrostro outside Bilbao drive back an assault by General Fernando Primo de Rivera. The republicans lose 1,200 men, and Moriones loses his nerve demanding reinforcements, march 14 – Battle of Castellfollit de la Roca, Appointed to command the Spanish Republican army in the north, General Ramón Nouvilas attempted to relieve the Carlist siege of Olot in Girona. But at Castellfollit de la Roca, in one of the Government’s worst defeats, Nouvilas was routed by Carlist General Francesc Savalls, march 18 Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights. The Dresden English Football Club is founded, first soccer club on European mainland, march – The Young Mens Hebrew Association in Manhattan is founded. April 15–May 15 – First exhibition of the group of painters, Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs. Louis Leroys critical review of it published on 25 April gives rise to the term Impressionism for the movement, with reference to Claude Monets Impression, may 2 – Siege of Bilbao, The siege is lifted. May 9 – The first commercial horse-drawn carriage debuts in the city of Bombay, may 20 – Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive a U. S. patent for blue jeans with copper rivets. The price is $13.50 per dozen, june 14 – Michel Domingue becomes head of state of Haiti. June 22 – Andrew Taylor Still starts the movement for osteopathic medicine in the United States at Kirksville, july 1 Universal Postal Union is established. Philadelphia Zoo opens, the first public zoo in the United States, sholes and Glidden typewriter, with cylindrical platen and QWERTY keyboard, first marketed, in the United States. The Bank of Spain emits the first peseta banknotes, july 23 – Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos is appointed the Archbishop of the Portuguese colonial enclave of Goa. July 24 – Mathew Evans and Henry Woodward patent the first incandescent lamp with a light bulb. After two days the outnumbered garrison capitulated but Don Alfonso permitted a terrible slaughter, subsequently another republican force defeats the disorderly Catalans who flee back to the Ebro
As of the start of 1875, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Midland Railway of England abolishes the Second Class passenger category leaving First Class, other British railway companies follow Midlands lead during the rest of the year. January 12 – Guangxu becomes 11th Qing dynasty Emperor of China at the age of 4 in succession to his cousin, january 14 – The newly proclaimed King Alfonso XII of Spain arrives in Spain to restore the monarchy during the Third Carlist War. The Carlists take several pieces of artillery, more than 2,000 rifles,800 men of both sides are killed - mostly government troops. February 18 – The Mason County War begins as a German-American mob breaks into a prison, february 21 – Jeanne Calment is born in Arles, France. She would go on to become the worlds oldest verified person to have lived, reaching an age of 122 years and 164 days. February 24 – The SS Gothenburg sinks off Australias east coast with the loss of approximately 102 lives, including a number of civil servants. The two tribes are not allowed to return to the Verde Valley until 1900, february 27 – Newton Booth, 11th Governor of California, resigns, having been elected Senator. Lieutenant Governor of California Romualdo Pacheco becomes acting Governor and he is later replaced by elected governor William Irwin. March 1 – The United States Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, march 3 – Georges Bizets opera Carmen receives its première at the Opéra-Comique in Paris. Bizet’s Carmen is first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, France, the first indoor ice hockey game is played at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. March 15 – Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States, april 10 – The Arya Samaj is founded in Mumbai by Swami Dayananda Saraswati. April 25 – Ten sophomores from Rutgers College steal a one-ton cannon from the campus of the College of New Jersey, may 7 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed between Japan and Russia. May 7 – German liner SS Schiller wrecks on the rocks off the Isles of Scilly with the loss of 335 lives, may 17 – Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby. May 20 – The Metre Convention is signed in Paris, France, june – The record-setting American clipper Flying Cloud of 1851 is burned for scrap metal. June 4 – Two American colleges play each other in arguably the first game of football, Tufts University and Harvard University at Jarvis Field in Cambridge. Summer – Third Carlist War in Spain, Two government armies under General Quesada, both they and their Carlist opponent drive opposing sympathisers from their homes and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty, mendiri is also removed from his command, and is replaced by the Count of Caserta
