1881 in sports
1881 in sports describes the years events in world sports. England FA Cup final – Old Carthusians 3–0 Old Etonians at The Oval in the last final to be played between two amateur sides. Blackburn Rovers and Bolton Wanderers both change their venues to enclosed grounds where gate money can be charged, a practice among clubs that are openly professional. Preston North End is founded and plays from the start at Deepdale, Burnley FC founded as Burnley Rovers RUFC which decides in May 1882 to switch codes. The Rovers suffix is dropped two years later and the renamed as Burnley AFC. Newcastle United, which has an early history, is founded as Stanley FC by a cricket club in the Byker area of Newcastle. France Foundation of FC Girondins de Bordeaux, four others lie on the northerly rail line from stalwart Chicago to stalwart Boston, Detroit, Buffalo, Troy, and Worcester. In autumn, for the first time, all eight National League clubs prepare to continue next season, events Paddy Ryan takes part in a number of exhibition bouts but does not defend his Heavyweight Championship of America title. John L. Sullivan continues his rise to the championship with a series of knockout victories, events Lancashire County Cricket Club wins its first outright title. At the end of the season, an English team led by Alfred Shaw goes to Australia for the 1881–82 Test series. England Grand National – Woodbrook 1,000 Guineas Stakes – Thebais 2,000 Guineas Stakes – Peregrine Epsom Derby – Iroquois Epsom Oaks – Thebais St. S, National Singles Championship, precursor of the US Open, won by Richard D. Sears who defeats William E. Glyn 6–0 6–3 6–2 World The 5th pre-open era 1881 Mens Tennis season gets underway 27 tournaments are staged this year. Americas Cup The New York Yacht Club retains the Americas Cup as Mischief defeats Canadian challenger Atalanta, of the Bay of Quinte Yacht Club
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century also saw the creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat. 1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States
The 1840s was a really active and extremely turbulent decade that ran from January 1,1840, to December 31,1849. Throughout the decade, many countries worldwide saw many revolts as well as uprisings, asides from uprisings, the United States began to see a shifting population that migrated to the West Coast, as the California Gold Rush ensued in the latter half of the decade. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, the capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1845, George Tupou I united Tonga into a kingdom, on August 29,1842, the first of two Opium Wars ended between China and Britain with the Treaty of Nanking. One of the consequences was the cession of modern-day Hong Kong Island to the British, Hong Kong would eventually be returned to China in 1997. Other events, July 3,1844 – The United States signs the Treaty of Wanghia with the Chinese Government, the 1840s comprised the end of the Tenpō era, the entirety of the Kōka era, and the beginning of the Kaei era. The decade saw the end of the reign of Emperor Ninko in 1846, emperors Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị and Tự Đức ruled Vietnam during the 1840s under the Nguyễn dynasty. 1848 – British, Dutch, and German governments lay claim to New Guinea, First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi on February 6,1840, at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. The treaty between the British Crown and Māori made New Zealand colony and is considered the point of modern New Zealand. July 20,1845 – Charles Sturt enters the Simpson Desert in central Australia, may 25,1846 – The Royal Geographical Society awards Paweł Edmund Strzelecki a Gold Medal for exploration in the south eastern portion of Australia. The British attempted to impose a puppet regime on Afghanistan under Shuja Shah, by 1842, mobs were attacking the British on the streets of Kabul and the British garrison was forced to abandon the city due to constant civilian attacks. During the retreat from Kabul, the British army of approximately 4,500 troops and 12,000 camp followers was subjected to a series of attacks by Afghan warriors. All of the British soldiers were killed except for one and he, after the Battle of Kabul, Britain placed Dost Mohammad Khan back into power and withdrew from Afghanistan. March 24,1843 – Battle of Hyderabad, The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, the Sikh Empire was founded in 1799, ruled by Ranjit Singh. When Singh died in 1839, the Sikh Empire began to fall into disorder, there was a succession of short-lived rulers at the central Durbar, and increasing tension between the Khalsa and the Durbar. In May 1841, the Dogra dynasty invaded western Tibet, marking the beginning of the Sino-Sikh war and this war ended in a stalemate in September 1842, with the Treaty of Chushul. The British East India Company began to build up its strength on the borders of the Punjab. Eventually, the increasing tension goaded the Khalsa to invade British territory, under weak, the hard-fought First Anglo-Sikh War ended in defeat for the Khalsa
The 1850s was a decade that ran from January 1,1850, to December 31,1859. At the mean time, The United States saw its peak on mass migration to the American West, that particularly made the nation experience an economic boom, as well as a rapidly increasing population. Crimean War fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. On 8 October 1856, the Second Opium War between several powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River. Second War of Italian Independence, also known as Franco-Austrian War, moldavia and Wallachia are unified and form Romania. Gideon T. Stewart attempts to create a Prohibition Party, dissolution of the Mughal Empire by the British. First commercially successful sewing machine made by Isaac Singer Ukrainian settlers bring Carniolan honeybees to the Primorsky Krai The word girlfriend first appears in writing in 1855, the word boyfriend first appears in writing in 1856. Nikola Tesla American texts from the 1850s American speeches from the 1850s
The 1860s were an extremely different decade with numerous cultural, social, and political upheavals in Europe and America. Revolutions were prevalent in Germany and the Ottoman Empire, the abolition of slavery in America led to the breakdown of the Atlantic Slave Trade, which was already suffering from the abolition of slavery in most of Europe in the late 1820s and ’30s. After the Civil War, turmoil continued in Reconstruction, with the rise of white supremacist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan, replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico with the establishment of the Second Mexican Empire. Juárez eventually manages to recover his position, on 18 October 1860, the first Convention of Peking formally ended the Second Opium War. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865, the Paraguayan War starts in South America, with the invasion of Paraguay by the Triple Alliance. It will kill almost 60% of the country’s population, the main phase of the New Zealand Wars between British colonials and the Māori population begins with the First Taranaki War in 1860. The most significant campaign is the Invasion of Waikato in 1863, the Kingdom of Prussia under Bismarck invaded Denmark in 1864, which ended in the division of Schleswig, the location of a pro-German revolt, between Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Though Prussia and Austria had both fought side by side in war, Prussia later attacked Austria in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. The technological and logistical superiority of Prussias armed forces obliterated Austria and its allies, by the end of these conflicts, Prussia was seen as the most powerful state in Germany, and had total hegemony over the other German states. The NGF was formed after the Austro-Prussian war, uniting the states of north Germany, the Bhutan War between the British Empire and Bhutan lasted from 1864 to 1865. It ended in a British victory and the loss of some Bhutanese territory to British India, beginning of the Reconstruction era under President Andrew Johnson. 1863–64 January Uprising in the Russian Empire, on 19 July 1864 the fall of Nanjing formally ended the 14-year Taiping Rebellion. Italian Unification under King Victor Emmanuel II, Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th and last of the Tokugawa shoguns loses control to the Meiji Emperor, the samurai class fails to survive while the daimyōs turn to politics. The Dominion of Canada is created by the British North America Act on July 1,1867, President of the United States Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, April 14,1865. King of Madagascar Radama II is captured by soldiers and strangled to death, manuel Isidoro Belzu, President of Bolivia is assassinated. Father of Canadian Confederation, Thomas DArcy McGee is assassinated by Patrick J. Whelan, sakamoto Ryōma, a prominent figure in the Bakumatsu era in Japan and part of the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate, is assassinated along with Nakaoka Shintarō at a Kyoto inn in 1867. The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is completed in 1869, the Suez Canal in Egypt is opened in 1869
The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War, germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the part of the decade. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness, franco-Prussian War resulted in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire. The Anglo-Zulu War lasted from 11 January 1879 to 4 July 1879, the Third Carlist War was the last Carlist War in Spain. Bulgaria and Romania declared independence following a war against the Ottoman Empire, the Sioux battled the United States Cavalry and resisted encroachment by white settlers on the Great Plains. Passive resistance was used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand, the German Empire and Alliance System emerged. Racial and economic politics in Americas Reconstruction were bitter, pessimistic, the Gilded Age began in 1874, lasting until 1896. The prototype telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, the first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879. The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, the steam drill is invented in 1879. Ludwig Boltzmann statistically defined thermodynamic entropy,1873 Weltausstellung in Vienna,1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and 1878 Exposition universelle in Paris. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar, the group soon became known as the Impressionists. Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122 and she still holds the record as of 2016. Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass
The 1880s was a decade that began on January 1,1880, and ended on December 31,1889. They occurred at the period of the Second Industrial Revolution. Most Western countries experienced an economic boom, due to the mass production of railroads. The modern city as well as the rose to prominence in this decade as well. The 1880s were also part of the Gilded Age, which lasted from 1874 to 1907, aceh War War of the Pacific Mahdist War 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 13 September 1882 — British troops occupy Cairo, and Egypt becomes a British protectorate. American Indian Wars 20 July 1881 — Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana. Frequent lynchings of African Americans in Southern United States during the years 1880–1890 and this would be followed over the next few decades by conquest of almost the entirety of the remaining uncolonised parts of the continent, broadly along the lines determined. 3 August 1881, The Pretoria Convention peace treaty is signed,1884, International Meridian Conference in Washington D. C. held to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. 1884–1885, Berlin Conference, when the western powers divided Africa, the United States had five Presidents during the decade, the most since the 1840s. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Grover Cleveland, may to August,1883, Krakatoa, a volcano in Indonesia, erupted cataclysmically,36,000 people were killed, the majority being killed by the resulting tsunami. September 1887, The Yellow river flooded and killed about 900,000 people, the 1880s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts,13 March 1881 — Assassination of the Tsar of the Russian Empire Alexander II of Russia. 19 September 1881 — James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States 2 March 1882 — Roderick Maclean fails to assassinate Queen Victoria,3 April 1882 — Bob Ford assassinates Jesse James, legendary outlaw. 6 May 1882 - Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland,1880, Oliver Heaviside of Camden Town, London, England receives a patent for the coaxial cable. In 1887, Heaviside introduced the concept of loading coils, in the 1890s, Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin would both create the loading coils and receive a patent of them, failing to credit Heavisides work. 1880–1882, Development and commercial production of lighting was underway. Thomas Edison of Milan, Ohio, established Edison Illuminating Company on December 17,1880, based at New York City, it was the pioneer company of the electrical power industry. Edisons system was based on creating a power plant equipped with electrical generators. Copper electrical wires would then connect the station with other buildings, Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant in the United States
The phrase, The Gay Nineties, was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was also part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by an economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. As of January 23,2017, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s. On December 29,1890,365 troops of the US 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns, surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek, the Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day earlier, the Sioux had been cornered and agreed to themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do. the process of disarming the Sioux, the 7th Cavalry quickly suppressed the Sioux fire, and the surviving Sioux fled, but US cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time it was over, about 146 men, women, twenty-five troopers also died, some believed to have been the victims of friendly fire as the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions. Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with a number later dying from hypothermia. The incident is noteworthy as the engagement in history in which the most Medals of Honor have been awarded in the military history of the United States. This was the last tribe to be invaded which broke the backbone of the American Indian Wars,1891, Chilean Civil War fought from January to September. José Manuel Balmaceda, President of Chile, and the Chilean Army loyal to him face Jorge Montts Junta, the latter was formed by an alliance between the National Congress of Chile and the Chilean Navy. 1891, Tobacco Protest in Qajar dynasty Persia, on March 20,1890, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Shah of Iran granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production, sale, and export of tobacco for fifty years. In exchange, Talbot paid the shah an annual sum of £15,000 in addition to a quarter of the profits after the payment of all expenses. Now they were forced to seek permits from the Tobacco Régie as well as required to inform the concessionaires of the amount of tobacco produced, during the spring of 1891 mass protests against the Régie began to emerge in major Iranian cities. Initially it was the bazaaris who led the opposition under the conviction that it was their income, the reference to the Hidden Imam, a critical person in Shia Islam, meant that Shirazi was using the strongest possible language to oppose the Régie. Initially there was skepticism over the legitimacy of the fatwa, however Shirazi would later confirm the declaration,1892, The Johnson County War in Wyoming. Actually this range war took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County, the combatants were the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and the Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1900, and ended on December 31,1909. The term nineteen-hundreds can also equally be used for the years 1900–1999, the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in English. Using 1906 as an example, they are nineteen-oh-six, nineteen-six, which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, nineteen-oh-six is the most common, nineteen-six is less common, nineteen-ought-six is recognized, the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an ohs or aughts decade. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power, battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a battle of the Unification War between Rashidi and Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Hail, demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1,1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20,1902 — Cuba gains independence from the United States, june 7,1905 — The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, and Norway achieves full independence. October 5,1908 — Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, April 19,1902 — A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000. May 8,1902 — In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre, April 7,1906 — Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. September 18,1906 — A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong, January 14,1907 — An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. December 28,1908 — An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina, Sicily and Calabria, April 26,1900 — The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless. The fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers, warehouses, may 3,1901 — The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10,1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, August 10,1903 — Paris Métro train fire. December 30,1903 — A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, February 7,1904 — The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15,1904 — A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York Citys East River kills 1,021, june 28,1904 — The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants. January 22,1906 — The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, the 1900s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts, July 29,1900 — King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci
As of the start of 1875, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Midland Railway of England abolishes the Second Class passenger category leaving First Class, other British railway companies follow Midlands lead during the rest of the year. January 12 – Guangxu becomes 11th Qing dynasty Emperor of China at the age of 4 in succession to his cousin, january 14 – The newly proclaimed King Alfonso XII of Spain arrives in Spain to restore the monarchy during the Third Carlist War. The Carlists take several pieces of artillery, more than 2,000 rifles,800 men of both sides are killed - mostly government troops. February 18 – The Mason County War begins as a German-American mob breaks into a prison, february 21 – Jeanne Calment is born in Arles, France. She would go on to become the worlds oldest verified person to have lived, reaching an age of 122 years and 164 days. February 24 – The SS Gothenburg sinks off Australias east coast with the loss of approximately 102 lives, including a number of civil servants. The two tribes are not allowed to return to the Verde Valley until 1900, february 27 – Newton Booth, 11th Governor of California, resigns, having been elected Senator. Lieutenant Governor of California Romualdo Pacheco becomes acting Governor and he is later replaced by elected governor William Irwin. March 1 – The United States Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, march 3 – Georges Bizets opera Carmen receives its première at the Opéra-Comique in Paris. Bizet’s Carmen is first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, France, the first indoor ice hockey game is played at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. March 15 – Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States, april 10 – The Arya Samaj is founded in Mumbai by Swami Dayananda Saraswati. April 25 – Ten sophomores from Rutgers College steal a one-ton cannon from the campus of the College of New Jersey, may 7 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed between Japan and Russia. May 7 – German liner SS Schiller wrecks on the rocks off the Isles of Scilly with the loss of 335 lives, may 17 – Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby. May 20 – The Metre Convention is signed in Paris, France, june – The record-setting American clipper Flying Cloud of 1851 is burned for scrap metal. June 4 – Two American colleges play each other in arguably the first game of football, Tufts University and Harvard University at Jarvis Field in Cambridge. Summer – Third Carlist War in Spain, Two government armies under General Quesada, both they and their Carlist opponent drive opposing sympathisers from their homes and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty, mendiri is also removed from his command, and is replaced by the Count of Caserta
