England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Wanderers Football Club is an English amateur football club based in London. Founded as Forest Football Club in 1859, the changed its name to Wanderers in 1864. The club played friendly matches until the advent of the FA Cup in 1871. They won the FA Cup three times in succession during the late 1870s, a feat which has only been repeated once. Among the players who represented the club were C. W. Alcock, the father of modern sport. The club took its name from never having a stadium of its own but playing at various locations in London. By the 1880s the clubs fortunes had declined and it was reduced to playing only a match against Harrow School. The club was reformed in 2009, reportedly with the endorsement of the descendants of the Alcock family, since 2011, the revived club has competed in the Surrey South Eastern Combination. Alcock, who had just left Harrow School, his brother John F. Alcock, J. Pardoe, several Old Foresters also played for the Forest club, as Forest School was located less than a mile north of the ground. Forests first match against another club took place on 15 March 1862, both this match, and a return fixture between the two teams the following month, involved fifteen players on each team. The following year, the club played its first match under the name Wanderers Football Club, during this period the club played a number of home matches at Battersea Park and Middlesex County Cricket Clubs Lillie Bridge Grounds. Wanderers subsequently made Kennington Oval its semi-permanent home in 1869, the club played 151 matches at The Oval. In the 1870–71 season, the Wanderers finally turned around their fortunes, for the following season the FA, following a suggestion by Alcock, initiated the Football Association Challenge Cup, a knock-out tournament open to all member clubs. The club beat the Royal Engineers 1–0 to become the first ever winners of the cup, the goal being scored by Morton Betts. The following season, under the original rules, Wanderers, as holders. In the final Wanderers beat Oxford University 2–0 to retain the cup, the club was unable to replicate this success over the next two seasons, although the team did manage a club record 16–0 victory over Farningham in the first round of the 1874–75 FA Cup. In October 1875, Wanderers travelled to Scotland for the first time, to play a match against the team from north of the border. Despite fielding their strongest team, Wanderers were outclassed by the Scots, the London club gained its revenge four months later, however, when Queens Park travelled to London for a re-match and lost 2–0
Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Manchester Rugby Club
Manchester Rugby Club, founded as Manchester Football Club, was one of the first rugby union clubs in the world, having been founded in 1860, eleven years before the Rugby Football Union. Home matches are played at Grove Park, Grove Lane, Cheadle Hulme, the club has a Senior Mens section, a Women & Girls section, and also Minis, Juniors and Colts. The clubs home colours are red & white narrow hooped shirts, white shorts, away colours are navy shirts with red piping, navy shorts and navy socks. Although founded in 1860, Manchester actually first played in 1857, when the Gentlemen of Manchester, richard Sykes, a former Captain of Football at Rugby School set up the Manchester team and provided the ball. The game was advertised as Rugby versus the World and some fifty players arrived to play, there is no record of the score, however it appears that five goals were scored and so there must have been a winner. Liverpool FC, who merged with St Helens RUFC to form Liverpool St. Helens F. C. It is not known why Manchester did not also form at this date but the Liverpool, from 1919 until 1968 the clubs home ground was at Moor Lane on Kersal Moor, now the home of Salford City Football Club. Manchester had very strong links with the early RFU, with two former presidents of MFC also taking the office as President of the RFU 1894-1896. Other members who have been President of the RFU are J. W. H. Thorpe, James Milnes, J. Reg. Locker and Dr. T. A. Kemp, MD, FRCP. Manchester FC were also the first recognised soccer side in Manchester, in 1894 Newton Heath were banned from changing their name to Manchester FC by the FA and RFU because of the existence of the rugby side. The full story of Manchester FCs association football history is detailed in Manchester A Football History where it is revealed they hold many Mancunian firsts. Leslie Jones IW1895 D. C. Woods S NZ1889 J. E. Orr E 1890/91/92/93 I 1889/90/91/92/93 W 1890/91/92 E. F. Fookes S 1896/97/99 I 1896/97/98/99 W 1896/97/98 C, peak 1925/27 A. L. Gracie 1928/29 Dr. A. C. Gillies 1930 L. J. O’Reilly 1931 H. C. S. Jones 1932 F. Hughes 1933/35 T. A, bell 1936 J. M. Lee 1937/38 T. A
Grantham Town F.C.