As of the start of 1876, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The Reichsbank opens in Berlin, the Bass Brewery Red Triangle becomes the worlds first registered trademark symbol. February 2 – The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs is formed at a meeting in Chicago, morgan Bulkeley of the Hartford Dark Blues is selected as the leagues first President. After a courageous and costly defence Calderón is forced to withdraw, february 14 – Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray. February 19 – Third Carlist War – Government troops under General Primo de Rivera drive through the weak Carlist forces protecting Estella, february 22 – Johns Hopkins University is founded in Baltimore. The Carlist pretender Carlos, Duke of Madrid, goes into exile in France bringing the conflict to an end four years. February/March – The Harvard Lampoon humor magazine is founded in Cambridge, march – American librarian Melvil Dewey first publishes the Dewey Decimal Classification system. March 7 – Alexander Graham Bell is granted a United States patent for an invention he calls the telephone, march 10 – Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call, saying Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you. March 20 – Through constitutional reform taking legal effect, Louis De Geer becomes the first Prime Minister of Sweden, April 16 – The Bulgarian April uprising occurs. April 17 – Friends Academy is founded by Gideon Frost at Locust Valley, may – Batak massacre refers to the massacre of Bulgarians in Batak by Ottoman troops in 1876 at the beginning of the April Uprising. The number of ranges from 3,000 to 5,000. May 1 Queen Victoria takes the title Empress of India, the Settle–Carlisle Railway in England is opened to passenger traffic. May 10 – The Centennial Exposition begins in Philadelphia, may 11 – May 12 – Berlin Memorandum, Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary propose an armistice between Turkey and its insurgents. May 16 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin Memorandum, may 17 – Nikolaus Otto files his patent for the four-stroke cycle internal combustion engine. May 18 – Wyatt Earp starts work in Dodge City, Kansas, June 4 – The Transcontinental Express arrives in San Francisco via the First Transcontinental Railroad,83 hours and 39 minutes after having left New York City. June 17 – American Indian Wars – Battle of the Rosebud,1,500 Sioux, June 24 – First published review of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain, in a British magazine, the books first edition had appeared earlier in June in England. July 1 – Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire, july 2 – Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire. July 4 – The United States celebrates its centennial, july 8 – Reichstadt Agreement, Russia and Austria-Hungary agree on partitioning the Balkan Peninsula
As of the start of 1877, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Queen Victoria is proclaimed Empress of India by the Royal Titles Act 1876, introduced by Benjamin Disraeli, january 8 – American Indian Wars – Battle of Wolf Mountain, Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United States Cavalry in Montana. January 20 – The Conference of Constantinople ends with Ottoman Turkey rejecting proposals of internal reform, january 29 – The Satsuma Rebellion, a revolt of disaffected samurai in Japan against the new imperial government. The Rebellion lasts until September of that year when it is crushed by a professionally led army of draftees, march – The Nineteenth Century magazine is founded in London. March 4 Emile Berliner invents the microphone, pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys ballet Swan Lake debuts. March 15 –1877 Australia v. England series, The first Test cricket match is held between England and Australia, march 24 – For the only time in history, The Boat Race between the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford is declared a dead heat. April 10 – The first human cannonball act in the British Isles, April 12 – The United Kingdom annexes the South African Republic, violating the Sand River Convention of 1852, causing a new Xhosa War. April 24 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire, may 5 – American Indian Wars, Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles. May 6 – Realizing that his people are weakened by cold and hunger, may 8–11 – At Gilmores Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is held. May 9 – Iquique earthquake and tsunami, An earthquake of at least magnitude 8.5 Ms occurs on the west coast of South America, may 16 – The 16 May 1877 crisis occurs in France. May 21 – By a speech in the Parliament of Romania by Mihail Kogălniceanu, june 15 – Henry Ossian Flipper becomes the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy. June 17 – American Indian Wars – Battle of White Bird Canyon, june 20 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the worlds first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. June 21 – The Molly Maguires are hanged at Carbon County Prison in Mauch Chunk, june 26 – The eruption of the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys, killing 1,000. June 30 – The British Mediterranean fleet is sent to Besika Bay, july – Conclusion of serial publication of Leo Tolstoys Anna Karenina in The Russian Messenger. July 9 – The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon, Louis, briefly establishing a Communist government before U. S. President Rutherford B. Hayes calls in the armed forces. July 19 – Russo-Turkish War, The first battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought, july 30 – The second battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought. July 30 – Russo-Turkish War, The Turkish army and its allies destroy the Bulgarian city of Stara Zagora, the army loses 29 soldiers and the Indians lose 89 warriors in an Army victory. August 12 – American astronomer Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, the moon of Mars