As of the start of 1876, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The Reichsbank opens in Berlin, the Bass Brewery Red Triangle becomes the worlds first registered trademark symbol. February 2 – The National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs is formed at a meeting in Chicago, morgan Bulkeley of the Hartford Dark Blues is selected as the leagues first President. After a courageous and costly defence Calderón is forced to withdraw, february 14 – Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray. February 19 – Third Carlist War – Government troops under General Primo de Rivera drive through the weak Carlist forces protecting Estella, february 22 – Johns Hopkins University is founded in Baltimore. The Carlist pretender Carlos, Duke of Madrid, goes into exile in France bringing the conflict to an end four years. February/March – The Harvard Lampoon humor magazine is founded in Cambridge, march – American librarian Melvil Dewey first publishes the Dewey Decimal Classification system. March 7 – Alexander Graham Bell is granted a United States patent for an invention he calls the telephone, march 10 – Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call, saying Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you. March 20 – Through constitutional reform taking legal effect, Louis De Geer becomes the first Prime Minister of Sweden, April 16 – The Bulgarian April uprising occurs. April 17 – Friends Academy is founded by Gideon Frost at Locust Valley, may – Batak massacre refers to the massacre of Bulgarians in Batak by Ottoman troops in 1876 at the beginning of the April Uprising. The number of ranges from 3,000 to 5,000. May 1 Queen Victoria takes the title Empress of India, the Settle–Carlisle Railway in England is opened to passenger traffic. May 10 – The Centennial Exposition begins in Philadelphia, may 11 – May 12 – Berlin Memorandum, Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary propose an armistice between Turkey and its insurgents. May 16 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin Memorandum, may 17 – Nikolaus Otto files his patent for the four-stroke cycle internal combustion engine. May 18 – Wyatt Earp starts work in Dodge City, Kansas, June 4 – The Transcontinental Express arrives in San Francisco via the First Transcontinental Railroad,83 hours and 39 minutes after having left New York City. June 17 – American Indian Wars – Battle of the Rosebud,1,500 Sioux, June 24 – First published review of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain, in a British magazine, the books first edition had appeared earlier in June in England. July 1 – Serbia declares war on the Ottoman Empire, july 2 – Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire. July 4 – The United States celebrates its centennial, july 8 – Reichstadt Agreement, Russia and Austria-Hungary agree on partitioning the Balkan Peninsula
As of the start of 1877, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Queen Victoria is proclaimed Empress of India by the Royal Titles Act 1876, introduced by Benjamin Disraeli, january 8 – American Indian Wars – Battle of Wolf Mountain, Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle with the United States Cavalry in Montana. January 20 – The Conference of Constantinople ends with Ottoman Turkey rejecting proposals of internal reform, january 29 – The Satsuma Rebellion, a revolt of disaffected samurai in Japan against the new imperial government. The Rebellion lasts until September of that year when it is crushed by a professionally led army of draftees, march – The Nineteenth Century magazine is founded in London. March 4 Emile Berliner invents the microphone, pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys ballet Swan Lake debuts. March 15 –1877 Australia v. England series, The first Test cricket match is held between England and Australia, march 24 – For the only time in history, The Boat Race between the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford is declared a dead heat. April 10 – The first human cannonball act in the British Isles, April 12 – The United Kingdom annexes the South African Republic, violating the Sand River Convention of 1852, causing a new Xhosa War. April 24 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire, may 5 – American Indian Wars, Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles. May 6 – Realizing that his people are weakened by cold and hunger, may 8–11 – At Gilmores Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is held. May 9 – Iquique earthquake and tsunami, An earthquake of at least magnitude 8.5 Ms occurs on the west coast of South America, may 16 – The 16 May 1877 crisis occurs in France. May 21 – By a speech in the Parliament of Romania by Mihail Kogălniceanu, june 15 – Henry Ossian Flipper becomes the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy. June 17 – American Indian Wars – Battle of White Bird Canyon, june 20 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the worlds first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. June 21 – The Molly Maguires are hanged at Carbon County Prison in Mauch Chunk, june 26 – The eruption of the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys, killing 1,000. June 30 – The British Mediterranean fleet is sent to Besika Bay, july – Conclusion of serial publication of Leo Tolstoys Anna Karenina in The Russian Messenger. July 9 – The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon, Louis, briefly establishing a Communist government before U. S. President Rutherford B. Hayes calls in the armed forces. July 19 – Russo-Turkish War, The first battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought, july 30 – The second battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought. July 30 – Russo-Turkish War, The Turkish army and its allies destroy the Bulgarian city of Stara Zagora, the army loses 29 soldiers and the Indians lose 89 warriors in an Army victory. August 12 – American astronomer Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, the moon of Mars
As of the start of 1878, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 5 – Battle of Shipka Pass IV, Russian and Bulgarian forces defeat the Ottoman Empire, January 9 – Umberto I becomes King of Italy. January 17 – Battle of Philippopolis, Russian troops defeat the Turks, January 23 – Benjamin Disraeli orders the British fleet to the Dardanelles. January 24 – The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, January 28 – The Yale News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States. January 31 – Turkey agrees to an armistice at Adrianople, february 2 – Greece declares war on Turkey. February 7 – Pope Pius IX dies after a 31½ year reign, february 8 – The British fleet enters Turkish waters and anchors off Istanbul, Russia threatens to occupy Istanbul but does not carry out the threat. February 18 – The Lincoln County War begins in Lincoln County, february 19 – The phonograph is patented by Thomas Edison. February 20 – Pope Leo XIII succeeds Pope Pius IX as the 256th pope, february 23 - Sadguru Shri Gajanan Maharaj appeared at Shegaon, Dist, Buldhana, Maharashtra. February 24 – Anti-Russian demonstrations occur in Hyde Park, London, february 28 – Mississippi State University is created by the Mississippi Legislature. March 25 – Russia rejects a British proposal to lay the San Stefano treaty before a European congress, march 27 – In anticipation of war with Russia, Disraeli mobilizes the reserves and calls up Indian troops to Malta. April 20 – The Stawell Gift is run for the first time in Australia, may 2 – The Washburn A Mill in Minneapolis explodes, killing 18. May 15 – The Tokyo Stock Exchange is established, may 25 – Gilbert and Sullivans comic opera H. M. S. Pinafore debuts in London at the Opera Comique with a first run of 571 performances, june 1 – General Postal Union renamed Universal Postal Union. June 4 – Cyprus Convention, The Ottoman Empire cedes Cyprus to the United Kingdom, june 13–July 13 – The Congress of Berlin convenes to discuss the Ottoman Empire. Coastal Survey renamed U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, july 4 – A match race between champion thoroughbred racehorses Ten Broeck and Mollie McCarty draws more than 30,000 fans to Louisville and inspires the folk song, Molly and Tenbrooks. July 26 – In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself Black Bart makes his last clean getaway when he steals a box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box is later with a taunting poem inside. August 7 – The Salvation Army foundation deed is signed, august 9 – The Wallingford Tornado of 1878, the deadliest tornado in Connecticut history, destroys the town of Wallingford, killing 34 people and injuring 70 or more
As of the start of 1879, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January – The current constitution of the State of California in the United States is ratified, January 1 – The Specie Resumption Act takes effect. The United States Note is valued the same as gold for the first time since the American Civil War, January 11 – Anglo-Zulu War begins. January 22 – Battle of Isandlwana, the first major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom, a force of 1,200 British soldiers was wiped out by the 20, 000+ Zulu warriors. January 23 – Battle of Rorkes Drift – following the days defeat. February 8 – At a meeting of the Royal Canadian Institute, engineer, march 11 – The Ryukyu Domain is incorporated into the Okinawa Prefecture of Japan and the last ruler, Shō Tai, is exiled to Tokyo. March 28 – Anglo-Zulu War – Battle of Hlobane, British forces suffer a defeat, march 29 – Anglo-Zulu War – Battle of Kambula, British forces defeat 20,000 Zulus. April – Postman Ferdinand Cheval begins to build his Palais Idéal at Hauterives in France, april 5 – War of the Pacific, Chile formally declares war on Bolivia and Peru. April 26 – The National Park, later renamed the Royal National Park, is declared in New South Wales, Australia, may 2 – The Spanish Socialist Workers Party is founded clandestinely at the Casa Labra pub in Madrid by printer Pablo Iglesias. May 10 – The Archaeological Institute of America is formed, may 12 – The English Catholic convert John Henry Newman is elevated to Cardinal. May 14 – The first group of 463 Indian indentured labourers arrive in Fiji aboard the Leonidas, may 26 – Russia and the United Kingdom sign the Treaty of Gandamak, establishing an Afghan state. May 30 – New York Citys Gilmores Garden is renamed Madison Square Garden by William Henry Vanderbilt, and is opened to the public at 26th Street and Madison Avenue. June 1 – Napoléon, Prince Imperial, great-nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, june 4 – Yasukuni Shrine, officially renamed from Tokyo Shokonsha Shrine in Japan. June 6 – William Denny and Brothers launch the worlds first ocean-going steamer to be built of mild steel, the SS Rotomahana, on the River Clyde in Scotland. On October 2 they launch the first transatlantic steamer of the same material, june 14 – Sidney Faithorn Green, a priest in the Church of England, is tried and convicted for using Ritualist practices. June 21 – German company Linde is founded by Carl von Linde, july 4 – Anglo-Zulu War, The Anglo-Zulu War effectively ends with British victory at the Battle of Ulundi. August 16 – Fulham F. C. is founded in London as a soccer team. August 21 – Claimed apparition to local people at Knock, County Mayo, Ireland of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph, Saint John the Evangelist, september – Henry George self-publishes his major work Progress and Poverty