Grantham Town Football Club is a football club, based in Grantham, Lincolnshire. The club plays in the Northern Premier League Premier Division and they are nicknamed The Gingerbreads and they play their home matches at the South Kesteven Sports Stadium. The club was established in August 1874, granthams first match was a 2–1 friendly win against Third Lincs Volunteer Rifles on 29 October 1874. In 1877–78, the club one of the first to enter the FA Cup. On 7 April 2012 the club became champions of the Northern Premier League Division One South, players that have played/managed in the Football League or any foreign equivalent to this level. Players that hold a club record, terry Bly Edwin Cooke Frank Watson Official website Grantham Town at the Football Club History Database Grantham F. C. at the Football Club History Database
Clapham Rovers F.C.
Clapham Rovers was from its foundation in 1869 a leading English sports organisation in the two dominant codes of football, association football and rugby union. It was a prominent club in the late 19th century but is now defunct, the club played variously on Clapham Common, Tooting Bec Common and Wandsworth Common and wore a cerise and French-grey kit. The club was formed on 10 August 1869 by a meeting arranged by W. E. Rawlinson, at this very first meeting it was agreed to play under both codes, with Association rules to be played one week, and Rugby the other. This peculiar feature in the constitution of the club obtained for the club the sobriquet of the Hybrid Club, the first match was played on 25 September 1869, against the Wanderers, at that time arguably the strongest Association club. Despite the prowess of their opponents The Rovers won by one goal to nil, at the close of the 1870 season only two matches had been lost, one under each rules, and in both instances the return match was won. Clapham Rovers were one of the fifteen teams to play in the very first edition of the FA Cup, the first ever FA Cup goal was scored by Clapham Rovers Jarvis Kenrick, in a 3–0 victory over Upton Park on 11 November 1871. Rovers greatest achievement was winning the FA Cup in 1879–80 with a 1–0 win over Oxford University at The Kennington Oval, the previous year, Clapham Rovers had also reached the final, but lost 1–0 to Old Etonians. Clapham Rovers were also one of ten members of the Surrey County Football Association. The clubs strength in rugby was borne out by their record, from 1870 to 1881 the club played 151 Rugby games, winning 80, losing 30, and drawing 41. During the 1870s they fielded a team that had four internationals, R. H. Birkett was captain, his brother, L. Birkett, and the Bryden brothers. Additionally Crampton, and Walker were well regarded forwards and Clapham was known to have the strongest combination of the time behind the scrummage. On 26 January 1871,32 members representing twenty-one London and suburban football clubs that followed Rugby School rules assembled at the Pall Mall Restaurant in Regent Street, E. C. Holmes, captain of the Richmond Club assumed the presidency. It was resolved unanimously that the formation of a Rugby Football Society was desirable and thus the Rugby Football Union was formed. A president, a secretary and treasurer, and a committee of thirteen were elected, R. H. Birkett represented The Rovers and was one of the thirteen original committee members. The first international match was played between Scotland and England in 1871 and The Rovers provided R. H. Birkett. In this match he scored Englands first ever try, when the club played one of the strongest and most well established clubs, Richmond, for the first time on 21 October 1871, they won the match by 1 goal and 2 tries. The date of the dissolution is unclear, although the last time they competed in the FA Cup was in the 1885–86 season. Their most successful player, Norman Bailey, was described as a Clapham Rovers player when he made the last of his 19 England appearances on 19 March 1887
Reading Football Club is a professional association football club based in Reading, Berkshire, England. The team play in the Championship, the tier of English football. The club played at Elm Park for 102 years between 1896 and 1998, in 1998 the club moved to the new Madejski Stadium, which is named after the clubs co-chairman Sir John Madejski. Reading then finished eighth in the 2006–07 Premier League, their first ever season as a top flight club, Reading were formed on 25 December 1871, following a public meeting at the Bridge Street Rooms organised by the future club secretary Joseph Edward Sydenham. The early matches were played at Reading Recreation Ground, and later the club held fixtures at Reading Cricket Ground, Coley Park and Caversham Cricket Ground. The switch to professionalism in 1895 resulted in the need for a ground and, to this end. In 1913, Reading had a tour of Italy, prompting the leading sports newspaper Corriere della Sera to write without doubt. Reading were elected to the Football League Third Division South of the Football League in 1920, Reading lost their place in Division Two in May 1931, and remained in Third Division South until the outbreak of World War II. When League football resumed after the war, Reading quickly came to prominence once again, the sides moment of cup glory came in 1988 when they won the Simod Cup, beating a number of top flight sides en route to their Wembley win over Luton Town. Reading were promoted to the Second Division as champions in 1986 under the management of Ian Branfoot, the appointment of Mark McGhee as player-manager, shortly after the takeover by John Madejski, in 1991 saw Reading move forward. They were crowned champions of the new Division Two in 1994, in 1995, Reading had eased past Tranmere Rovers in the play-off semi-finals and looked to have booked their place in the Premier League only to lose against Bolton Wanderers in the final. Quinn and Goodings contracts were not renewed two years later after Reading had slid into the half of