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football. The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard, Yale and Columbia then agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
The Yale Bulldogs are the athletic teams of Yale University. The school sponsors 35 varsity sports, the school has won two NCAA national championships in womens fencing, four in mens swimming and diving,21 in mens golf and one in mens hockey. Major leaguers pitcher Craig Breslow and catcher Ryan Lavarnway, among others, Breslow led the Ivy League with a 2.56 ERA in 2002. Lavarnway led the NCAA in batting average and slugging percentage in 2007, set the Ivy League hitting-streak record, in August 2012, Breslow and Lavarnway, playing for the Red Sox, became the first Yale grads to be Major League teammates since 1949. The football team has competed since 1876 and they have won nineteen national championships when the school competed in what is now known as the FBS. They are perhaps best known for their rivalry with Harvard, known as The Game, twenty one former players have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. The mens golf team has won 21 collegiate team championships,1897,1898,1902, 1905–13,1915, 1924–26 and they have won nine Ivy League championships since the League championship was started in 1975, 1984–85,1988, 1990–91, 1996–97,2003,2011. The Yale Mens Ice Hockey team is the oldest existing intercollegiate hockey program, the team competes in the ECAC Hockey League, in addition the Ivy League also crowns a champion for its members that field varsity ice hockey. The Bulldogs won the 2013 NCAA National Championship in Pittsburgh with a 4–0 shutout of Quinnipiac University, from 1911 to 1958, Yale won four national championships. As of July 2,2015, Yale has 28 NCAA team national championships, see also, Ivy League NCAA team championships List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships Yale rugby plays college rugby in Division 1 in the Ivy Rugby Conference. Yale Rugby was founded in 1875, making it one of the oldest rugby teams in North America, president George W. Bush played rugby for Yale during his student days. List of NCAA schools with the most Division I national championships Official website
Harvard Crimson football
The Harvard Crimson football program represents Harvard University in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Harvards football program is one of the oldest in the world, Harvard is the eighth winningest team in NCAA Division I football history. The Harvard Crimson was one of the dominant forces in the days of intercollegiate football. In both 1919 and 1920, headed by All-American brothers Arnold Horween and Ralph Horween, Harvard was undefeated, the team won the 1920 Rose Bowl against the University of Oregon, 7–6. It was the bowl appearance in Harvard history. In the forty-year period from 1889 to 1928, Harvard had more than 80 first-team All-American selections, under head coach Percy Haughton, Harvard had three consecutive undefeated seasons from 1912 to 1914, including two perfect seasons in 1912 and 1913. Harvard claims the national championships, The NCAA decided to split Division I into two subdivisions in 1978, then called I-A for larger schools, and I-AA for the smaller ones. In 1982, the NCAA created a rule that stated an average attendance must be at least 15,000 to qualify for I-A membership. This forced the hand, as only some of the member schools met the attendance qualification. The Crimson are behind Penn and Dartmouths 18 Ivy League Football Championships, Harvard and Yale have been competing against each other in football since 1875. The annual rivalry game between the two schools, known as The Game, is played in November at the end of the football season, as of 2015, Yale led the series 65-59-8. The Game is the second oldest continuing rivalry and also the third most-played rivalry game in football history, after the Lehigh–Lafayette Rivalry. Sports Illustrated On Campus rated the Harvard–Yale rivalry the sixth-best in college athletics in 2003, ted Kennedy played football for Harvard and caught a touchdown pass in the 1955 Harvard/Yale game. In 2006, Yale ended a losing streak against Harvard. That Harvard winning streak was third longest in the history of the series, after Yales 1902–1907 six-game winning streak, Harvard has since beaten Yale in 2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014 and 2015. The Game is significant for historical reasons as the rules of The Game soon were adopted by other schools. Footballs rules, conventions, and equipment, as well as elements of such as the mascot and fight song, include many elements pioneered or nurtured at Harvard. Harvard Stadium is a football stadium in the Allston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts
McGill Redmen and Martlets