As of the start of 1880, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 22 Toowong State School is founded in Queensland, Australia, february – The journal Science is first published in the United States with financial backing from Thomas Edison. February 2 The first electric streetlight is installed in Wabash, Indiana, the first successful shipment of frozen mutton from Australia arrives in London aboard the SS Strathleven. March 31 – Wabash, Indiana becomes the first electrically lit city in the world, april – The government of Cape Colony sets a deadline for the surrender of weapons by the Basuto people. Non-compliance leads to the Basuto Gun War, april 18 – William Ewart Gladstone defeats Benjamin Disraeli in the United Kingdom general election to become Prime Minister for the second time. April 19 – The Prime Minister of Sweden, Louis De Geer, resigns over the defeat of a reform bill in the countrys Riksdag. April 27 – Charter founding the Royal University of Ireland, allowing the Catholic University of Ireland to re-form as University College Dublin. May 2 – After having her lights installed by Edisons personnel, may 13 – In Menlo Park, New Jersey, Thomas Edison performs the first test of his electric railway. June – The SS Columbia sets off on her voyage around Cape Horn to Portland, Oregon. June 1 – Tinius Olsen awarded a United States Patent for the Little Giant Testing Machine, june 28 – Australian police capture bank robber Ned Kelly after a gun battle at Glenrowan, Victoria. June 29 – France annexes Tahiti, july 14 – Dorchester Penitentiary opens in Canada. July 22 – Abdur Rahman Khan becomes Emir of Afghanistan, july 27 – Battle of Maiwand August 14 – Cologne Cathedral is completed, after construction began in 1248,632 years earlier. August 24 – The SS Columbia completes her maiden voyage, arriving without incident in Portland, August 26 — Competing circus owners P. T. Barnum and James A. Bailey sign a contract in Bridgeport, Connecticut to create the Barnum & Bailey Circus. In 1907, the circus will merge forces with another competitor, september 1 — Second Anglo-Afghan War, General Frederick Roberts, commanding British forces, defeats the Afghan troops of Mohammad Ayub Khan in the Battle of Kandahar, bringing an end to the war. October – The Blizzard of 1880 begins in North America, october 1 – German company Munich Re is founded in Munich. October 6 – The University of Southern California opens its doors to 53 students and 10 faculty, october 15 – Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists. October 28 – The first stone is laid for the Clarkson Memorial in Wisbech, november 2 – U. S. presidential election,1880, James Garfield defeats Winfield S. Hancock. November 4 – The first cash register is patented by James and John Ritty of Dayton, november 9 – A major earthquake strikes Zagreb and destroys many buildings including Zagreb Cathedral
As of the start of 1881, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1–January 24 – Siege of Geok Tepe, Russian troops under General Mikhail Skobelev defeat the Turkomans, january 25 – Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company. February 4 The Linngton Manor was burned to the ground, february 13 – The first issue of the feminist newspaper La Citoyenne is published by Hubertine Auclert. February 16 – The Canadian Pacific Railway is incorporated, february 19 – Kansas becomes the first U. S. state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages. February 25 – Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated, march 1 – The Cunard Lines SS Servia, the first steel transatlantic liner, is launched at Clydebank in Scotland. March 4 – James A. Garfield is sworn in as President of the United States, march 12 – Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the worlds first black international football player. March 13 – Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him and he is succeeded by his son, Alexander III. March 23 – First Boer War comes to an end, april 11 – Spelman College is established. April 14 – The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight erupts in El Paso, april 15 – Temuco, Chile is founded. April 15 – Anti-Semitic pogroms in Southern Russia start, april 21 – The University of Connecticut is founded as the Storrs Agricultural School. April 25 – Caulfield Grammar School is founded in Melbourne, Australia, april 28 – Billy the Kid escapes from his 2 jailers at the Lincoln County Jail in Mesilla, New Mexico, killing James Bell and Robert Ollinger before stealing a horse and riding out of town. May 10 – Romania is proclaimed a kingdom, Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is crowned King of Romania, may 12 – In North Africa, Tunisia becomes a French protectorate by the Treaty of Bardo. May 13 – The Pacific island of Rotuma cedes to Great Britain, may 16 – The worlds first regular electric tram service is started in Berlin by Siemens & Halske. May 21 The American Red Cross is established by Clara Barton, the United States Tennis Association is established by a small group of tennis club members, the first U. S. Tennis Championships are played this year, june 12 – The USS Jeannette is crushed in an Arctic Ocean ice pack. June 18 – The League of the Three Emperors is resurrected, june 20 – The current Cincinnati Reds baseball team plays its first game. June 26 War of the Pacific, Indecisive Battle of Sangrar in central Andes, july 1 – General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell–Childers reforms of the British Armys organization, comes into effect. July 2 – Assassination of James A. Garfield, United States President James A. Garfield is shot by lawyer Charles J. Guiteau in Washington, the wound becomes infected, killing Garfield on September 19
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football. The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard, Yale and Columbia then agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
Princeton Tigers football
Princeton’s football program—along with the football program at nearby Rutgers University—is the oldest in the world. The schools competed in American footballs first intercollegiate contest in 1869, students from The College of New Jersey traveled to New Brunswick, New Jersey on November 6,1869 to play Rutgers College in a new variant of rugby called football. Rutgers won the inaugural game 6 runs to 4 runs, a week later, Rutgers students traveled to Princeton, New Jersey for a rematch, which Princeton won. Due in part to their invention of the sport, the Tigers were one of the dominant forces in the days of intercollegiate football. The Tigers won their last national championship in 1950 when Dick Kazmaier, the policy further insulated Princeton and the Ivy League from the national spotlight. Despite an undefeated season in 1964, Princeton was not among the top 10 teams in the season-ending AP Poll, the NCAA split Division I collegiate football into two subdivisions in 1978, then called I-A for larger schools, and I-AA for the smaller ones. The NCAA had devised the split, in part, with the Ivy League in mind, unable to play competitively against long-time rival Rutgers anymore, Princeton stopped scheduling them as a football opponent after 1980. Then in 1982 the NCAA created a rule that stated an average attendance must be at least 15,000 to qualify for I-A membership. This forced the hand, as only some of the member schools met the attendance qualification. Choosing to stay rather than stand their ground separately in the increasingly competitive I-A subdivision. Despite often finishing its seasons ranked in the subdivision, Princeton cannot play in the NCAA Division I Football Championship per Ivy League rules. Most recently, Princeton instituted a coaching change as ten-year coach Roger Hughes was replaced by Cincinnati Bengals assistant offensive line coach Bob Surace. Surace was an All-Ivy league center at Princeton and graduated in 1990, beginning in 2018 Princeton will play Penn in their final game, intensifying the already heated rivalry between these two neighboring Ivy League schools. Conference championships,1957,1963,1964,1966,1969,1989,1992,1995,2006,2013, and 2016. In 1914, Princeton built Palmer Stadium, the college football stadium ever built. Palmer Stadium was modeled after the Greek Olympic stadium and seated 45,750 spectators, in the 1990s the university decided to demolish it for a new stadium rather than undertake a long and expensive renovation process, as Harvard had with its stadium in 1984. During the construction of the new stadium, the Tigers played a season of nine away games, Princeton University Stadium opened on September 19,1998 and seats 27,773. After eight years of grass fields, FieldTurf artificial playing surface was installed for the 2006 football season
Phillips Academy Andover is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate year. The school is located in Andover, Massachusetts, United States,25 miles north of Boston, Phillips Academy has 1,122 students, and is a selective school, accepting 13% of applicants. It is part of the Ten Schools Admissions Organization as well as the G20 Schools Group, originally a boarding school for boys, it turned coeducational in 1973, the year in which it merged with its neighbor girls school Abbot Academy. Phillips Academys endowment stood around $800 million in June 2011, the fourth-highest of any American secondary school. On November 14,2012, John G. Palfrey, Jr. Henry N. Ess III Professor of Law and Vice Dean for Library and Information Resources at Harvard Law School, was named the 15th Head of School. Phillips Academy admitted only boys until the school coeducational in 1973, the year of Phillips Academys merger with Abbot Academy. Abbot Academy, founded in 1828, was the first incorporated school for girls in New England, then-headmaster Theodore Sizer oversaw the merger. Andover traditionally educated its students for Yale, just as Phillips Exeter Academy educated its students for Harvard, the Phillipian was first published on July 28,1857, and has been published regularly since 1878. It retains financial and editorial independence from Phillips Academy, having completed a $500,000 endowment drive in 2014, students comprise the editorial board and make all decisions for the paper, consulting with two faculty advisors at their own discretion. The Philomathean Society is the oldest high school debate society in the nation, Phillips Academy also runs a five-week summer session for approximately 600 students entering grades 8 through 12. The two schools maintain a rivalry. The football teams have met every year since 1878, making it the oldest high school rivalry in the country. In 1882, the first high school teams were formed at Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy. Several figures from the period are associated with the school. George Washington spoke at the school in its first year, John Hancock signed the schools articles of incorporation. The great seal of the school was designed by Paul Revere, the Andover Theological Seminary was independent from Phillips Academy but shared the same board of directors. In 1908, the seminary departed Phillips Academy, leaving behind its key buildings, academic building Pearson Hall, small portions of Andovers campus were laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of Central Park and himself a graduate of the school. Reveres design of the seal incorporated bees, a beehive