Division One. Their successor, Terry Bullivant, lasted less than one season before being sacked in March 1998, the year 1998 also saw Reading move into the new 24,200 all-seater Madejski Stadium, named after Chairman John Madejski. Tommy Burns had taken over from Terry Bullivant but lasted just 18 months before being replaced by Alan Pardew, the club finished third in 2000–01 qualifying for the play-offs, losing 2–3 in the final against Walsall at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. Reading returned to Division One for 2002–03 after finishing runners-up in Division Two, the following season, they finished fourth in Division One and qualified for the play-offs, where they lost in the semi-final to Wolverhampton Wanderers. Alan Pardew moved to West Ham United the following October and was replaced by Steve Coppell, Reading won the 2005–06 Championship with a league record 106 points, scoring 99 goals and losing only twice. Reading were promoted to English footballs top division for the first time in their history, the 2006–07 season saw Reading make their first appearance in the top flight of English football. Reading defied pre-season predictions of relegation to finish the season in place with 55 points
Barnes Rugby Football Club
Barnes Rugby Football Club, formerly known simply as the Barnes Club, is a rugby union club which is claimed by some sources to be the worlds first and oldest club in any code of football. It is claimed that Barnes RFC was founded in as early as 1839 but there is no actual evidence, if the claim is true, then Barnes is the worlds oldest football club in all codes. The club, from Barnes, London, also played a role in the early years of association football. The club currently play in the tier of the English league system. Accounts of the date that the club was formed are contradictory, club records give 1839, while other accounts give credit to eminent club member Ebenezer Cobb Morley and its earliest recorded result was in November 1862 versus Richmond, played at Barn Elms. The club won that match and the replay that followed later in the year, the Barnes Club was a founder member of the Football Association and Morley is often said to be the father of The Football Association. On December 19,1863, Barnes participated in the first ever match under FA rules and it also competed in the first ever FA Cup and continued to do so through to the 1885–86 competition. The first three secretaries of the FA were members of Barnes, Barnes forward Charles Morice represented England in the first ever international football match between Scotland and England played at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow in 1872. Of the only and original clubs forming the Football Association the Barnes Club alone has throughout the ages been an active and this is a matter of historical fact. For many years the club played at the Harrodian Club before moving to its Barn Elms location in 1987 when the grounds were sold to form a school, Barnes RFC first XV has been promoted eight times since being positioned in Surrey Division Three in 1987
Marlow Football Club is an English football club based in Marlow, Buckinghamshire. The club are members of the Southern Football League and play at the Alfred Davis Memorial Ground. They are the football club in England to have applied for entry into the FA Cup every season since its inception in 1871. Their current manager is former Reading Town boss Mark Bartley who took over following the relegation from the Southern Football League in 2012. He was assisted by Marcus Richardson and is now assisted by Neville Roach, the club was formed at a meeting at the Compleat Angler Hotel on 22 November 1870. Cuthbert Ottaway, the first captain of England, played for The Blues at the beginning of its history, in 1871–72 the club competed in the first-ever FA Cup, losing 2–0 to Maidenhead. In 1881–82 they reached the semi-finals, losing 5–0 to Old Etonians, instead, they joined the Spartan League in 1908, but resigned midway through their third season in the league. In 1919 the club left its Crown Meadow ground to move to Star Meadow, resulting in them leaving the Great Western Suburban League, in 1928 they moved to a new ground, which was named after their long-serving secretary, Alfred Davis. They rejoined the Spartan League in 1928, winning Division Two West in 1929–30, in 1965 they joined Division Two of the Athenian League, and were promoted to Division One after finishing third in 1970–71. When the league disbanded in 1984 they joined Division Two North of the Isthmian League and they were transferred to Division Two South the following season, and in 1986–87 they finished second and were promoted to Division One. The following season they won Division One and were promoted to the Premier Division, in 1991–92 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time since 1892, but lost 6–0 to West Bromwich Albion. The following season Marlow reached the round of the FA Cup. They were drawn at home to Tottenham, but the match was switched to White Hart Lane, Two seasons later they reached the third round again, defeating Oxford United in the first round, before losing 2–0 at Swindon Town in the third. They remained in the Premier Division until being relegated at the end of the 1994–95 season, Two seasons later they were relegated again. In 2004 they were transferred to Division One West of the Southern League, the 2011–12 season saw the club finish bottom of Division One Central of the Southern League and the club was relegated to the Premier Division of the Hellenic Football League. The club managed to promotion a season later back to the Southern League, under manager Mark Bartley. After two seasons in the Southern League Division One Central, Marlow were shuffled over to the Southern League Division One South & West ahead of the 2015–16 season. Marlow play their games at the Alfred Davis Memorial Ground, Oak Tree Road, Marlow, Buckinghamshire
Maidenhead United F.C.
