Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the Scottish Cup, is an annual association football knock-out cup competition for mens football clubs in Scotland. The competition was first held in 1873–74, entry is open to all clubs with full or associate membership of the Scottish Football Association. The competition is called the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship reasons and it was first presented to Queens Park, who won the final match of the inaugural tournament in March 1874. The current holder is Hibernian, who won the tournament for the time by defeating Rangers 3–2 in the 2016 final. The tournament starts at the beginning of the Scottish football season in August or September, the Scottish Cup Final is usually the last game of the season, taking place at the end of May. Participating teams enter the tournament at different stages depending on their league ranking, the lowest ranked clubs enter the tournament at the first round whilst the highest ranked, those that compete in the Scottish Premiership, enter at the fourth round stage. The competition is a knock-out tournament, in each round of games the teams are paired at random, with the first team drawn listed as the home team. Every game lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time, the winner of each game advances to the next round, whilst the loser is eliminated from the tournament. If a game ends in a draw, the fixture is replayed at the ground of the other team at a later date. If the replay also ends in a draw,30 minutes of time is played followed by a penalty shoot-out if there is still no clear winner. In the semi-final and final rounds, if the ends in a draw there is no replay. The competition has a staggered entry system, Scottish League One and six Scottish Championship clubs started in the third round, while the remaining four Championship clubs and all 12 Scottish Premiership clubs entered in the fourth round. Any club that is a full or associate member of the Scottish Football Association is entitled to compete in the tournament, every team that plays in the Scottish Professional Football League is therefore eligible. Between 1895 and 2007, clubs that were SFA members but not competitors in the professional football leagues could only qualify for the tournament by winning the Scottish Qualifying Cup. Clubs that are not members of the SFA may still qualify for the tournament by winning the Highland League, Lowland League, three junior clubs, Banks O Dee, Girvan and Linlithgow Rose are also SFA members and therefore qualify automatically. From 2015, the winners of the Scottish Amateur Cup are also eligible to qualify, players that are registered with a competing club are eligible to play. However, players are not entitled to play for more than one club during the same tournament, each club names eleven players and up to five substitutes before every match. In order to play in the match, a player must have also been registered to compete in the semi-final round for the same club
The Edinburgh derby is an informal title given to any football match played between Scottish clubs Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian, the two professional clubs based in Edinburgh, Scotland. The two clubs have a rivalry that dates back to the clubs being founded in the mid-1870s. The first match between the clubs was played on the Meadows on Christmas Day 1875, the matches are normally played at either Easter Road or Tynecastle. It has been played in the top level of the Scottish football league system. The teams sometimes play against one another in cup tournaments, such as the Scottish Cup. The clubs have met twice in Scottish Cup Finals, in 1896 and 2012, Hearts and Hibs were both formed during the mid-1870s. The first ever match between the clubs was played at East Meadows on 25 December 1875, with Hearts winning 1–0, Hibs won the first Scottish Cup tie between the clubs, in 1877–78. Hibs beat Hearts on the way to their first national trophy, Hibs also had wins of 3–0, 5–2 and 7–1 against Hearts in other competitions. Hibs had major problems and briefly ceased playing during the early 1890s. In the meantime, Hearts had become members of the Scottish Football League in 1890–91. Hibs soon resumed operations and Hearts won 10–2 in a match at Easter Road which marked their return. Hibs joined the Scottish Football League in 1893–94 and were promoted to the First Division in 1895, the first league derby was played on 28 September 1895, Hearts winning 4–3 at Tynecastle. The clubs contested the 1896 Scottish Cup Final, which Hearts won 3–1 at Logie Green in Edinburgh and it is the only time a Scottish Cup Final has been played outside Glasgow. The derby was played regularly in the league until 1930–31, when Hibs were relegated from Division One, Hibs regained top division status in 1933–34, but all league football was suspended from 1939–40 to 1945–46 due to the Second World War. The record crowd for an Edinburgh derby was 65,860 on 2 January 1950 when Hearts won 2–1 at Easter Road and this was also the biggest crowd for any Scottish game played outside Glasgow. Hibs enjoyed a period of success in the fixture in the late 1960s. Their record victory against Hearts, 7–0 at Tynecastle on 1 January 1973, was achieved during this period, Hibs then had their longest unbeaten streak in the fixture,12 games from 1974 to 1978. Hearts were a club in the late 1970s and early 1980s
