Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a territory in Northern Germany, held by the younger line of the House of Mecklenburg residing in Neustrelitz. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 it was succeeded by the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the first was bounded by the Prussian provinces of Pomerania and Brandenburg, the second bordered on the Duchy of Lauenburg and the territory of the Free City of Lübeck. Major towns beside Neustrelitz included Neubrandenburg, Woldegk, Stargard, Fürstenberg, the Grand Duchy comprised the former commandries of the Knights Hospitaller in Mirow and Nemerow. Thereupon, the Grand Duchy joined the North German Confederation and the reconstituted Zollverein, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, the Kingdom of Prussia received valuable assistance from Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 1871 both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz became States of the German Empire, Mecklenburg-Strelitz returned one member to the Bundesrat chamber of states.
However, the Grand Duke was still styled Prince of the Wends, the Grand Dukes exercised absolute power through their ministers, with an antiquated type of diet representing social classes. There was now a renewal of agitation for a democratic constitution. In 1904 Adolphus Frederick V, a son of Grand Duke Frederick William and his wife Princess Augusta of Cambridge, daughter of Prince Adolphus, in 1907, the grand duke promised a constitution to the duchys subjects, but this was met with opposition from the nobility. The Mecklenburg-Strelitz dynasty ended just prior to the loss of the monarchy in developments associated with World War I, in 1914, before the proclamation of war between Germany and Russia, Duke Charles Michael renounced his Mecklenburgish citizenship. On 23 February 1918, Grand Duke Adolf Frederick VI committed suicide, George subsequently assumed the title Duke of Mecklenburg which was acknowledged by Grand Duke Frederick Francis IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He was given the style of Highness by the House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, georges grandson Borwin is the present head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The county of Mecklenburg in the U. S. state of North Carolina, the City of Charlotte, known as The Queen City was named for Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III of Great Britain. Queen Charlotte was Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, born on 19 May 1744 and she was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow and his wife Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Chancellor of Germany
The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany. The official title in German is Bundeskanzler, sometimes shortened to Kanzler, the term, dating from the early Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin term cancellarius. In German politics, the Chancellor is equivalent to that of a minister in many other countries. German has two equivalent translations of prime minister and Ministerpräsident, while Premierminister usually refers to heads of governments of foreign countries, Ministerpräsident may refer to the heads of government of most German states. The current Chancellor is Angela Merkel, who is serving her term in office. She is the first female chancellor, thus being known in German as Bundeskanzlerin, the role of the Chancellor has varied greatly throughout Germanys modern history. Today, the Chancellor is the effective leader. The office of Chancellor has a history, stemming back to the Holy Roman Empire. The title was, at times, used in several states of German-speaking Europe, the modern office of Chancellor was established with the North German Confederation, of which Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor in 1867.
After the Unification of Germany in 1871, the became known in German as Reichskanzler. With Germanys constitution of 1949, the title Bundeskanzler was revived in German, during the various eras, the role of the Chancellor has varied. From 1871 to 1918, the Chancellor was only responsible to the Emperor, with the founding of the republic and the constitutional reform in 1918, the Parliament was granted the right to dismiss the Reichskanzler. According to the Weimar Constitution of 1919, the Chancellor was appointed by the President and responsible to Parliament, when the Nazis came to power on 30 January 1933, the Weimar Constitution was de facto set aside. After the death of President Hindenburg in 1934, Adolf Hitler, the 1949 constitution gave the Chancellor much greater powers than during the Weimar Republic, while strongly diminishing the role of the President. Since 1867,33 individuals have served as heads of government of Germany or its predecessor, due to his administrative tasks, the head of the clerics at the chapel of an Imperial palace during the Carolingian Empire was called Chancellor.
