Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
Old Etonians F.C.
The Old Etonian Association Football Club is an English football club whose players are alumni of Eton College, in Eton, Berkshire. Founded by Lord Kinnaird, they were the last amateur or true blue club to win the FA Cup on 25 March 1882 when they beat Blackburn Rovers 1–0 at The Oval and they lost 2–1 after extra time to another Blackburn club, Blackburn Olympic, the following year. In all, they reached the six times in nine years between 1875 and 1883, winning twice. They also supplied a number of players for the England team, in modern times, Old Etonians are members of the Amateur Football Alliance and field three teams in the Arthurian League. The 1st XI have won the leagues Premier Division title on two occasions, whitfeld scored in a 2–1 victory. Official website Old Etonians at the Football Club History Database
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Charles W. Alcock
Charles William ″C. W. ″ Alcock was an influential English sportsman and administrator. He was an instigator in the development of both international football and cricket, as well as being the creator of the FA Cup. Alcock was born in Sunderland, and his moved to Chingford, then part of Essex. According to JB Smart, he was born as simply Charles, educated at Harrow School, Alcock was a keen schoolboy footballer, and formed the Forest club with his elder brother, John, in Chingford in 1859. He was then a prime mover in the 1863 foundation of Forests more famous successor, for their influence on the game of football the Wanderers were considered as early as 1870 to be the MCC of football. As a player, Alcock was renowned as a hard-working centre-forward with an accurate shot, on 6 March 1875, he captained England against Scotland, scoring a goal in a 2–2 draw. See also England v Scotland Alcock was one of those responsible for the first ever soccer match with Scotland. The first two of these took place in 1870, with matches in 1871 and 1872. After the 1870 games there was resentment in Scotland that their team did not contain more home grown players, the fault lies on the heads of the players of the north, not on the management who sought the services of all alike impartially. To call the team London Scotchmen contributes nothing, the match was, as announced, to all intents and purposes between England and Scotland. Alcock then proceeded to offer further challenges with a Scottish team drawn from Scotland, although not currently recognised by FIFA as official, the Scotsman newspaper described the 1870 and 1871 games as international and in italics. One reason for the absence of a response to Alcocks early challenges may have been different football codes being followed in Scotland at the time. A written reply to Alcocks letter above states, Mr Alcocks challenge to meet a Scotch eleven on the borders sounds very well and is doubtless well meant. But it may not be well known that Mr Alcock is a very leading supporter of what is called the association game. Devotees of the rules will find no foemen worthy of their steel in Scotland. Charles W Alcock, Hon Sec of Football Association and Captain of English Eleven, instead he represented his country as umpire, with the England captaincy awarded to Cuthbert Ottaway. Thus, the FA Cup – the worlds first national football tournament, fifteen teams took part in the first competition in 1872, with Alcock captaining the winning Wanderers side. It was only fitting that the final should be played at The Oval, after joining the FA committee in 1866, Alcock served as FA Secretary from 1870 to 1895, before serving as Vice-President
1874 FA Cup Final
The 1874 FA Cup final was a football match between Oxford University and Royal Engineers on 14 March 1874 at Kennington Oval in London. It was the final of the worlds oldest football competition. Both teams had reached the final but been defeated by Wanderers. The Engineers had reached the final with ease, scoring sixteen goals. Oxfords opponents in the rounds had included two-time former winners Wanderers. The final was decided by two goals from Oxford in the first twenty minutes and their opponents had spent two weeks training for the match, an innovative concept at the time, but were repeatedly thwarted by Charles Nepean, the Oxford goalkeeper. The Engineers were said to have missed their best back, Lieut, Alfred Goodwyn, who had been posted overseas. Oxford University and the Chatham-based Royal Engineers were among 28 entrants to the competition in the 1873–74 season, both teams