The McGill Redmen and Martlets are the athletic teams that represent McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The name Redmen was first published in 1929 as Red Men and was used to describe the red worn by McGill sports teams. Research done by McGill historian Dr. Stanley Frost indicated that the name Redmen derived from ancient times and our own Red Men were no doubt Celts in honour of James McGills Scottish descent, notes Frost. The mascot for both the Redmen and Martlet teams is Marty the Martlet, the McGill Redmen CIS football team is one of the oldest in all of Canada, having begun organized competition in 1874. The team has appeared in three Vanier Cup national championships, in 1969,1973 and 1987, with the Redmen finally winning the title in the 1987 game, McGill plays out of Percival Molson Memorial Stadium, where the Canadian Football Leagues Montreal Alouettes also play. After their 2005 suspension, the team struggled with three losing seasons, including two seasons in 2007 and 2008. The program showed signs of hope as the Redmen won three games in 2009, but soon sank back down to futility with consecutive winless campaigns in 2010 and 2011. On March 3,1875 the first organized indoor game was played at Montreals Victoria Skating Rink by James George Aylwin Creighton, in 1877, several McGill students, including Creighton, Henry Joseph, Richard F. Smith, W. F. Murray codified seven ice hockey rules, the McGill University Hockey Club - later re-christened The Redmen - was founded in 1877, arguably making the McGill Redmen the first and oldest ice hockey club in the world. The university operates both mens and womens teams in the CIS, the teams play at McGills McConnell Arena. The womens team has won championships in 1985,2003,2006,2007,2008,2009 and 2010, on November 15,2003, Kim St. Pierre was the first woman in CIS history to be credited with a win in a mens regular season game. This occurred when the McGill Redmen defeated the Ryerson Rams by a score of 5-2, Canadas national summer sport of lacrosse was played to a limited extent at McGill in the late 1800s. The 15-man McGill Lacrosse Club of 1898 was led by President F. L, thompson, Vice President, R. H. Craig, and Secretary Treasurer, A. J. Grant. McGills lacrosse tradition was not re-established until 2001, when McGill freshman, Sachin Anand, in 2002 the team gained Level-3 varsity club status at McGill, and joined the Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association, Canadas premier league founded in 1985. In 2007 the teams status was elevated to a Level-2 varsity team by McGill Athletics, McGill has twice won Canadas national championship, the Baggataway Cup, in 2012 and 2015. McGill competes in the CUFLA East versus Bishops, Carleton, Nipissing, Ottawa, Trent, the CUFLA West features Brock, Guelph, Laurentian, Laurier, McMaster, University of Toronto and Western Ontario. Four-time recipient of the Harry Griffiths Award in 2007,2008,2012 and 2015, the Redmen have won six CUFLA East conference titles in 2007,2011,2012,2013,2014, the team has achieved a record of 62-5-1 since 2011 versus Canadian opponents. The hybrid Canadian-box-American-field lacrosse program is geographically diverse with student-athletes recruited from across Canada, the team plays home games in McGills Percival Molson Memorial Stadium
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Rugby is a type of football developed at Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire, one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. The two main types of rugby are rugby league and rugby union, although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon the rules of rugby league were modified, resulting in two different forms of rugby. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league, the Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. These games appear to have resembled rugby football, the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barbers shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis, episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union, in 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union, usually called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs, players, after the schism, the separate clubs were named rugby league and rugby union. Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, and is dominated by the first tier unions, Argentina, Australia, England, France, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa and Wales. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Dublin and it is the national sport in New Zealand, Wales, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Madagascar, and is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, there was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football, during the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were very similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart. Rugby league is also both a professional and amateur game, administered on a level by the Rugby League International Federation. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia, England and New Zealand, in Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe also play in the Pacific Cup, distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle, play is continued with a play-the-ball, in league, if the team in possession fails to score before a set of six tackles, it surrenders possession
1874 FA Cup Final