It is one of three SPFL clubs in the city, the others being their Edinburgh derby rivals Hearts and Edinburgh City. Hibernian was founded in 1875 by Irish immigrants, but support for the club is now based on rather than ethnicity or religion. The Irish heritage of Hibernian is still reflected, however, in its name, colours, the name of the club is usually shortened to Hibs. The team are also called The Hibees and The Cabbage, a shortening of the slang for Hibs of Cabbage and Ribs, by fans of the club. Home matches are played at the Easter Road stadium, in use since 1893, Hibernian have played in the second tier of the Scottish football league system, known as the Scottish Championship, since being relegated in 2014. Hibernian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most recently in 1952, three of those four championships were won between 1948 and 1952, when the club had the services of The Famous Five, a notable forward line. The club have won the Scottish Cup three times, in 1887,1902 and 2016, Hibs have also won the Scottish League Cup three times, in 1972,1991 and 2007. The club was founded in 1875 by Irishmen from the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, the name is derived from Hibernia, the Roman name for Ireland. James Connolly, the famous Irish Republican leader, was a Hibs fan, there was some sectarian resistance initially to an Irish club participating in Scottish football, but Hibs established themselves as a force in Scottish football in the 1880s. Hibs were the first club from the east coast of Scotland to win a major trophy and they went on to defeat Preston North End, who had won the 1887 FA Cup, in a friendly match described as the Association Football Championship of the World Decider. Mismanagement over the few years led to Hibs becoming homeless. A lease on the Easter Road site was acquired in late 1892, despite this interruption, the club today views the period since 1875 as one continued history and therefore counts the honours won between 1875 and 1891, including the 1887 Scottish Cup. The club were admitted to the Scottish Football League in 1893, a significant change at this time was that players were no longer required to be members of the Catholic Young Mens Society. Hibs are not seen today as being an Irish or Roman Catholic institution, for instance, the Irish harp was only re-introduced to the club badge when it was last re-designed in 2000. This design reflects the three pillars of the identity, Ireland, Edinburgh and Leith. Geography rather than religion is now seen as the reason for supporting Hibs. Hibs had some success after being reformed, winning the 1902 Scottish Cup, after this, however, the club endured a long barren spell. The club lost its placing in the league, and were relegated for the first time in 1931, the notorious Scottish Cup drought began as they reached three cup finals, two in consecutive years, but lost each of them
Bathgate is a town in West Lothian, Scotland, on the M8 motorway 5 miles west of Livingston. Nearby towns are Armadale, Blackburn, Linlithgow, Livingston, West Calder, situated 2 miles south of the ancient Neolithic burial site at Cairnpapple Hill, Bathgate and the surrounding area show signs of habitation since about 3500 BC. Bathgate first enters the chronicles of history in a charter by King Malcolm IV of Scotland. In royal charters of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, batket in the 14th century, and by the 15th appeared as both Bathgat and Bathcat. The name is a manifest corruption of an earlier Cumbric name meaning Boar Wood, early records of Bathgate are somewhat sketchy. The church and all its property were placed under the auspices of Holyrood Abbey at that time. In 1315, the daughter of King Robert I of Scotland, Marjorie Bruce, married Walter Stewart, the dowry to her husband included the lands and castle of Bathgate. Walter died at the castle on 9 April 1326 and this marriage is still celebrated in an annual pageant forming part of the Bathgate Procession & John Newlands Festival, colloquially known as the Bathgate Galaday. The original 12th-century construction was absorbed by a build in 1739 when a new church was erected on the same site. The walls of the church were consolidated in 1846 and this simple whitewashed edifice served the community until its last service on 9 April 1882. King Malcolm IV makes reference to the church in a charter. Records show that Holyrood Abbey gave the church to the abbot, in 1606 silver ore was found at nearby Hilderston, in the shadow of Cairnpapple Hill, by a prospecting collier, Sandy Maund. This accidental discovery began a short-lived crown project in the area, advisers to King James VI of Scotland became aware of the mine and in April 1608 repossessed the land for the crown. By December 1608 it was clear that the ore in the mine was of varying quality, Bathgate remained a very small rural community until the middle of the 19th century with only a foray by Covenanters in the 17th century to unrest the populace. Francis Groome, in the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland writes, Robert Louis Stevenson, in the book Lay Morals, Part 2, in 1885, the distillery was producing 80,000 gallons of single malt a year which was transported to Scotland, England and the colonies. In 1831 Bathgate Academy was built, designed by the Edinburgh architects R & R Dickson this is Bathgates only large public building of historic merit. It was endowed by a Jamaican plantation owner and slave owner, by the opening of Edinburgh and Bathgate Railway in 1849, local mines and quarries were extracting coal, lime, and ironstone. When the cannel coal resources dwindled around 1866, Young started distilling paraffin from much more readily available shale, the landscape of the Lothians is still dotted with the orange spoil heaps from this era