progressed through the first round of the competition with little difficulty, Oxford defeating Upton Park 4–0 and the Engineers winning 5–0 against Brondesbury. In the second round, the University beat Barnes 2–0 and the Sappers, as the Engineers were nicknamed, the Engineers comprehensively defeated their quarter-final opponents, Maidenhead, winning 7–0, the first time a team had ever scored as many as seven goals in an FA Cup match. Oxford, on the hand, were paired with Wanderers. They had defeated the Engineers in the 1872 final and Oxford in the 1873 final, the first match finished in a 1–1 draw, necessitating a replay which Oxford won 1–0 to end Wanderers grip on the competition. Both semi-final matches were played at Kennington Oval, the home of Surrey County Cricket Club, Royal Engineers defeated Swifts in the first match to be played, and Oxford booked their place in the final a month later with a 1–0 win over Clapham Rovers. Oxford were able to call on their first-choice goalkeeper, Charles Nepean, who had been unable to play in the years final. They also selected William Rawson, whose brother Herbert was in the Engineers team, oxfords players were not all students, as the team included Arthur H. Johnson, an ordained clergyman and Fellow of All Souls College. Around 2,000 spectators were in attendance, a smaller crowd than had attended the previous final, Oxford won the coin toss and elected to begin the game defending the Harleyford Road end of the stadium. Charles Mackarness gave Oxford the lead after just ten minutes, following an Oxford corner kick, a melee developed in front of the Engineers goal, and the ball fell to Mackarness, who shot it over the crowd of players and past goalkeeper William Merriman. Oxford could have had a goal when they managed to get the ball through the Engineers goalposts. At the time, as in cricket, the officials were not permitted to award a goal unless the players appealed for it and it is not recorded why the Oxford players never appealed
1876 FA Cup Final
The 1876 FA Cup Final was a football match between Wanderers and Old Etonians on 11 March 1876 at Kennington Oval in London. It was the final of the worlds oldest football competition. Wanderers had won the Cup on two previous occasions, the Etonians were playing in their second consecutive final, having lost in the 1875 final. Both teams had conceded only one goal in the four prior to the final. In the semi-finals Wanderers defeated Swifts and the Etonians beat the 1874 FA Cup winners Oxford University, the match finished in a 1–1 draw, the second time an FA Cup Final had finished all-square. A week later, the took place at the same venue. The Etonians were forced to make a number of changes due to players being unavailable, and the team was no match for the Wanderers. Charles Wollaston and Thomas Hughes scored a goal apiece in a spell before half-time. Old Etonians, the team for former pupils of Eton College, had reached the 1875 final, Wanderers had won the competition in both 1872 and 1873 but had not progressed beyond the quarter-finals in the subsequent two seasons. Both teams entered the 1875–76 competition at the first round stage and were allocated matches at home, Wanderers defeated a team from the 1st Surrey Rifles regiment 5–0, and the Etonians overcame Pilgrims 4–1. In the second round Wanderers defeated Crystal Palace 3–0 and the Etonians had a win over Maidenhead. At the quarter-final stage, Wanderers took on the worlds oldest football club, Sheffield and won 2–0, both semi-final matches took place at Kennington Oval in London, as stipulated in the original rules of the competition. The Etonians beat the 1874 FA Cup winners Oxford University 1–0 in the first semi-final, three sets of brothers played in the match. Francis and Hubert Heron lined up for the Wanderers, while the Etonians team included Hon. Edward Lyttelton and his brother Hon. Alfred Lyttelton and Albert Meysey-Thompson and his brother Charles. The latter pairs surname had been simply Thompson until it was changed in 1874 and this is the only occasion that two or more pairs of brothers have played in the same FA Cup Final. Later that year, Francis Birley married Margaret, sister of his teammate Jarvis Kenrick, Wanderers began the match with two full-backs, two half-backs and six forwards, while the Etonians opted for one full-back, two half-backs and seven forwards. Wanderers won the toss and chose to start the game defending the Harleyford Road end of The Oval. The crowd was estimated at 3,500, the largest for an FA Cup Final up to that point