Phillips Exeter Academy
Phillips Exeter Academy is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day students between the 9th and 12th grade. It is located in Exeter, New Hampshire, and is one of the oldest secondary schools in the United States and it is particularly noted for its innovation and application of Harkness education, a system based on a conference format of student interaction with minimal teacher involvement. It bears similarities to the Socratic method of learning through asking questions, Phillips Exeter Academy students and alumni are called Exonians, and students, faculty and staff often refer to the school as Exeter or PEA. The school has the largest endowment of any New England boarding school, in 2015–2016, over 45% of students received financial aid from grants totalling over $19M. Phillips Exeter Academy had a rate of 11% for the 2014–2015 school year. The schools day-to-day operation are headed by a Principal, while management of the financial and physical resources are overseen by the Trustees. Trustees are drawn from former Exonians and appoint the Principal, the faculty of the school are responsible for governing matters relating to student life, both in and out of the classroom. Students are housed in 26 single-sex dormitories, each headed by a dormitory head, nearly a third of graduates go into the Ivy League. The schools first enrolled class counted 56 boys, in 1970, present-day enrollment stands at over 1,000 of a roughly equal ratio from both sexes. It is a member of the Ten Schools Admissions Organization, Phillips Exeter Academy was established in 1781 by John Phillips. As a result of family relationship, the two schools share a rivalry. The school that Phillips founded at Exeter was to educate students under a Calvinist religious framework, however, like his nephew who founded Andover, Phillips stipulated in the schools founding charter that it would ever be equally open to youth of requisite qualifications from every quarter. Phillips had previously married to Sarah Gilman, wealthy widow of Phillipss cousin, merchant Nathaniel Gilman, whose large fortune, bequeathed to Phillips. In 1814, Nicholas Gilman, signer of the U. S. Constitution, the academys first schoolhouse, the First Academy Building, was built on a site on Tan Lane in 1783, and today stands not far from its original location. The building was dedicated on February 20,1783, the day that the schools first Preceptor. This would be a revolution in methods. The result was Harkness teaching, in which a teacher and a group of work together, exchanging ideas and information. In November 1930, Harkness gave Exeter $5.8 million to support this initiative, since then, the Academys principal mode of instruction has been by discussion, seminar style, around an oval table known as the Harkness table
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
1878 FA Cup Final
The 1878 FA Cup Final was a football match between Wanderers and Royal Engineers on 23 March 1878 at Kennington Oval in London. It was the final of the worlds oldest football competition. Wanderers had won the Cup in the two seasons and on four previous occasions in total, including the first FA Cup Final, in 1872. The Engineers had also won the Cup, having defeated Old Etonians in the 1875 final, Wanderers, who were considered firm favourites to win the Cup for the third consecutive season, took the lead after only five minutes through Jarvis Kenrick, but the Engineers quickly equalised. The cup-holders regained their lead before half-time and added a goal after the interval to secure a 3–1 victory. Wanderers were the cup holders and had also won the tournament in 1872,1873 and 1876. In the first of these victories they had defeated the Royal Engineers, the Engineers had won the competition in 1875. Both teams entered the competition at the first round stage and their opponents in the third round, Barnes, proved stronger opposition, particularly as key players such as Hon. Arthur Kinnaird were unavailable for the cup-holders. The match ended in a 1–1 draw necessitating a replay, which Wanderers won 4–1, in the quarter-finals Wanderers defeated Sheffield 3–0 and then, with an uneven number of teams remaining in the competition, the team received a bye into the final. The Engineers scheduled first round opponents were Highbury Union, but they withdrew from the competition, the Sappers, as the Royal Engineers regiment is traditionally nicknamed, went on to defeat Pilgrims 6–0 and Druids 8–0, with hat-tricks in both matches from Lieut. Robert Hedley, to reach the quarter-finals where their opponents were 1874 cup-winners Oxford University, the initial match finished in a 3–3 draw, and the replay also finished without a victor, ending 2–2. Finally, the Engineers emerged victorious in a replay, winning 4–2. This set up a match against Old Harrovians, the team for former pupils of Harrow School. The match was played at Kennington Oval and the Engineers reached the final by defeating the Harrovians 2–1, Wanderers, who were considered the firm favourites by the book-makers, won the coin toss and chose to defend the Harleyford Road end of The Oval. The match drew an estimated at 4,500 spectators. Both teams played with two full-backs, two half-backs and six forwards, the captains were the Hon. Arthur Kinnaird and Lieut. The cup-holders immediately dominated the game and Kinnaird quickly had a shot on goal. After only five minutes Henry Wace crossed the ball from a wide position, lovick Friend to give the Wanderers the lead
Wanderers Football Club is an English amateur football club based in London. Founded as Forest Football Club in 1859, the changed its name to Wanderers in 1864. The club played friendly matches until the advent of the FA Cup in 1871. They won the FA Cup three times in succession during the late 1870s, a feat which has only been repeated once. Among the players who represented the club were C. W. Alcock, the father of modern sport. The club took its name from never having a stadium of its own but playing at various locations in London. By the 1880s the clubs fortunes had declined and it was reduced to playing only a match against Harrow School. The club was reformed in 2009, reportedly with the endorsement of the descendants of the Alcock family, since 2011, the revived club has competed in the Surrey South Eastern Combination. Alcock, who had just left Harrow School, his brother John F. Alcock, J. Pardoe, several Old Foresters also played for the Forest club, as Forest School was located less than a mile north of the ground. Forests first match against another club took place on 15 March 1862, both this match, and a return fixture between the two teams the following month, involved fifteen players on each team. The following year, the club played its first match under the name Wanderers Football Club, during this period the club played a number of home matches at Battersea Park and Middlesex County Cricket Clubs Lillie Bridge Grounds. Wanderers subsequently made Kennington Oval its semi-permanent home in 1869, the club played 151 matches at The Oval. In the 1870–71 season, the Wanderers finally turned around their fortunes, for the following season the FA, following a suggestion by Alcock, initiated the Football Association Challenge Cup, a knock-out tournament open to all member clubs. The club beat the Royal Engineers 1–0 to become the first ever winners of the cup, the goal being scored by Morton Betts. The following season, under the original rules, Wanderers, as holders. In the final Wanderers beat Oxford University 2–0 to retain the cup, the club was unable to replicate this success over the next two seasons, although the team did manage a club record 16–0 victory over Farningham in the first round of the 1874–75 FA Cup. In October 1875, Wanderers travelled to Scotland for the first time, to play a match against the team from north of the border. Despite fielding their strongest team, Wanderers were outclassed by the Scots, the London club gained its revenge four months later, however, when Queens Park travelled to London for a re-match and lost 2–0
Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
A hat-trick or hat trick in sports is the achievement of a positive feat three times in a game, or another achievement based on the number three in some sports. In association and rugby football, the scoring of two goals or tries by one individual in a match is referred to as a brace. The term first appeared in 1858 in cricket, to describe H. H. Stephensons taking three wickets with three consecutive deliveries, fans held a collection for Stephenson, and presented him with a hat bought with the proceeds. The term was used in print for the first time in 1865, the term was eventually adopted by many other sports including hockey, association football, water polo and team handball. A hat-trick occurs in association football when a player scores three goals in a game, whereas scoring two goals constitutes a brace. In common with other official record-keeping rules, goals in a penalty shootout are excluded from the tally, the extra time in a knockout cup match may also be calculated towards a players potential hat-trick. The fastest recorded time to score a hat-trick is 70 seconds, the previous Guinness world record of 90 seconds was held by Tommy Ross playing for Ross County against Nairn County on 28 November 1964. The first hat-trick in a game was by Scottish player John McDougall. American player Bert Patenaude scored the first hat-trick in the FIFA World Cup, two hat-tricks have been scored in a final, by Geoff Hurst for England in the 1966 final during extra time against West Germany, and Carli Lloyd against Japan in the 2015 Womens World Cup final. Football has also extended the term to include the phrase perfect hat-trick, achieved when a player scores one right-footed goal, one left-footed goal and one headed goal within one match. In Germany, the term Hattrick refers to when a player scores three goals in a row in one half without the break or a goal scored by another player interfering the performance. In recent years, hat trick has been often used to describe when a player hits three home runs in a game. This new usage appears be the transposition of the term, by Canadian baseball fans, from ice hockey. For example, on 29 August 2015, Toronto Blue Jays fans celebrated Edwin Encarnacións third home run of the game by throwing hats onto the field, a hat-trick occurs in cricket when a bowler dismisses three batsmen with consecutive deliveries. Only wickets attributed to the count towards a hat-trick, run outs do not count. Hat-tricks are rare, and as such are treasured by bowlers, in Test cricket history there have been just 42 hat-tricks, the first achieved by Fred Spofforth for Australia against England in 1879. In 1912, Australian Jimmy Matthews achieved the feat twice in one game against South Africa, lasith Malinga achieved a hat-trick while playing for Sri Lanka against Australia on 22 August 2011 in the last match of the five-ODI series in Colombo. He is the bowler to take three hat-tricks in any form of international cricket
