Porto is the second largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The urban area of Porto, which extends beyond the limits of the city, has a population of 2.1 million in an area of 389 km2. It is recognized as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Located along the Douro river estuary in Northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back centuries, when it was an outpost of the Roman Empire. Its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has referred to as the origin of the name Portugal, based on transliteration. In Portuguese, the name of the city is spelled with a definite article, its English name evolved from a misinterpretation of the oral pronunciation and referred to as Oporto in modern literature and by many speakers. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency, the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants.
Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas, during the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula the city developed as an important commercial port, primarily in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711. In 868, Vímara Peres, a warlord from Gallaecia, and this included the area from the Minho to the Douro River, the settlement of Portus Cale and the area that is known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale, referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or, in 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, this symbolized a long-standing military alliance between Portugal and England. The Portuguese-English alliance, is the worlds oldest recorded military alliance, in the 14th and the 15th centuries, Portos shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding.
It was from the port of Porto that, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, produced in the Douro valley, was already in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the relations between Portugal and England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto, the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley
Maria Pia Bridge
The Maria Pia bridge, commonly known as Ponte Dona Maria, is a railway bridge built in 1877 by Gustave Eiffel in Porto, Portugal. Built of wrought iron, its two-hinged crescent arch used to carry the railway to Lisbon for 353 metres across the River Douro at a height of 60 m above the river, when constructed it was the longest single-arch span in the world. It is no longer in use as a bridge, a modern replacement having been constructed in 1991. In 1875 the Royal Portuguese Railway Company announced a competition for a bridge to carry the Lisbon to Porto railway across the river Douro. The river was fast-flowing, its depth could be as much as 20 m when in flood and these factors ruled out the construction of piers in the river, so that the bridge would have to have a central span of 160 m. At the time the longest bridge span was the 156 m of the built by James B. Eads over the Mississippi at St Louis, Eiffel & Cies design, priced at 965,000 French francs, was the least expensive of the four designs considered, around two thirds of the cost of the nearest competitor.
Since the company was relatively inexperienced, a commission was appointed to report on their suitability to undertake the work and their report was favorable, although it did emphasise the difficulty of the project, The complete study of a structure of this size presents great difficulties. Eiffel, in his account of the bridge which accompanied the 1,50 scale model exhibited at the 1878 Worlds Fair, credited Seyrig, along with Henry de Dion, with work on the calculations and drawings. The structure consists of a deck 352.7 m long, another innovation was the method of construction used for the central arch. The same method was used to build the decking, temporary tower structures being built above deck level to support the cables. This technique had previously used by Eads, but its use by Eiffel is a good example of his readiness to use the latest engineering techniques. Construction started on 5 January 1876, and work on the abutments, work paused due to the winter flooding of the river, and the erection of the central arch span was not started until March 1877.
Construction was completed on 1 October 1877 and the bridge was opened on 4 November 1877 by King Luís I of Portugal and named after his queen, in 1982, the bridge was designated a National Monument by IGESPAR. The bridge is often confused with the Dom Luís I Bridge, built nine years and located a kilometre to the west, in 1991, the bridge was superseded by the new St Johns Bridge, designed by engineer Edgar Cardoso. Eiffel, The Genius Who Reinvented Himself, Gloucestershire, Sutton,2006 ISBN0750933097 Loyrette, Henri. New York, Rizzoli,1985 ISBN0847806316 Maria Pia Bridge at Structurae São João Bridge at Structurae Maria Pia on en. Broer. no
Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo was a Portuguese novelist and historian. One of his grandfathers was a stonemason in the royal employ. In 1832 he accompanied the Liberal expedition to Terceira Island as a volunteer and he took part in all the actions of the great siege, and at the same time served as a librarian in the city archives. He published his first volume of verses, A Voz de Propheta, in 1832, privation had made a man of him, and in these little books he proves himself a poet of deep feeling and considerable power of expression. After spending his early years as a poet, Herculano introduced the novel into Portugal in 1844 by a book written in imitation of Walter Scott. Eurico treats of the fall of the Visigothic monarchy and the beginnings of resistance in the Asturias which gave birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, Herculano had greater book-learning than Scott, but lacked descriptive talent and skill in dialogue. His touch is heavy, and these novels show no dramatic power, which accounts for his failure as a playwright, but their influence was as great as their followers were many.
The difficulties he encountered in producing it were great, for the foundations had been ill-prepared by his predecessors. He had to collect manuscripts from all parts of Portugal, decipher and weigh them before he could begin work, the second volume of his history appeared in 1847, the third in 1849, and the fourth in 1853. Herculano was denounced from the pulpit and by the press for his lack of patriotism and piety, the conduct of the controversy, which lasted some years, did credit to none of the contending parties, but Herculanos statement of the facts was eventually universally accepted as correct. Next to these two books, his study, Condition of the classes on the peninsula from the seventh to the twelfth century, was Herculanos most valuable contribution to history. On the death of his friend King Pedro V, Herculano left the Ajuda, disillusioned with mankind and despairing of the future of his country, Herculano rarely emerged from his retirement, when he did so, it was to fight political and religious reactionaries.
Herculano defended Portugals monastic orders and successfully opposed the entry of religious orders. He supported the clergy and idealized the village priest in his Pároco da Aldeia. Herculano opposed the Concordat of February 21,1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East, Herculano supported civil marriage, although his Studies on Civil Marriage was banned. English historian Lord Acton and German historian Ignaz von Döllinger experienced similar problems, especially as they all fought the new dogmas of the Immaculate Conception, other key documents issued by Pius IX during the ecclesiastical retrenchment include the Syllabus of Errors and Etsi multa. In the domain of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal to the other. The nation continued to look up to him for intellecual leadership, though he conducted political propaganda campaigns in the press in his early days, Herculano never exercised much influence in politics
Fontes Pereira de Melo
António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo GCTE KGF was a Portuguese statesman and engineer. He was the son of João de Fontes Pereira de Melo, historically, he was a very important political figure, and in several occasions minister, six times Minister of Finance. Pereira de Melo is mostly remembered for conducting dynamic industrial and public policy which become known as Fontismo. He implemented reforms in accordance with the industrialization process he initiated. His younger sister, Maria Henriqueta de Fontes Pereira de Melo, wife of Vicente Rodrigues Ganhado, was granted the noble title of 1st Marchioness of Fontes Pereira de Melo
Prime Minister of Portugal
Prime Minister is the current title of the head of government of Portugal. The Prime Minister can hold the role of head of government with the portfolio of one or more ministries, there is no limit to the number of terms a person can serve as Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic following legislative elections, the person named is the leader of the largest party in the previous election. Since the Middle Ages, some officers of the Portuguese Crown gained precedence over the others, over time, the role of principal officer of the Crown fell upon the chanceler-mor, the mordomo-mor and the escrivão da puridade. The first modern prime minister of Portugal was Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Marquess of Palmela, in 1911, the official title of the prime minister became Presidente do Ministério. In 1933, it became again Presidente do Conselho de Ministros, the official residence of the Prime Minister is a mansion next to São Bento Palace, which, in confusion, is often called São Bento Palace.
The mansion, dated from 1877, was built within the garden of the old monastery that held the Portuguese Parliament and it has been the Prime Ministers official residence since 1938, when Salazar moved in. Although it is the residence of the Prime Minister, not all incumbents have lived in the mansion during their term in office. As of April 2017, there are eight living former Prime Ministers of Portugal, living former Prime Ministers The most recent Prime Minister to die was Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, on 7 January 2017 aged 92. List of Prime Ministers of Portugal List of Prime Ministers of Portugal by time in office Official Website of the Prime Minister of Portugal
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north