Maidenhead United Football Club is a semi-professional English football club in Maidenhead, Berkshire. They currently play in the National League South, the tier of English football. The club was founded in 1870 and moved to their current ground at York Road the following year, the Football Association have acknowledged that it is the oldest senior football ground continuously used by the same club. On 16 February 1871 the club played their first game on the York Road site against Marlow, the club were one of the original 15 entrants for the first-ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72. The following season reached the last four before losing to Oxford University. Maidenhead reached the quarter-finals in the two seasons, but in 1876 withdrew, returning the following season. They also entered the first-ever Berks & Bucks Cup competition in 1878, in 1904 Maidenhead joined the Great Western Suburban League. Maidenhead Norfolkians, meanwhile, were founded in 1884 and were members of the South Bucks & East Berks League before also joining the West Berks League. In 1904 they joined Maidenhead FC in the Great Western Suburban League, Norfolkians played at Kidwells Park which can still be seen to this day, but as a public park – it once staged a Berks & Bucks Cup Final. After the Great War the two clubs amalgamated as Maidenhead Town and adopted the black and white stripes. They had immediate success winning the Great Western League, in 1920 the name United was adopted and two years later they entered the Spartan League. They won the three times in their nineteen-year stay. In 1936 Maidenhead reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup losing 4–1 to Ilford at West Ham in front of 18,000 spectators and it was that season that the ground record attendance of 7,989 was set when Southall came to York Road in the quarter-final. In the 1929–30 season the club’s goal-scoring record for a season was set when Jack Palethorpe scored 65 goals in 39 games and he went on to play for Sheffield Wednesday and scored in the Owls FA Cup win in 1935. Following the end of the Second World War the club entered the Corinthian League and they also made three appearances in the First Round Proper of the FA Cup. In 1963 United joined the Athenian League, but were unable to repeat their Corinthian success and they had a flirtation with promotion to the Premier Division in 1979 and 1980 under Geoff Anthony, and then again in 1985 under Brian Caterer and Colin Lippiatt. It took four seasons to get out of Division Two, which was achieved under the guidance of Martyn Spong in 1991. An Isthmian League record of 13 straight wins at the start of the season was the springboard to success, following the departure of Spong to Enfield, Gary Goodwin, John Clements and then John Watt took on the manager’s job with mediocre results, the club regularly finishing mid-table
Queen's Park F.C.