The 1874 FA Cup final was a football match between Oxford University and Royal Engineers on 14 March 1874 at Kennington Oval in London. It was the final of the worlds oldest football competition. Both teams had reached the final but been defeated by Wanderers. The Engineers had reached the final with ease, scoring sixteen goals. Oxfords opponents in the rounds had included two-time former winners Wanderers. The final was decided by two goals from Oxford in the first twenty minutes and their opponents had spent two weeks training for the match, an innovative concept at the time, but were repeatedly thwarted by Charles Nepean, the Oxford goalkeeper. The Engineers were said to have missed their best back, Lieut, Alfred Goodwyn, who had been posted overseas. Oxford University and the Chatham-based Royal Engineers were among 28 entrants to the competition in the 1873–74 season, both teams progressed through the first round of the competition with little difficulty, Oxford defeating Upton Park 4–0 and the Engineers winning 5–0 against Brondesbury. In the second round, the University beat Barnes 2–0 and the Sappers, as the Engineers were nicknamed, the Engineers comprehensively defeated their quarter-final opponents, Maidenhead, winning 7–0, the first time a team had ever scored as many as seven goals in an FA Cup match. Oxford, on the hand, were paired with Wanderers. They had defeated the Engineers in the 1872 final and Oxford in the 1873 final, the first match finished in a 1–1 draw, necessitating a replay which Oxford won 1–0 to end Wanderers grip on the competition. Both semi-final matches were played at Kennington Oval, the home of Surrey County Cricket Club, Royal Engineers defeated Swifts in the first match to be played, and Oxford booked their place in the final a month later with a 1–0 win over Clapham Rovers. Oxford were able to call on their first-choice goalkeeper, Charles Nepean, who had been unable to play in the years final. They also selected William Rawson, whose brother Herbert was in the Engineers team, oxfords players were not all students, as the team included Arthur H. Johnson, an ordained clergyman and Fellow of All Souls College. Around 2,000 spectators were in attendance, a smaller crowd than had attended the previous final, Oxford won the coin toss and elected to begin the game defending the Harleyford Road end of the stadium. Charles Mackarness gave Oxford the lead after just ten minutes, following an Oxford corner kick, a melee developed in front of the Engineers goal, and the ball fell to Mackarness, who shot it over the crowd of players and past goalkeeper William Merriman. Oxford could have had a goal when they managed to get the ball through the Engineers goalposts. At the time, as in cricket, the officials were not permitted to award a goal unless the players appealed for it and it is not recorded why the Oxford players never appealed
Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
Lillie Bridge Grounds
The Lillie Bridge Grounds was a sports ground on the Fulham side of West Brompton, London. It opened in 1866, coinciding with the opening of West Brompton station and it was named after the local landowner, Sir John Scott Lillie and the Lillie bridge over the West London Line, that links Old Brompton Road with Lillie Road. The grounds were adjacent to the railway on the side of Lillie Road. Although geographically near to present day Stamford Bridge, there was never direct access, the ground was the scene in its day of many sports including athletics, boxing, cricket, cycling and football, and hosted the FA Cup Final in 1873. It closed in 1888 following a riot reported in The Times, the London Athletic Club, founded in 1866, moved to the Grounds in 1869 were it stayed until 1876, prior to its transfer to Stamford Bridge. Meanwhile the venue began hosting other sports including, bicycle racing, football, cricket, there were also hot air balloon festivals and county fairs. It fell into disuse after a riot on 18 September 1887 which destroyed the track and grandstand and this coincided with the development on the north side of Lillie Bridge, of John Robinson Whitleys 1887 Earls Court Exhibition Grounds. This was transformed in 1937 into the famous venue, which hosted the indoor Volleyball competition of the 2012 Olympics before itself being consigned to demolition. From 1867 to 1887, the annual athletics Varsity match between Oxford and Cambridge Universities were held here before moving to Queens Club on the grounds closure. Many World Records were set at Lillie Bridge, including for example,62.5 in the jump in 1876 by Marshall Brooks in front of a crowd of 12,000. The person to codify the Marquess of Queensberry Rules was John Graham Chambers, the ground held the first ever amateur boxing matches in 1867, cups being supplied by the Marquess of Queensberry. The Wanderers, after winning the first FA Cup final in 1872, were allowed to defend the cup in the final of 1873 with choice of venue. Not having a ground of their own, they chose Lillie Bridge, the attendance was over 1,000 higher than the previous final. Results of FA Cup Finals at Lillie Bridge Middlesex County Cricket Club moved to Lillie Bridge in 1869, WG Grace scored several centuries here before the MCCC left in 1872 to find better quality turf at Lords. The club nearly folded at this time, a vote for continuing being won 7–6, the LNWR opened its Brompton and Fulham Goods and Coal Station on the site in 1892. This was closed in the 1960s and the site was used for years as a car park serving the Earls Court Exhibition Centre. From 2012–2017 the site is being redeveloped as part of the Lillie Square housing scheme
Aston Villa F.C.
