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1880 United States Census

The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census. It was the first time; the Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census. Five schedules were authorized by the 1880 Census Act, four of which were filled out by the enumerators: Schedule 1, similar to that used for the previous census, with a few exceptions. Schedule 2, which used the same inquiries as in 1870, added inquiries to record marital status, birthplace of parents, length of residence in the United States or territory, name of place where the disease was contracted, if other than place of death. Schedule 3, which expanded inquiries concerning various crops, included questions on farm tenure, weeks of hired labor, annual cost for fence building and repair, fertilizer purchases, the number of livestock. Schedule 5, which expanded to include information on the greatest number of hands employed at any time during the year, the number of hours in the ordinary work day from May to November and November to May, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, machinery used.

Schedule 4 was the responsibility of special agents, rather than the enumerators. The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population. Experts and special agents were employed to collect data on valuation and indebtedness. Special agents were charged with collecting data on specific industries throughout the country, included the manufactures of iron and steel. Full documentation for the 1880 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, which contains microdata; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices. Microdata from the 1880 population census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. The 1880 census determined the resident population of the United States to be 50,189,209, an increase of 30.2 percent over the 38,555,983 persons enumerated during the 1870 Census. The mean center of United States population for 1880 was in Kentucky; the results from the census were used to determine the apportionment for the 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd sessions of the United States Congress. The processing of the 1880 census data took so long that the Census Bureau contracted Herman Hollerith to design and build a tabulating machine to be used for the next census; the 1880 census led to the discovery of the Alabama paradox. Source: 270 To Win, 1880 Presidential Election Interactive Map

Hadley Center Historic District

The Hadley Center Historic District is an expansive, 2,500-acre historic district encompassing the village center of Hadley, Massachusetts. When it was first listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, the district encompassed the town green and 17 buildings that faced it, at the junction of Russell Street and Middle Street; the district was expanded in 1994, adding more than 400 buildings representative of the village's growth from colonial days into the first decades of the 20th century. This expansion encompasses the entirety of a tongue of land extending west from East Street and bounded by a bend in the Connecticut River, which separates Hadley from Northampton, its oldest property, the Samuel Porter House on West Street, was built in 1713. Hadley was settled in 1659 and incorporated as a town in 1661; the land use patterns laid out at that time are still evident in the area surrounding the town center. The agricultural areas of the tongue of land in the Connecticut River floodplain were laid out in narrow strips oriented north-south, which still dominate land ownership and usage patterns.

Its major roads, including Russell, East and West Streets, were laid out around this time, were where houses and civic institutions were built. Bay Road a Native American trail, was the major road heading east from the river; the town grew until the early 19th century, when it was joined to Northampton by a bridge over the Connecticut River. It remained agricultural, with a few cottage industries, with tobacco a major 19th-century crop before market gardens came to dominate in the early 20th century; the town center's architecture is reflective of its slow growth, with instances of architectural styles spanning more than three centuries. North Hadley Historic District Hockanum Rural Historic District National Register of Historic Places listings in Hampshire County, Massachusetts

Verticordia verticillata

Verticordia verticillata known as tropical featherflower or whorled-leaved featherflower is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to an area in the north of the Northern Territory and Western Australia. It is a woody shrub or small tree with long, linear leaves arranged in whorls, with irregular groups of creamy-white flowers in spring. Verticordia verticillata is an branched shrub or small tree possessing a lignotuber and which grows to a height of up to 6 m and a width of 2 m; the leaves are arranged in whorls of three or four and are linear in shape, semi-circular to triangular in cross-section, 6–30 mm long, 0.5 mm wide with a pointed end. The flowers are faintly scented and arranged in irregular groups in leaf axils on stalks 8–15 mm long; the floral cup is shaped like a hemisphere, 1.5–2 mm long and more or less smooth. The sepals are spreading and 5 -- 7 mm long, with about 6 hairy lobes; the petals are a similar colour to the sepals, egg-shaped, 4–5 mm long, joined for about 1 mm of that length and have irregular teeth around their edge.

The style is 9 -- straight with hairs just below its tip. Flowering time is from August to October, sometimes in other months following rainfall; this species can be distinguished from Verticordia cunninghamii and Verticordia decussata, which sometimes occur in the same area, by its whorled leaves and much longer style. Verticordia verticillata was first formally described in 1977 by Norman Byrnes from a specimen collected on Eva Valley Station in the Northern Territory; the description was published in the journal Austrobaileya. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word verticillus meaning "a whorl" referring to the leaf arrangement of this species. Tropical featherflower is widespread in the Kimberley region in Western Australia, in the north of the Northern Territory, including some of the offshore islands, it grows in sand with loam or gravel in open shrubland and woodland. This verticordia is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife and as "of least concern" in the Northern Territory