Queens Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. Queens Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having founded in 1867. Queens Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, the clubs home is a Category 4 stadium, the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queens Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, gentlemen from the local YMCA took part in football matches in the local Glasgow area which gave the club its name. During the inaugural meeting, debate raged over the clubs name, proposals included, The Celts, The Northern and Morayshire. Perhaps such choice of names suggest a Highland influence within the new club, after much deliberation, Queens Park was adopted and carried, but only by a majority of one vote. Although Queens was not the first club in Britain, that going to Edinburgh and John Hopes Football Club, formed in 1824. Opposition first came in the form of a now defunct Glaswegian side called Thistle F. C. on 30 November 1872, Scotland faced England at the West of Scotland Cricket Club ground at Hamilton Crescent. For the one and only time all eleven Scots players were from Queens Park and they wore blue jerseys,4,000 spectators watched Scotland play with a 2–2–6 formation and England with a 1–1–8 line-up. Queens Park formed the Scottish Football Association on 13 March 1873, the match against Dumbreck on 25 October was the first match to be played at Hampden Park. It was also the first match which saw Queens Park players wear their black and white hooped jerseys. David Wotherspoon, a Queens Park player and committee member, has credited with the introduction of the black. Most importantly, it was the first Scottish Cup tie and Scottish competitive match for the club, in the final, Queens defeated Clydesdale 2–0 at Hampden. Success in the Scottish Cup followed in the two years with final victories over Renton and Third Lanark. In drawing 2–2 with Clydesdale in the 1875 semi-final, Queens conceded their first ever goals, defeat for the club was first experienced with a 2–1 defeat to Vale of Leven in the 5th round in December 1876. Third Lanark and Rangers eliminated the Spiders before Queens reclaimed the cup in 1880 with a win over Thornliebank, Dumbarton were beaten in the final in successive years. In 1881, Queens had to them twice after Dumbarton successfully appealed that the crowd at Kinning Park had encroached following a 2–1 defeat. Dumbarton got revenge in 1883 but Queens won again in 1884 without even having to play the final after Vale of Leven refused to play on the date stipulated by the SFA, in the early days of Englands FA Cup, Scottish clubs were often invited to compete
Leyton Football Club was an English association football club based in Leyton, in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. The team withdrew from the Isthmian League Division One North in January 2011, the Lillies were unrelated to their Football League neighbours Leyton Orient. The club was founded in 1868, and disbanded several times in its history, in 1975 the club merged with Wingate F. C. to become Leyton-Wingate F. C. until 1992 when the two clubs parted company and the name reverted to Leyton. Costas Sophocleous, the chairman, was once the manager. Having managed the team for the 2003/04 and 2004/05 seasons, Sophocleous decided to back from management to concentrate on his role as chairman. Following a bad start to the season, however, two managers were sacked in quick succession and the took over the managerial role again. Leyton F. C then appointed Troy Townsend as manager for the English 2005/06 season and he continued to manage the first team squad, the reserves side and the Eastern Junior Alliance U18s squad. In 2006/07 Leyton completed the season in 15th position and this led Troy Townsend to step aside as manager of the first team to concentrate on the reserves and U18s sides. The following season, under manager Rowley Cray, the club suffered an 11–1 home defeat to Hendon, steve Newing and Del Deanus were appointed as joint managers for the 2008/09 season, but resigned in November citing financial difficulties at the club. Tony Ievoli then took the reins but he resigned at the start of September 2009, before being replaced by former Grays Athletic manager, in November 2009 Edwards was replaced by Ivan Persaud. In October 2009, following an investigation by HMRC, chairman Costas Sophocleous, in January 2010 Sophocleous was sentenced to 8 years 3 months and Foster to 5 years 3 months. Sophocleous son, former Leyton player Mark, and his wife, accountant Stewart Collins was found guilty and sentenced to 6 years. Sophocleous stood down as chairman and was replaced by former vice-chairman Tony Hardy, following Costas Sophocleous conviction, Ivan Persaud left the club and was replaced as manager by former player Malcolm Dannie for the beginning of February 2010. However, because several clubs higher in the pyramid were dissolved or demoted, Leyton were awarded a reprieve, in January 2011, and after a short suspension from the league for not paying its subscription, the club was forced to withdraw from the league due to debt. Following this, the chairman, secretary, management and players all left the club, Leyton F. C. played at the Leyton Stadium. The club had ten teams, ranging in age from under nines to under eighteens. Players that have played/managed in the Football League or any equivalent to this level. Players that hold a record or have captained the club
Cambridge University A.F.C.