The chapels college acted as the Emperors chancery issuing deeds and capitularies and these three Prince-Archbishops were Prince-electors of the Empire electing the King of the Romans. Already in medieval times, the German Chancellor had political power like Archbishop Willigis or Rainald von Dassel under Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. In 1559, Emperor Ferdinand I established the agency of an Imperial chancellery at the Vienna Hofburg Palace, upon the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, Emperor Ferdinand II created the office of an Austrian Court Chancellor in charge of the internal and foreign affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy
Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse
Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine was Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 1848 until his death in 1877. He was the son of Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse and he succeeded as Grand Duke in 1848 upon the abdication of his father during the March Revolution in the German states. He was succeeded by his nephew, Louis IV, on 13 June 1877, in Munich, on 26 December 1833, he married Princess Mathilde Caroline of Bavaria, eldest daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria. The marriage produced no children and the Grand Duke remarried, royal Genealogies Part 46 World Roots
Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Ernest II was the sovereign duke of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, reigning from 1844 to his death. Ernest was born in Coburg as the eldest child of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, fourteen months later, his younger brother Prince Albert was born, who became consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Ernests father became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826 through an exchange of territories, in 1842, Ernest married Princess Alexandrine of Baden in what was to be a childless marriage. Soon after, he succeeded as duke upon the death of his father on 29 January 1844, after King Otto of Greece was deposed in 1862, the British government put Ernests name forward as a possible successor. Negotiations fell through however for reasons, not in the least of which was that he would not give up his beloved duchies in favor of the Greek throne. A supporter of a unified Germany, Ernest watched the political movements with great interest. His support of the conservatives came at a price however, according to historian Charlotte Zeepvat, Ernest became increasingly lost in a whirl of private amusements which earned only contempt from outside.
Ernests position was often linked to his brother Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, the two boys were raised as though twins, and became closer upon the separation and divorce of their parents, as well as the eventual death of their mother. Ernest, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, was born at Ehrenburg Palace in Coburg on 21 June 1818 and he was the elder son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and his first wife Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. He was soon joined by a brother, Prince Albert, who would become the husband of Queen Victoria. Though Duke Ernest fathered numerous children in various affairs, the two boys would have no other legitimate siblings. In 1826, their father succeeded as Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha through an exchange of territories after the death of the uncle, Frederick IV. There are various accounts of Ernests childhood, when he was fourteen months old, a servant commented that Ernest runs around like a weasel. He is teething and as cross as a badger from impatience.
He is not pretty now, except his beautiful black eyes, in May 1820, his mother described Ernest as very big for his age, as well as intelligent. His big black eyes are full of spirit and vivacity and his brother often lived with their grandmother the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld until her death in 1831. He and Albert were brought up and educated together as if they were twins, though Albert was fourteen months younger, he surpassed Ernest intellectually. According to their tutor, they went hand-in-hand in all things, engaging in the same pursuits, sharing the same joys and the same sorrows, they were bound to each other by no common feelings of mutual love
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany with its capital at Rudolstadt. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was established in 1599 in the course of a resettlement of Schwarzburg dynasty lands, in 1583 Count Günther XLI of Schwarzburg, the eldest son of Günther XL the Rich and ruler over the united Schwarzburg lands, had died without issue. He was succeeded by his brothers, whereby Albert VII received the territory around Rudolstadt. Alberts descendants ruled as sovereign counts of the Holy Roman Empire and it withstood the mediatisation and after the Empires dissolution joined the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807 and the German Confederation in 1815. On 23 November 1918, during the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the former principality became a Free State in 1919, that was merged into the new state of Thuringia in the next year. In 1905 Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt had an area of 940 km2 and a population of 97,000, on the death of the childless Prince Günther Victor in 1925, he was succeeded by Prince Sizzo, who was the son of Prince Friedrich Günther from his second, morganatic marriage.
Prince Sizzo was recognised as a member of the House of Schwarzburg in 1896. He was succeeded in 1926 by his son, Prince Friedrich Günther
Adolf I, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
Adolf I, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe was a ruler of the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe. He was born in Bückeburg to Georg Wilhelm, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe and Princess Ida of Waldeck and he succeeded as Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe following the death of his father, Prince Georg Wilhelm on the 21 November 1860. In 1866, Schaumburg-Lippe signed a treaty with Prussia, and in 1867 entered a military union. Also in 1867, Schaumburg-Lippe became a member of the North German Confederation and his mother was a sister of her father. The couple had eight children, Princess Hermine of Schaumburg-Lippe, married Duke Maximilian of Württemberg, Prince Georg of Schaumburg-Lippe, succeeded his father as Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, married Princess Marie Anne of Saxe-Altenburg. Princess Ida of Schaumburg-Lippe, married Heinrich XXII, Prince Reuss of Greiz, Prince Otto Heinrich of Schaumburg-Lippe, married Anna von Koppen. Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe, married Princess Viktoria of Prussia, daughter of Frederick III, German Emperor and Victoria, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria
Duchy of Brunswick
The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick and it was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation and it was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick. The title Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg was held, from 1235 on and these holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. The unifying element of all territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II, following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, received the southern half of Brunswick-Lüneburg as Prince of Wolfenbüttel while his brother John became Prince of Lüneburg.