Accrington Football Club was an English football club from Accrington, Lancashire, who were one of the founder members of The Football League. Accrington F. C. was formed following a meeting at a public house in 1876. The Owd Reds played at Accrington Cricket Clubs ground in Thorneyholme Road, the club was part of the revolt against the Football Association in 1884 over professionalism, after being expelled from the FA the previous year for paying a player. They were one of the twelve teams forming the Football League on 17 April 1888. Accringtons best season was in 1889–90, when it finished sixth in the table, however, in the 1892–93 season the team finished fifteenth and was relegated after losing a test match 1–0 against Sheffield United at Trent Bridge. Accrington then resigned from the rather than play in the Second Division. After its first season in the Lancashire League, Accrington unsuccessfully applied for re-election to the Football League, shortly afterwards, Accrington F. C. suffered financial problems, which eventually led to its demise. The club continued outside the league until 1896, when it finally folded following a 12–0 defeat on 14 January against Darwen in the Lancashire Senior Cup. Accrington did not have a Football League team again until in 1921–22 the Lancashire Combination leagues Accrington Stanley, became a member as part of a major expansion of the league
Everton Football Club
Everton F. C. /ˈɛvərtən/ is a football club in Liverpool, England, that currently competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 114 seasons and won the League Championship nine times, formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. The mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, and the 1985 European Cup Winners Cup, the clubs most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup. The clubs supporters are known as Evertonians, Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, and the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club have been based at Goodison Park in Walton, Liverpool, since 1892, the clubs home colours are royal blue shirts with white shorts and socks. Everton were founded as St Domingos in 1878 so that people from the parish of St Domingos Methodist Church Everton could play year round — cricket was played in summer. The clubs first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club, the club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the parish wished to participate. The club was a member of the Football League in 1888–89. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906, the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, which was something that would again occur in 1939. It was not until 1927 that Evertons first sustained period of success began, in 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games. He helped Everton win their third League Championship that season, however, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years later during internal turmoil at the club. The club quickly rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, on return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton also won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final, the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. Everton were relegated for the time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54. The club have been a top-flight presence ever since, Evertons second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday, Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, freight, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was also directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, Norway, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004. The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is also the home of two Premier League football clubs, Liverpool and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool. The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
Ipswich Town F.C.
Ipswich Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. They play in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. The club was founded in 1878 but did not turn professional until 1936 and they play their home games at Portman Road in Ipswich. The clubs traditional colours are blue shirts and white shorts. Ipswich have won the English league title once, in their first season in the top flight in 1961–62 and they won the FA Cup in 1977–78, and the UEFA Cup in 1980–81. They have competed in the top two tiers of English football uninterrupted since 1957–58. They have competed in all three European club competitions, and have never lost at home in European competition, defeating Real Madrid, AC Milan, Internazionale, Lazio and Barcelona F. C. among others. The club was founded as a side in 1878 and were known as Ipswich A. F. C. until 1888 when they merged with Ipswich Rugby Club to form Ipswich Town Football Club. The team won a number of cup competitions, including the Suffolk Challenge Cup. The club won the league a further three times, in 1929–30, 1932–33 and 1933–34, before becoming members of the Eastern Counties Football League at the end of the 1934–35 season. A year later, the club turned professional and joined the Southern League, Ipswich were elected to The Football League on 30 May 1938, and played in Division Three until the end of the 1953–54 season, when they won the title and promotion to Division Two. The club won the Division Three title again in 1956–57, and this time, Ipswich established themselves in Division Two, and as the division champions, won promotion to the top level of English football, Division One, in 1960–61. In the top flight for the first time, Ipswich became Champions of the Football League at the first attempt in 1961–62, as English league champions, they qualified for the 1962–63 European Cup, defeating Maltese side Floriana 14–1 on aggregate before losing to Milan. Ramsey quit the club in April 1963 to take charge of the England national team, after the team won the 1966 World Cup, Ramsey was replaced by Jackie Milburn, under whose leadership fortunes on the pitch plummeted. Milburn quit after just one season and was replaced by Bill McGarry in 1964. McGarry left to manage Wolves and was replaced by Bobby Robson in January 1969, Robson led Ipswich to two major trophies and several seasons in top flight European football. The successful period began in 1973 when the won the Texaco Cup and finished fourth in the league. Ipswich regularly featured in the top five of the league and in the UEFA Cup, at their peak in the 1979–80 season, they beat Manchester United 6–0 in a league game at Portman Road, a game where United goalkeeper Gary Bailey also saved three penalties
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City Football Club is a professional football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Founded as Stoke Ramblers in 1863 the club changed its name to Stoke in 1878 and they are the second oldest professional football club in the world, after Notts County, and are one of the founding members of the Football League. Their first, and to date only major trophy, the League Cup was won in 1972, the clubs highest league finish in the top division is 4th, which was achieved in the 1935–36 and 1946–47 seasons. Stoke played in the FA Cup Final in 2011, finishing runners-up to Manchester City and have reached three FA Cup semi-finals, in 1899 then consecutively in 1971 and 1972. Stoke have competed in European football on three occasions, firstly in 1972–73 then in 1974–75 and most recently in 2011–12, the club has won the Football League Trophy twice, in 1992 and in 2000. Stokes home ground is the bet365 Stadium, a 28,116 all-seater stadium, before the stadium was opened in 1997, the club was based at the Victoria Ground, which had been their home ground since 1878. The clubs nickname is The Potters, named after the industry in Stoke-on-Trent and their traditional home kit is a red and white vertically striped shirt, white shorts. Stokes traditional rivals are Midlands clubs West Bromwich Albion and Wolverhampton Wanderers whilst their local rivals are Port Vale with whom they contest the Potteries derby, the clubs first documented match was in October 1868, against an EW May XV at the Victoria Cricket Club ground. Henry Almond, the founder, was also captain. During this period they played at the Victoria Cricket Ground, however, in 1878, the club merged with Stoke Victoria Cricket Club, and became Stoke Football Club. They moved from their previous ground, Sweetings Field, to the Athletic Club ground and it was around this time that the club adopted their traditional red-and-white striped kit. In August 1885, the club turned professional, Stoke were one of the twelve founding members of the Football League when it was introduced in 1888. The club struggled in their first two seasons, 1888–89 and 1889–90, finishing bottom on both occasions, in 1890 Stoke failed to be re-elected and joined the Football Alliance, which they won and thus were re-elected to the Football League. Stoke spent the next 15 seasons in the First Division and reached the FA Cup Semi-Final in the 1898–99 season before being relegated in 1907, Stoke went bankrupt and entered non-league football until 1914, when the First World War meant the Football League was suspended for four years. During the wartime period, Stoke entered the Lancashire Primary and Secondary leagues, when football recommenced in August 1919, Stoke re-joined the league. The club became owners of the Victoria Ground in 1919 and this was followed by the construction of the Butler Street stand, which increased the overall capacity of the ground to 50,000. In 1925, Stoke-on-Trent was granted city status and this led the club to change its name to Stoke City F. C, the 1930s saw the debut of clubs most celebrated player, Stanley Matthews. Matthews, who grew up in Hanley, was an apprentice at the club and made his first appearance in March 1932, against Bury, by end of the decade, Matthews had established himself as an England international and as one of the best footballers of his generation
West Bromwich Albion F.C.
The club was formed in 1878 and has played at its home ground, The Hawthorns, since 1900. Albion were one of the members of the Football League in 1888 and have spent the majority of their existence in the top tier of English football. They have been champions of England once, in 1919–20 and have been runners-up twice but they have had success in the FA Cup. The first came in 1888, the year the league was founded, and they also won the Football League Cup at the first attempt in 1966. The clubs longest consecutive period in the top division spanned twenty-four years between 1949 and 1973, and from 1986 to 2002 they spent their longest ever spell out of the top division and they currently play in the Premier League. The team has played in blue and white stripes for most of the clubs history. The club was founded as West Bromwich Strollers in 1878 by workers from George Salters Spring Works in West Bromwich, the club joined the Birmingham & District Football Association in 1881 and became eligible for their first competition, the Birmingham Cup. They reached the quarter-finals, beating several longer-established clubs on the way, in 1883, Albion won their first trophy, the Staffordshire Cup. Albion joined the Football Association in the year, this enabled them to enter the FA Cup for the first time in the 1883–84 season. In 1885 the club turned professional, and in 1886 they reached the FA Cup final for the first time and they reached the final again in 1887, but lost 2–0 to Aston Villa. In 1888 the team won the trophy for the first time, as FA Cup winners, they qualified to play in a Football World Championship game against Scottish Cup winners Renton, which ended in a 4–1 defeat. Thus when the Football League started later that year, Albion became one of the founder members. Albions second FA Cup success came in 1892, beating Aston Villa 3–0 and they met Villa again in the 1895 final, but lost 1–0. The team suffered relegation to Division Two in 1900–01, their first season at The Hawthorns and they were promoted as champions the following season but relegated again in 1903–04. The club won the Division Two championship once more in 1910–11, and the season reached another FA Cup Final. Albion won the Football League title in 1919–20 for the time in their history following the end of World War I. The team finished as Division One runners-up in 1924–25, narrowly losing out to Huddersfield Town, in 1930–31, they won promotion as well as the FA Cup, beating Birmingham 2–1 in the final. The Double of winning the FA Cup and promotion has not been achieved before or since, Albion reached the final again in 1935, losing to Sheffield Wednesday, but were relegated three years later
Vale of Leven F.C.
Vale of Leven Football Club are an association club based in the town of Alexandria, Scotland, in the Vale of Leven area of West Dunbartonshire. Nicknamed the Vale and formed in 1939, they play at Millburn Park and they play in the Scottish Junior Football Association, West Region, and wear blue and white strips. In the early days of Scottish football, Vale of Leven, Vale won the Scottish Cup three times in succession. In 1878 they travelled down to England and beat the FA Cup winners, The Wanderers, the Wanderers had the advantage that the game was played under the English throw-in rule, but the Vales Scottish passing game proved superior to the English game of individual dribbling. The club also won the Celtic Society Cup in shinty in 1879, Vale of Leven was a founder member of the Scottish Football League when it was formed in 1890. By this time, the club was being eclipsed by the stars from Glasgow. In their second season failed to win a single game. Rather than face re-election for the time, the club withdrew. Between 1893 and 1902 the Vale played only friendly matches and in cup competition before joining the Scottish Football Combination, in 1905 they applied successfully for readmission to the Scottish League when the Second Division was extended with two additional places. They finished as runners-up in 1907 and in 1909 but did not receive the votes they needed to be elected to the First Division, as the following decade wore on, Vale of Leven struggled and regularly finished near the foot of the table. When the Second Division was suspended in 1915, Vale joined the Western League, after World War I ended Vale of Leven returned to the Scottish League for the third time as members of the reformed Second Division. After a decent fourth-place finish in their first season, the club was relegated to the new Third Division in 1924 and this ill-fated competition was abandoned in 1926 when it became clear that the cost of meeting match guarantees and additional travel expenses were beyond the means of its members. Despite the church name, Vale Ocoba appeared to be a flag of convenience for the Vale of Leven Football & Athletic Club struck off the SFAs roll. Original club colours, Dark blue shirts, dark blue shorts, disaster struck however when the start of World War II obliged the league to be suspended due to restrictions on travel by December 1939. Technically, the current club is unattached to the senior club. Scottish Junior football has a number of clubs that were forced to fold as Senior sides due to financial reasons or as a result of the collapse of the old Scottish Division Three in the late 1920s. This is more prevalent on the West Coast where no non-amateur Senior league exists any longer, the most recent example of this trend has been the former Junior turned Senior turned Junior again side Clydebank. Vale of Leven should not be confused with the slightly differently named East of Scotland League club Vale of Leithen
Third Lanark F.C.
Third Lanark Athletic Club was a football club that existed for 95 years between 1872 and 1967, in Glasgow, Scotland. Third Lanark was known as Thirds, the Warriors, the Redcoats, the fans invariably started to sing Hi Hi Hi. as a battle cry to encourage the team to victory during the clubs matches. There was a house called The Hi Hi Bar at the southern end of Crown Street in the Gorbals area of Glasgow. One of the successful clubs in early Scottish Football, Third Lanark was not the first major club to be compulsorily liquidated and dissolved. Former Scottish Cup winners Renton and near neighbours Vale of Leven suffered similar fates and it was refounded in 1996 with forming Under-18s were formed by Jim Weir. Finally Third Lanark fielded a team, in 2007, to coincide with the 40th anniversary of Third Lanark’s withdrawal from Senior Scottish football. Third Lanark started as the team of the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers. The team was founded on 12 December 1872 at a meeting of the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers in the Regimental Orderly Room in Howard Street. The soldiers, inspired by the first ever international friendly which had taken two weeks previously, decided to form their own team. Several of the Scotland team in match, made up solely of Queens Park players, had been part of the regiment, including Billy Dickson, Billy MacKinnon. A later meeting decided that the kit should be, A cowl – one end blue, the other yellow. Blue trousers or knickerbockers with blue stockings, the players used an old drill field on Victoria Road to train. The club was a member of the Scottish Football League. The name was changed to Third Lanark AC in 1903, when links with the military were severed. The club won the Scottish League championship in 1903–04, as well as the Scottish Cup in 1889 and 1905, the last day of the 1960–61 season saw Third Lanark reach a historic landmark. The club beat Hibernian 6–1 at Cathkin Park to reach 100 goals for the season, the following season saw Thirds take part in European competition for the first and only time when they faced Rouen of France home and away in the Anglo-Franco-Scottish Friendship Cup. Rouen won 4–0 at Cathkin on 7 November 1961 and 2–1 in France on 9 May 1962, only four years after that successful 1960–61 season, the clubs terminal agony began. There followed another two seasons of mediocrity and discontent, Third Lanark recorded their lowest-ever home League attendance of 297 spectators on 15 April 1967 for the visit of Clydebank
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East, West, and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position. Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket also descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
Both leagues currently have 15 teams. The two league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the inaugural World Series, after the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues formalized the World Series as an arrangement between the leagues. National League teams have won 48 of the 112 World Series contested from 1903 to 2016, the 2016 National League champions are the Chicago Cubs. By 1875, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players was dangerously weak, additionally, Hulbert had a problem—five of his star players were threatened with expulsion from the NAPBBP because Hulbert had signed them to his club using what were considered questionable means. Hulbert had a vested interest in creating his own league. After recruiting St. Louis privately, four western clubs met in Louisville, Kentucky, Boston Red Stockings, the dominant team in the N. A. Hartford Dark Blues from the N. A. Mutual of New York from the N. A. St. Louis Brown Stockings from the N. A, the only strong club from 1875 excluded in 1876 was a second one in Philadelphia, often called the White Stockings or Phillies. The first game in National League history was played on April 22,1876, at Philadelphias Jefferson Street Grounds, 25th & Jefferson, the new leagues authority was tested after the first season. The National League operated with six clubs during 1877 and 1878, over the next several years, various teams joined and left the struggling league. By 1880, six of the eight members had folded. The two remaining original NL franchises, Boston and Chicago, remain in operation today as the Atlanta Braves, in 1883 the New York Gothams and Philadelphia Phillies began National League play. Both teams remain in the NL today, the Phillies in their original city, the NL encountered its first strong rival organization when the American Association began play in 1882. The A. A. played in cities where the NL did not have teams, offered Sunday games and alcoholic beverages in locales where permitted, the National League and the American Association participated in a version of the World Series seven times during their ten-year coexistence. These contests were less organized than the modern Series, lasting as few as three games and as many as fifteen, with two Series ending in disputed ties, the NL won four times and the A. A. only once, in 1886. Starting with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1887, the National League began to raid the American Association for franchises to replace NL teams that folded and this undercut the stability of the A. A. Other new leagues that rose to compete with the National League were the Union Association, the Union Association was established in 1884 and folded after playing only one season, its league champion St. Louis Maroons joining the NL. The NL suffered many defections of star players to the Players League, the Brooklyn, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and New York franchises of the NL absorbed their Players League counterparts. The labor strife of 1890 hastened the downfall of the American Association, after the 1891 season, the A. A. disbanded and merged with the NL, which became known legally for the next decade as the National League and American Association