Cambridge University Association Football Club is an English football club representing the University of Cambridge. Official university publications have claimed that the club was formed in 1856 or 1857, varieties of football have been played for many centuries, but until the mid-19th century, none of the modern codes of football existed. Many different games were played at English Public schools and all of these were simply as football. Naturally, children who had learnt these games at school now sought to play them at university, eton, Harrow and Winchester, in particular, developed codes which revolved around a roughly spherical ball being kicked along the ground. Malden of Trinity combined these and other games in the Cambridge Rules, one of the first codes of football. Debate on the continued, and in 1846, a revised set of Cambridge Rules were created. Some records cite this as the date of the club. The foundation date of 1856 is based upon the 1856 copy of the Cambridge Rules held by Shrewsbury School which is entitled and this may have been the origin of the Cambridge AFC. This is borne out by the fact that the Cambridge Rules were the reference point for the initial rules of The Football Association in October 1863. In 2016 the National Football Museum presented an award to CUAFC who the museum recognise as the oldest football club in the world. Cambridge graduates set up many early football clubs, such as Hallam F. C. in the north and the Forest Club in Essex. Contemporaries described Cambridge as being the first combination team in each player was allotted an area of the field. The 1883 side was the first team to introduce the pyramid 235 formation, following the success of the Cambridge pyramid this formation became the norm for all football teams. Notable players of 1883 side included W. N. Cobbold and their passing, attacking style led to a 3–2 victory in the Varsity match. In this account Cambridge played well together, once Oxford had followed suit, there was immediate talk of a Varsity match, and on 30 March 1874 the two Universities first met. Although the Light Blues succumbed 1–0, they were to dominate their Oxford counterparts until the end of the century, in 1882, and CUAFC were still playing on Parkers Piece. A meeting of the Club concluded that it would be advisable to buy a ground, for Parkers Piece was not appropriate owing to the fact that anyone can walk across and about the ground during the game. But it was not until 1895, however, that they were able to acquire Grange Road, in tandem with the Rugby Club and they were still paying it off until just before the First World War
Harrow School /ˈhæroʊ/ is an independent boarding school for boys in Harrow, London, England. There is some evidence that there has been a school on the site since 1243, Harrow is one of the original nine public schools that were regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. For the academic year 2016/17, Harrow charges boarders up to £12,450 per term, being the fourth most expensive boarding school in the Headmasters, the school has an enrolment of 805 boys spread across twelve boarding houses, all of whom board full-time. It remains one of four all-boys, full-boarding schools in Britain, harrows uniform includes straw hats, morning suits, top hats and canes. The school in its current form was founded in February 1572 under a Royal Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I to John Lyon, a wealthy local farmer. In the original charter, six governors were named, including two members of the Gerard family of Flambards, and two members of the Page family of Wembley and Sudbury Court. It was only after the death of Lyons wife in 1608 that the construction of the first school building began and it was completed in 1615 and remains to this day, however it is now much larger. Lyon died in 1592, leaving his assets to two causes, the lesser was the School, and by far the greater beneficiary was the maintenance of a road to London,10 miles away. The school owned and maintained road for many years following Lyons death. At first the subject taught was Latin, and the only sport was archery. Both subjects were compulsory, archery was dropped in 1771, although most boys were taught for free, their tuition paid for by Lyons endowment, there were a number of fee-paying foreigners. It was their presence that amplified the need for boarding facilities, by 1701 for every local there were two foreign pupils, these generated funds for the School as fees increased. It is now known as The John Lyon School and is a prominent independent school and it maintains close links with Harrow. The majority of the boarding houses were constructed in Victorian times. The 20th century saw the innovation of a dining hall. Presently there are about 800 boys boarding at Harrow, according to a 2009 article, the school has expanded overseas, opening additional schools in Beijing, China, Shanghai, China, Bangkok, Thailand, and New Territories, Hong Kong. Boys at Harrow have two uniforms, the photograph was placed on the front cover of the News Chronicle the next morning under the tagline Every picture tells a story. The picture was reproduced in other national publications and became
Notts County F.C.