Aston Villa Football Club is a professional association football club based in Aston, Birmingham, that plays in the Championship, the second level of English football. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888. They were also one of the members of the Premier League in 1992. Aston Villa are one of only five English clubs to be crowned champions of Europe and they have also won the First Division Championship seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the Football League Cup five times, and the UEFA Super Cup once. They have a local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the sides has been played since 1879. The clubs traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and their traditional badge is of a rampant lion, which was introduced by the clubs Scottish chairman William McGregor in honour of the Royal Standard of Scotland. The club is owned by Recon Group Limited, a company chaired by Chinese businessman Tony Xia. Aston Villa Football Club were formed in March 1874, by members of the Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel in Handsworth which is now part of Birmingham, the four founders of Aston Villa were Jack Hughes, Frederick Matthews, Walter Price and William Scattergood. Aston Villas first match was against the local Aston Brook St Marys Rugby team, as a condition of the match, the Villa side had to agree to play the first half under Rugby rules and the second half under Association rules. The club won their first FA Cup in 1887 with captain Archie Hunter becoming one of the games first household names. Aston Villa were one of the teams that competed in the inaugural Football League in 1888 with one of the clubs directors. Aston Villa emerged as the most successful English club of the Victorian era, winning no fewer than five League titles, in 1897, the year Villa won The Double, they moved into their present home, the Aston Lower Grounds. Supporters coined the name Villa Park, no official declaration listed the ground as Villa Park. This was largely the result of a defensive record, they conceded 110 goals in 42 games,7 of them coming from Arsenals Ted Drake in an infamous 1–7 defeat at Villa Park. Like all English clubs, Villa lost seven seasons to the Second World War, the team was rebuilt under the guidance of former player Alex Massie for the remainder of the 1940s. The team struggled in the league though and were relegated two seasons later, due in part to complacency. However, under the stewardship of manager Joe Mercer Villa returned to the top-flight in 1960 as Second Division Champions, the following season Aston Villa became the first team to win the Football League Cup. Mercers forced retirement from the club in 1964 signalled a period of deep turmoil, the most successful club in England was struggling to keep pace with changes in the modern game, with Villa being relegated for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967
Bolton Wanderers F.C.
Bolton Wanderers Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bolton, Greater Manchester. The club currently competes in League One, the tier of the English football league system. The club was formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, founder members of the Football League in 1888, Bolton have spent the highest number of seasons of any club in the top flight without winning the title. The closest they have come to the title is third in the First Division on three occasions, as of 2015, the club has spent more seasons in the top division than any other club outside the current Premier League. Bolton were a successful cup side in the 1920s, winning the FA Cup three times, the club won the cup a fourth time in 1958. A leaner spell followed, reaching a nadir in 1987 when the club spent a season in the Fourth Division, the club regained top-flight status in 1995 after a 15-year absence. In a period of success, the club qualified for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06. The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895, on 9 March 1946, The Burnden Park disaster occurred, which was a human crush in which 33 Bolton fans lost their lives. In 1997 it moved out of town to the Reebok Stadium, the stadium was renamed the Macron Stadium in July 2014, to reflect the clubs new deal with Italian sportswear company Macron. The club was founded by the Reverend Joseph Farrall Wright, Perpetual curate of Christ Church Bolton and Thomas Ogden, the schoolmaster at the adjacent church school in 1874 as Christ Church F. C. It was initially run from the church of the name on Deane Road. The club left the following a dispute with the vicar. The name was chosen as the club initially had a lot of difficulty finding a permanent ground to play on, Bolton were one of the 12 founder members of the Football League, which formed in 1888. At the time Lancashire was one of the strongest footballing regions in the country, having remained in the Football League since its formation, Bolton have spent more time in the top flight than out of it. In 1894 Bolton reached the final of the FA Cup for the first time, a decade later they were runners-up a second time, losing 1–0 to local rivals Manchester City at Crystal Palace on 23 April 1904. In this period Bolton equalled their record finish of third twice, in 1920–21 and 1924–25, on 28 April 1923, Bolton won their first major trophy in their third final, beating West Ham United 2–0 in the first ever Wembley FA Cup final. The match, famously known as The White Horse Final was played in front of over 127,000 supporters, boltons centre-forward, David Jack scored the first ever goal at Wembley Stadium. Driven by long-term players Joe Smith in attack, Ted Vizard and Billy Butler on the wings, in 1928 the club faced financial difficulties and so was forced to sell David Jack to Arsenal to raise funds
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
Queen's Park F.C.