History of the Boston Braves
The Atlanta Braves, a current Major League Baseball franchise, originated in Boston, Massachusetts. This article details the history of the Boston Braves, from 1871 to 1952, the Boston Franchise played at South End Grounds from 1871 to 1914 and at Braves Field from 1915 to 1952. Braves Field is now Nickerson Field of Boston University, the franchise, from Boston to Milwaukee to Atlanta, is the oldest continuous professional baseball franchise. The Cincinnati Red Stockings, established in 1869 as the first openly all-professional baseball team, the original Boston Red Stockings team and its successors can lay claim to being the oldest continuously playing team in American professional sports. Two young players hired away from the Forest City club of Rockford, Illinois, turned out to be the biggest stars during the NAPBBP years, pitcher Al Spalding and second baseman Ross Barnes. Led by the Wright brothers, Barnes, and Spalding, the Red Stockings dominated the National Association, the team became one of the National Leagues charter franchises in 1876, sometimes called the Red Caps. Boston came to be called the Beaneaters by sportswriters in 1883, although somewhat stripped of talent in the National Leagues inaugural year, Boston bounced back to win the 1877 and 1878 pennants. The Red Caps/Beaneaters were one of the dominant teams during the 19th century. For most of time, their manager was Frank Selee. The 1898 team finished 102-47, a record for wins that would stand for almost a century. The team was decimated when the American Leagues new Boston entry set up shop in 1901, many of the Beaneaters stars jumped to the new team, which offered contracts that the Beaneaters owners didnt even bother to match. They only managed one winning season from 1900 to 1913, in 1907, the Beaneaters eliminated the last bit of red from their stockings because their manager thought the red dye could cause wounds to become infected. The American League clubs owner, Charles Taylor, wasted time in changing his teams name to the Red Sox in place of the generic Americans. The all-white outfits gave rise to the sobriquet Doves in 1907, however, clever monikers did nothing to change the National League clubs luck. The team adopted a name, the Braves, for the first time in 1912. Their owner, James Gaffney, was a member of New York Citys political machine, Tammany Hall, two years later, the Braves put together one of the most memorable seasons in baseball history. After a dismal 4-18 start, the Braves seemed to be on pace for a last place finish, on July 4,1914, the Braves lost both games of a doubleheader to the Brooklyn Dodgers. The consecutive losses put their record at 26-40 and the Braves were in last place,15 games behind the league-leading New York Giants, who had won the previous three league pennants
William Henry Harry Wright was an English-born American professional baseball player, manager, and developer. He assembled, managed, and played center field for baseballs first fully professional team and it was there where he is credited with introducing innovations such as backing up infield plays from the outfield and shifting defensive alignments based on hitters tendencies. For his contributions as a manager and developer of the game, Wright was also the first to make baseball into a business by paying his players up to seven times the pay of the average working man. Born in Sheffield, England, he was the eldest of five children of professional cricketer Samuel Wright and his wife, Annie Tone Wright. His family emigrated to the U. S. when he was three years old, and his father found work as a bowler, coach, and groundskeeper at the St Georges Cricket Club in New York. Harry dropped out of school at age 14 to work for a jewelry manufacturer, both Harry and George, twelve years younger, assisted their father, effectively apprenticing as cricket club pros. Harry played against the first English cricket team to tour overseas in 1859, both brothers played baseball for some of the leading clubs during the amateur era of the National Association of Base Ball Players. Harry was already twenty-two when the baseball fraternity convened for the first time in 1857 and he did not play in a game with the Knickerbockers until July 8,1858, playing the outfield against Excelsior of Brooklyn. The Knickerbockers lost the game, 31–13, in 1863, the Knickerbocker club all but withdrew from official competition, and Wright joined Gotham of New York, primarily playing shortstop. Here, he joined his brother George, who had become a member of the team the previous year, during the winter of 1864/65, the Wrights played the curious game of ice base ball. Wright left New York on March 8,1865, bound for Cincinnati, by now, Wright was 31, probably past his athletic prime. Cincinnati fielded a regional club in 1867. With Wright working as the pitcher, and still a superior player at that level. For 1868 he added four players from the East and one from the crosstown Buckeye club, the easterners, at least, must have been compensated by club members if not by the club. When the NABBP permitted professionalism for 1869, Harry augmented his 1868 imports with five new men, no one but Harry Wright himself remained from 1867, one local man and one other westerner joined seven easterners on the famous First Nine. The most important of the new men was brother George, probably the best player in the game for a few years, George at shortstop remained a cornerstone of Harrys teams for ten seasons. The Red Stockings toured the continent undefeated in 1869 and may have been the strongest team in 1870, as it turned out, the Association also passed from the scene. In 1869 Wright became the first to make mention of the Seventh-inning stretch in a game he watched
George Wright (sportsman)
George Wright was an American pioneer in the sport of baseball. He played shortstop for the original Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first fully professional team, in 1868, Wright won the Clipper Medal for being the best shortstop in baseball. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937 and he was one of five men to play regularly for both the Cincinnati and the Boston Red Stockings, the latter winning six championships during his eight seasons to 1878. On April 22,1876, he became the first batter in National League history, elder brother Harry Wright managed both Red Stockings teams and made George his cornerstone, the brothers are now both in the Hall of Fame. George helped define the position and on-field teamwork, but his main work as a sporting developer came after retiring from baseball. After arriving in Boston he entered the sporting goods business, soon under the name Wright & Ditsons, there he continued in the industry, assisting in the development of golf, tennis, and hockey. Born in Yonkers, New York, twelve years younger than Harry, George Wright was raised as a club pro. Wright was the father of tennis great Beals Wright, a U. S, championship winner and Olympic gold medalist, and Irving Wright, U. S. At some times during the war, both Wright brothers played for the venerable Gothams, the second eldest baseball team after the Knickerbockers, according to Ivor-Campbell, George moved from the Gotham juniors to the senior team when he was fifteen. At seventeen in 1864 he was the regular catcher, baseballs recovery from the American Civil War was far advanced in greater New York City, as the leading clubs played more than twenty NABBP matches, the Gothams eleven. George played eight and led the team both in runs, scoring 2.4 times per game, and hands lost, put out only 2.4 times per game, average being three per player in a 9-inning game. In seven matches infielder Harry was fourth in scoring at 2.0, for the 1865 season George was hired by the Philadelphia Cricket Club, that summer he played in five matches for the Olympic Ball Club of that city. The Olympic club was the devoted to games in the base ball genus, Wright returned to the Gothams for base ball, he was nineteen and nearing his athletic peak. At the same time, Harry Wright moved to Cincinnati for a job at the Union Cricket Club. Early in the summer of 1866, Wright moved from catcher for Gotham, which played eight NABBP matches that year, to shortstop for Union, which played 28, the leading number. In 1867, he joined the Nationals of Washington, D. C. eldest club in city, whose approach to professionalism was arranging government jobs. He played second base, shortstop, and pitcher in 29 of the 30 matches fully on record, next year he returned to the Unions for the associations last officially all-amateur season and moved permanently to the shortstop position. When the NABBP permitted professionalism for 1869, Harry augmented himself and four incumbents with five new men including brother George, George remained a cornerstone of Harrys teams for ten seasons