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 local government council areas. Located in Lothian on the Firth of Forths southern shore, it is Scotlands second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The 2014 official population estimates are 464,990 for the city of Edinburgh,492,680 for the authority area. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and it is the largest financial centre in the UK after London. Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, the sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, was placed 17th in the QS World University Rankings in 2013 and 2014. The city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe. The citys historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdoms second most popular tourist destination after London, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, Edinburghs Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin, the poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort in the territory of the Gododdin. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English burh, the first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline. In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann, the earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c.8500 BC. Traces of later Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have found on Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat, Craiglockhart Hill. When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, at some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably descendants of the Votadini, built the hill fort of Din Eidyn or Etin. Although its location has not been identified, it likely they would have chosen a commanding position like the Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat. In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria and it thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, in 1638, King Charles Is attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the 17th century, Edinburghs boundaries were defined by the citys defensive town walls
A walkover or W. O. is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can apply to elections. The word is used generally by extension, particularly in politics. The strict and extended meanings of walkover as a word are both found from 1829. The word originates from horseracing in the United Kingdom, where an entrant in a race run under Jockey Club rules has at least to walk over the course before being awarded victory. This outcome was quite common at a time there was no guaranteed prize money for horses finishing second or third so there was no incentive to run a horse in a race it could not win. The term is used in tennis, in reference to a players unopposed victory as a result of the opponents failing to start the match for any reason. The only Olympic Games walkover for a medal was at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The only time it has happened at the FIFA World Cup was in the 1938 edition, after the England team declined to take Austrias entry, FIFA gave Sweden a walkover. A walkover is usually the sign of a strong mandate or unanimous support. It can, however, be interpreted by critics of the faction the walkover is awarded to as a sign of electoral fraud or gerrymandering to prevent other candidates from participating. The circumstances of such an interpretation are usually controversial, walkovers can thus often be a sign of an illiberal democracy. Many liberal democracies in history, including the United States, have had uncontested elections because support for one candidate was so strong. In the 1820 election, James Monroe also ran unopposed, though New Hampshire elector William Plumer cast a vote for John Quincy Adams as a symbolic measure, walkovers are called acclamation in Canada. Other multi-party systems that have held uncontested presidential elections include Germany, Singapore, Ireland, Algeria, Iceland, running without opponents is not always a guarantee of winning. Many elections require that the winner has not only the most votes of all candidates but a fraction of all votes cast. In this case electors may be able to cast a vote or none of the above vote, spoil their papers. In such cases, the members of the body usually appoint someone to the vacant seat
Edinburgh University A.F.C.
Edinburgh University Association Football Club are a football club representing the University of Edinburgh. Established in 1878, they are third oldest club in East of Scotland football and have been a member of the Scottish Football Association since that year, Edinburgh University are eligible to compete in the Scottish Cup every season as they are full members of the SFA. The clubs present home is at Peffermill, where it has played since its move from Canal Field in 1978, the Club won its first trophy, the Edinburgh Shield in 1883. Historically it is the most successful footballing university in Scotland, the most recent achievements of the club include winning the East of Scotland Qualifying Cup in 2005, and finishing in second position in the East of Scotland Premier Division in 2007–08. In October 2006, the side beat Vale of Leithen 3–0 to reach the first round proper of the Scottish Cup for the first time since 1972–73. In November 2006, they defeated Keith to proceed to the round of the Scottish Cup for only the second time in the clubs history. The teams 2006 cup run was halted by Cowdenbeath, who defeated the university 5–1 at Central Park on 9 December 2006, after the Scottish Qualifying Cup was abolished, Edinburgh University gained direct entry to the Scottish Cup as a full member of the SFA. Receiving a random bye in the first round, Edinburgh University beat Deveronvale in the round before losing to Cove Rangers in the third round. The club was admitted to the Lowland Football League from the 2014–15 season