Queens Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. Queens Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having founded in 1867. Queens Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, the clubs home is a Category 4 stadium, the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queens Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, gentlemen from the local YMCA took part in football matches in the local Glasgow area which gave the club its name. During the inaugural meeting, debate raged over the clubs name, proposals included, The Celts, The Northern and Morayshire. Perhaps such choice of names suggest a Highland influence within the new club, after much deliberation, Queens Park was adopted and carried, but only by a majority of one vote. Although Queens was not the first club in Britain, that going to Edinburgh and John Hopes Football Club, formed in 1824. Opposition first came in the form of a now defunct Glaswegian side called Thistle F. C. on 30 November 1872, Scotland faced England at the West of Scotland Cricket Club ground at Hamilton Crescent. For the one and only time all eleven Scots players were from Queens Park and they wore blue jerseys,4,000 spectators watched Scotland play with a 2–2–6 formation and England with a 1–1–8 line-up. Queens Park formed the Scottish Football Association on 13 March 1873, the match against Dumbreck on 25 October was the first match to be played at Hampden Park. It was also the first match which saw Queens Park players wear their black and white hooped jerseys. David Wotherspoon, a Queens Park player and committee member, has credited with the introduction of the black. Most importantly, it was the first Scottish Cup tie and Scottish competitive match for the club, in the final, Queens defeated Clydesdale 2–0 at Hampden. Success in the Scottish Cup followed in the two years with final victories over Renton and Third Lanark. In drawing 2–2 with Clydesdale in the 1875 semi-final, Queens conceded their first ever goals, defeat for the club was first experienced with a 2–1 defeat to Vale of Leven in the 5th round in December 1876. Third Lanark and Rangers eliminated the Spiders before Queens reclaimed the cup in 1880 with a win over Thornliebank, Dumbarton were beaten in the final in successive years. In 1881, Queens had to them twice after Dumbarton successfully appealed that the crowd at Kinning Park had encroached following a 2–1 defeat. Dumbarton got revenge in 1883 but Queens won again in 1884 without even having to play the final after Vale of Leven refused to play on the date stipulated by the SFA, in the early days of Englands FA Cup, Scottish clubs were often invited to compete
Greenock Morton F.C.
Greenock Morton Football Club is a Scottish professional football club, which will play in the Scottish Championship in 2016–17. The club was founded as Morton Football Club in 1874, making it one of the oldest senior Scottish clubs, Morton was renamed Greenock Morton in 1994 to celebrate the links with its home town of Greenock. Morton won the Scottish Cup in 1922, and achieved its highest league finish in 1916–17, Morton holds the record for the most promotions to and relegations from the top flight, but has not competed in the top flight of the Scottish football league system since 1988. In 2014–15, Morton won its league title in all divisions by winning the Scottish League One championship on the final day. Morton Football Club was established in 1874, in the early 1870s the popularity of football was growing, with many clubs being established around Scotland. At the clubs inaugural meeting, the first recorded words were that this club be called Morton Football Club. The name would be altered in 1994 to read Greenock Morton Football Club, to celebrate the links with its hometown. Morton was one of the members of the old Second Division, formed in 1893. Morton first gained promotion to the old First Division in 1899–1900, Mortons greatest success came in its 1–0 defeat of Rangers in the 1922 Scottish Cup Final. Jimmy Gourlay scored the goal directly from a free kick in the 11th minute. Right after the match Morton boarded a train for Hartlepool to play the local side in a friendly match. The celebrations were delayed until the following Wednesday when 10,000 locals turned out at Cappielow Park to celebrate, Morton has made two other major cup final appearances. On Saturday 17 April 1948, Morton drew 1–1 with Rangers in the Scottish Cup Final, Mortons goal was a free kick scored by Jimmy White. The match was replayed on Wednesday 21 April and this time Rangers won 1–0 after extra time. The goal was said to be controversial because it was claimed that Morton goalkeeper Jimmy Cowan was blinded by the flash of a camera. These matches were significant because of the crowds they attracted. The first match was played in front of 132,629, the replay, in front of 133,750, was at the time a British record attendance for a midweek match. Mortons third and final major cup final to date was in the League Cup, as in its previous two final appearances, Mortons opponent was once again Glasgow Rangers
Hamilton Academical F.C.