Notts County Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England. With records of games as early as 28 November 1862, Notts County is recognised as the oldest association football team in the world now playing at a professional level. Between 1888–89 and 2013–14 they played a total of 4,756 Football League matches – more than any other English team, the team plays in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system. County play their games at Meadow Lane in black and white striped shirts. The club has had spells in the top division of English football, most recently in 1991–92. Notable former managers of Notts County include Jimmy Sirrel, Howard Wilkinson, Neil Warnock, Howard Kendall, the club has had several owners. In the 21st century, a series of problems has seen the club owned by a supporters trust. Notts County are the oldest professional club in the world having been formed in 1862. Notts pre-dated The Football Association and initially played a game of its own devising, at the time of its formation, Notts County, like most sports teams, were considered to be a gentlemen-only club. Notts County are considered to be one of the pioneers of the game and are the oldest of the worlds professional association football clubs. In November 1872, the Notts County full-back Ernest Greenhalgh played for England against Scotland in the international match. In 1888, Notts County, along with 11 other football clubs and they finished their first league season in 11th place, but avoided the dubious honour of the wooden spoon, which went to Midlands rivals Stoke. However, Notts County did achieve their highest ever finish of third in 1890–91. On 25 March 1891, Notts County reached the FA Cup final for the first time, the Magpies were defeated 3–1 by Blackburn Rovers at The Oval, despite having beaten the same side 7–1 in the league only a week earlier. This achievement is also memorable for Notts County becoming the first club outside the top division to win the FA Cup, in 1910 they moved to Meadow Lane. Notts County were relegated in 1926 in what was to be their last season in the English top flight for half a century. The 1925–26 season was the last season that famed giant goalkeeper Albert Iremonger played for the club, in the 1946–47 season, the ground was used temporarily by Nottingham Forest after the River Trent flooded both Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Forest again used Meadow Lane in 1968, after fire destroyed the main stand at the City Ground, the golden age of the club came just after the end of World War II
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire. They play in the Northern Premier League Division One South, at level 8 of the English football league system, founded in 1857, the club is the oldest club now playing association football. Sheffield F. C. initially played games under the Sheffield rules, the club competes in the Rules derby with near neighbours Hallam. On the pitch, the clubs finest hour came in 1904 when they won the FA Amateur Cup and they also finished as runners up of the FA Vase in 1977. In 1855, members of a Sheffield cricket club organised informal kick-abouts without any official rules, – subsequently two members, Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, formed the Sheffield Football Club. The inaugural meeting of the club took place on 24 October 1857 at Parkfield House in the suburb of Highfield, initially, Sheffield FC games were played among club members themselves and took the format of Married v Singles or Professionals v the Rest. Creswick and Prest were responsible for drawing up the rules of play. They were referred to as the Sheffield Rules, and were the first official set of rules, at the time, before the formation of the Football Association, many different kinds of football were popular in England. For example, each of the public schools played football according to their own individual rules. The Sheffield Rules were later adopted by the Sheffield Football Association when it was formed in 1867, sheffields near neighbour, Hallam, was formed in 1860 and in the same year the two clubs first met each other in a local derby which is still contested today. By 1862 there were 15 clubs in the Sheffield area and they became members of The Football Association on 30 November 1863 but continued to use their own set of rules. On 2 January 1865, the club played its first fixture outside Sheffield against Nottingham, by this time the club had decided only to play teams outside Sheffield in order to seek a bigger challenge. On 31 March 1866, there was a match between a team representing the city of Sheffield and one representing London, at Battersea Park, Rules that differed only slightly from the FA rules were used. The game, played as an aside, was won by London by 2 goals. However the matter of rules remained a problem with Sheffield clubs continuing to play by their own rules, Sheffield clubs finally adopted the FA rules in 1878. They would reach the 4th Round of the competition in 1877–78 and their reluctance to play against local clubs led to the formation of Thursday Wanderers in 1876, a team of players registered to Sheffield who wished to play in the Sheffield Challenge Cup. The Wanderers operated from 1876 to 1879, winning the cup in their final year, after the legalisation of professionalism, the staunchly amateur Sheffield suggested to the FA the creation of a cup exclusively for amateur clubs. The FA Amateur Cup was inaugurated in 1893 and Sheffield themselves won the competition in 1904 and they joined their first league competition in 1889 when entering the Midland League, but left after just one season when they finished bottom of the table
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years and it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. It is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as Win, Coll, the upper-class lifestyle magazine Tatler named the school as its Public School of the Year in 2010. Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and it was founded in conjunction with New College, Oxford, for which it was designed to act as a feeder, the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 Quiristers, the provided for ten noble Commoners. These Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his apartments in College. In the 1860s New Commoners was closed and converted to classrooms, at the same time two more houses were acquired and added to the Houses category, a tenth was acquired in 1905 and allotted to Commoners. There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, from the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers. The Scholars live in the buildings, known as College. College is not usually referred to as a house, hence the terms housemaster of College and College house are not generally used, the housemaster of College is now known as the Master in College, though these duties formerly belonged to the Second Master. Within the school, College refers only to the body of scholars, Winchester College, every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies, eats and sleeps, each house is presided over by a housemaster and a number of house tutors. Houses compete in competitions, mostly in sporting competitions. Each house has a name, usually based on the family name of the first housemaster. Each house also has a name, which is more frequently used in speech. Each house also has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation, especially on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the name of the house with -ite suffixed, as a Furleyite, a Toyeite. The houses have been ordered by their year of founding, College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used, especially on written work