Wolfenbüttel fell to his brother Albert II, Otto the Mild 1318–1344, son of Albert II, was Prince of Wolfenbüttel and Prince of Göttingen. After his death his son Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367, Magnus the Pious became Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1344–1369. Magnus son Magnus II with the Necklace, Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1369–1373, the War of the Lüneburg Succession continued until 1388. Frederick 1373–1400, son of Magnus II, conquered Lüneburg in 1388, succeeded by his brothers, Henry the Mild, 1400–1408 Bernard, 1409–1428. Returned control of Wolfenbüttel to his nephew, Henrys son, was deprived by his brother, Henry the Peaceful 1432–1473, moved the residence to Wolfenbüttel. William regained control of Wolfenbüttel after his brothers death, and left the Principality to his two sons, Frederick III 1482–1484, imprisoned and deprived of power by his younger brother, William IV 1484–1491. Took control of all of Wolfenbüttel, ceded Wolfenbüttel to his sons, co-rulers, sons of William IV, Eric I 1491–1494.
Divided the territory in 1494, taking Calenberg, sole ruler in Wolfenbüttel from 1494. Acquired Calenberg in 1584 on the death of his cousin Eric II, last of the male descendants of Albert the Tall. On Frederick Ulrichs death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg, Wolfenbüttel was eventually awarded to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Augustus 1635–1666 Augustuss sons succeeded him, sometimes ruling together, Rudolph Augustus 1666–1704 Anthony Ulrich 1685–1702, deposed 1702–1704 for allying with France in the War of the Spanish Succession
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states and deliberately excluding Austria, into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germanys position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, in 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890. He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France, aligning the smaller German states behind Prussia in its defeat of France, in 1871, he formed the German Empire with himself as Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia. His diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the Iron Chancellor, German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy.
He disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. A master of politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf and he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, a devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck largely controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, bismarck—a Junker himself—was strong-willed and sometimes judged overbearing, but he could be polite and witty. Occasionally he displayed a violent temper, and he kept his power by threatening resignation time and again.
He possessed not only a national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments. As the leader of what historians call revolutionary conservatism, Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists, many historians praise him as a visionary who was instrumental in uniting Germany and, once that had been accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony. He had two siblings and Malwine, the world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well educated and cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation, in addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamanns elementary school, and the Friedrich-Wilhelm, from 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, and enrolled at the University of Berlin.
In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, at Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley
Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia. The Wettiner had been the rulers of sizeable holdings in todays states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, in the Leipziger Teilung of 1485, the Wettiner were split into two branches named after their founding princes Albrecht and Ernst. Thuringia was part of the Ernestine holdings of Kursachsen, in 1572, the branches Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach and Saxe-Weimar were established there. The senior line again split in 1641/41 into three duchies, including the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha, Duke Ernst I who founded this duchy with its seat at Gotha opposed the system of primogeniture. As a result, on his death in 1675 all of his sons inherited part of his holdings and were supposed to rule under the leadership of his oldest son, Ernst I third son, received the town of Meiningen as well as several other holdings. Bernhard chose the town of Meiningen as his residence and became the first Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, from 1682 Duke Bernhard I had the Schloss Elisabethenburg built and in 1690 established a court orchestra, in which Johann Ludwig Bach became the Kapellmeister.
By 1910, the Duchy had grown to 2,468 km² and 278,762 inhabitants, the ducal summer residence was at Altenstein Castle. Since 1868, the duchy comprised the Kreise of Hildburghausen and Saalfeld as well as the northern exclaves of Camburg and Kranichfeld. In the German Revolution after World War I, Duke Bernhard III, brother-in-law of Emperor Wilhelm II, was forced to abdicate, the succeeding Free State of Saxe-Meiningen was merged into the new state of Thuringia on 1 May 1920. As of 2012 the head of the Ducal House of Saxe-Meiningen, Prince Konrad, has no children, Bernhard III Prince Ernst Prince Georg III Prince Bernhard IV Prince Konrad Ernestine duchies Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Saxe-Meiningen