They were established in 1874 from the school football team at Hamilton Academy and remain the only professional club in British football to have originated from a school team. Hamilton have won the Scottish Challenge Cup twice and have finished runners-up in the Scottish Cup twice, the club currently play their home games at New Douglas Park. Hamilton Academical F. C. was formed in late 1874 by the rector, in the 1970s, Hamilton briefly resigned from the league due to mounting debts. In 1994 the club sold its ground, Douglas Park, to Sainsburys supermarket. During this period the club went through hardships and unpaid players went on strike. As a result, Hamilton was unable to fulfil its fixtures during the 1999–2000 season and was docked 15 points, the club moved into its New Douglas Park stadium in 2001. In 2008, for the first time in 20 years, Accies gained promotion to the top division of Scottish football, in the 2009–10 season, a 3–0 victory against Kilmarnock on 17 April 2010 secured a third straight season in Scotlands top flight, with four games remaining. The Accies stay in the SPL ended in the 2010–11 season, after a hard-fought campaign during the 2013–14 Scottish Championship season, Accies finished in second position on the final day of the season following a 10–2 home victory over Morton. Hamilton lost the first leg 2–0 at New Douglas Park, but two goals in the return leg at Easter Road, including an injury time strike, forced the tie to extra time. Hamilton converted all of their spot-kicks and gained back to the top flight. Neil left the club in January 2015, to take up a position at English club Norwich, the club play their fixtures at New Douglas Park, which was opened in 2001. The pitch is a surface, one of two in the Scottish Premiership alongside Kilmarnock. The stadium has a capacity of 6,018 and is composed of two permanent and one temporary stand. The ground replaced Douglas Park, which was the home of Hamilton from 1888 to 1994, the ground was eventually sold to supermarket chain Sainsburys in 1994, with the proceeds going towards the construction of the new stadium, which lies adjacent to the site of Douglas Park. Between 1994 and 2001 the club had no home and they ground-shared at Cliftonhill and Firhill Stadium. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, the following is a list of the officially-appointed captains of the Hamilton Academical first-team
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East, West, and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position. Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket also descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
History of the Boston Braves
The Atlanta Braves, a current Major League Baseball franchise, originated in Boston, Massachusetts. This article details the history of the Boston Braves, from 1871 to 1952, the Boston Franchise played at South End Grounds from 1871 to 1914 and at Braves Field from 1915 to 1952. Braves Field is now Nickerson Field of Boston University, the franchise, from Boston to Milwaukee to Atlanta, is the oldest continuous professional baseball franchise. The Cincinnati Red Stockings, established in 1869 as the first openly all-professional baseball team, the original Boston Red Stockings team and its successors can lay claim to being the oldest continuously playing team in American professional sports. Two young players hired away from the Forest City club of Rockford, Illinois, turned out to be the biggest stars during the NAPBBP years, pitcher Al Spalding and second baseman Ross Barnes. Led by the Wright brothers, Barnes, and Spalding, the Red Stockings dominated the National Association, the team became one of the National Leagues charter franchises in 1876, sometimes called the Red Caps. Boston came to be called the Beaneaters by sportswriters in 1883, although somewhat stripped of talent in the National Leagues inaugural year, Boston bounced back to win the 1877 and 1878 pennants. The Red Caps/Beaneaters were one of the dominant teams during the 19th century. For most of time, their manager was Frank Selee. The 1898 team finished 102-47, a record for wins that would stand for almost a century. The team was decimated when the American Leagues new Boston entry set up shop in 1901, many of the Beaneaters stars jumped to the new team, which offered contracts that the Beaneaters owners didnt even bother to match. They only managed one winning season from 1900 to 1913, in 1907, the Beaneaters eliminated the last bit of red from their stockings because their manager thought the red dye could cause wounds to become infected. The American League clubs owner, Charles Taylor, wasted time in changing his teams name to the Red Sox in place of the generic Americans. The all-white outfits gave rise to the sobriquet Doves in 1907, however, clever monikers did nothing to change the National League clubs luck. The team adopted a name, the Braves, for the first time in 1912. Their owner, James Gaffney, was a member of New York Citys political machine, Tammany Hall, two years later, the Braves put together one of the most memorable seasons in baseball history. After a dismal 4-18 start, the Braves seemed to be on pace for a last place finish, on July 4,1914, the Braves lost both games of a doubleheader to the Brooklyn Dodgers. The consecutive losses put their record at 26-40 and the Braves were in last place,15 games behind the league-leading New York Giants, who had won the previous three league pennants
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a fixture in most international games—it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds, in the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, the fight is considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, due to the fact that a winner must be declared, in the case of a draw - the judges use technical criteria to choose the most deserving winner of the bout. While people have fought in combat since before the dawn of history. The earliest evidence for fist fighting with any kind of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete, in Ancient Greece boxing was a well developed sport and enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad,688 B. C, the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands in order to protect them. There were no rounds and boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue, weight categories were not used, which meant heavyweights had a tendency to dominate. It was the head of the opponent which was primarily targeted, Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists, eventually harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon. The Romans even introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus which then led to a more sinister weapon called the myrmex, Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres. The Roman form of boxing was often a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events, however, especially in later times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, and their lives were not given up without due consideration. Often slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor and this is where the term ring came from. In AD393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality and it was not until the late 17th century that boxing re-surfaced in London. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again, however, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was also a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or Fist Fighting, as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would later resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting. The first documented account of a fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury