1880 in Norwegian music
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1880 in Norwegian music.
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1880 in Norwegian music.
1. 1880 in art – Events from the year 1880 in art. October – Vincent van Gogh enrolls in an art course at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. Fifth Impressionist exhibition in Paris, at 10 rue des Pyramides, the realist painter Jean-François Raffaëlli is also invited by Degas to exhibit. Silver Studio founded by Arthur Silver in London for textile and wallpaper design, anton Mauve paints Changing Pasture, his palette and usage of colour influences Vincent van Gogh. Michael Ancher marries fellow painter Anna Brøndum, national Gallery of Canada established in Ottawa. Grand Prix de Rome, painting, Henri Lucien Doucet, Grand Prix de Rome, sculpture, Grand Prix de Rome, architecture, Grand Prix de Rome, music, Lucien Joseph Edouard Hillemacher
2. Ole Bull – Ole Bornemann Bull was a Norwegian virtuoso violinist and composer. According to Robert Schumann, he was on a level with Niccolò Paganini for the speed, Bull was born in Bergen, Norway. He was the eldest of ten children of Johan Storm Bull and his brother, Georg Andreas Bull became a noted Norwegian architect. He was also the uncle of Edvard Hagerup Bull, Norwegian judge and his father wished for him to become a minister, but he desired a musical career. At the age of four or five, he could all of the songs he had heard his mother play on the violin. At age nine, he played first violin in the orchestra of Bergens theatre and was a soloist with the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, at eighteen, he was sent to the University of Christiania, but failed his examinations. He joined the Musical Lyceum, a society, and after its director Waldemar Thrane took ill, Bull became the director of Musical Lyceum. He also became friends with Henrik Wergeland, who wrote a biography of Bull. After living for a while in Germany, where he pretended to study law, he went to Paris, in 1832 in Paris he shared rooms with the Moravian violin virtuoso Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst. He was eventually successful in becoming a virtuoso, giving thousands of concerts. In England alone these included 274 in 1837, during which visit he also travelled to some of the remote parts of Britain. Bull became very famous and made a huge fortune and he is believed to have composed more than 70 works, but only about 10 are known today. He also was a luthier, after studies in Paris with Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume. He collected many beautiful violins and violas of Amati, Gasparo da Salò, Guarneri, Stradivari and he was the owner of one of the finest violins of the world, made by Gasparo da Salò about 1574 for Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria. He played a Guarneri del Gesù, the violin, a gift of his widow to Bulls birthplace, is now in the Bergen Vestlandske Kustindustrimuseum. A commercial signature line of Ole Bull violins was manufactured in Germany, Bull was caught up in a rising tide of Norwegian romantic nationalism, and acclaimed the idea of Norway as a sovereign state, separate from Sweden—which became a reality in 1905. In 1850, he co-founded the first theater in which actors spoke Norwegian rather than Danish, in the summer of 1858, Bull met the 15-year-old Edvard Grieg. Bull was a friend of the Grieg family, since Ole Bulls brother was married to the sister of Griegs mother, Bull noticed Edvards talent and persuaded his parents to send him to further develop his talents at the Leipzig Conservatory
3. Polka – The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Latin America and the United States. The name polka possibly comes from the Czech word půlka, referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. e, the absence of diacritics, both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt also ironically dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that polka comes from the Czech word pole, on the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests that the etymology given by Fr. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the true Czech folk origin of Polka, Nejedlý also writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek also claims the Hradec Králové roots of a Polka. OED also suggests that the name may have derived from the Czech polka meaning Polish woman. The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s. It should not be confused with the polska, a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots, a related dance is the redowa. Polkas almost always have a 24 time signature, folk music of Polka style appeared in written music about 1800. She is said to have called the dance Maděra, because of its liveliness, the dance was further propagated by the music teacher Josef Neruda, who witnessed Anna dance in an unusual way, put the tune to paper, and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem. Zibrt writes that when he published this story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper. In particular, he wrote according to further witness, the originating event actually happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt also wrote that simple Czech folk claimed that knew and danced Polka long before the nobles got hold of it. By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague, from there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, and in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor. It was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as polkamania, the dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular dance until the late 19th century
4. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist, the concertina and bandoneón are related, the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open and these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instruments reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the manual. The accordion is widely spread across the world, nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibration. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals, each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to better project. The grille for the manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it, the different types have varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format, the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genres
5. Fiddle – Fiddle is another name for the bowed string musical instrument more often called a violin. It is also a term for the instrument used by players in all genres. Fiddle playing, or fiddling, refers to various styles of music, Fiddle is also a common term among musicians who play folk music on the violin. The fiddle is part of traditional styles of music which are aural traditions. There are few distinctions between violins and fiddles, though more primitively constructed and smaller violins are more likely to be considered fiddles. In order to produce a tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms focused on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more vibrato and it is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers have classical training. The medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira, lira spread widely westward to Europe, in the 11th and 12th centuries European writers use the terms fiddle and lira interchangeably when referring to bowed instruments. During the Renaissance the gambas were important and elegant instruments, they eventually lost ground to the viola da braccio family. The etymology of fiddle is uncertain, the Germanic fiddle may derive from the same early Romance word as does violin, the name seems however to be related to Icelandic Fiðla and also Old English fiðele. A native Germanic ancestor of fiddle may even be the ancestor of the early Romance form of violin, historically, fiddle also referred to a predecessor of todays violin. Like the violin, it tended to have four strings, another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the viols, which are held between the legs and played vertically, and have fretted fingerboards. Violins, on the hand, are commonly grouped in sections. The difference was likely compounded by the different sounds expected of violin music, historically, the majority of fiddle music was dance music, while violin music had either grown out of dance music or was something else entirely. Violin music came to value a smoothness that fiddling, with its dance-driven clear beat, in situations that required greater volume, a fiddler could push their instrument harder than could a violinist. In the very late 20th century, a few artists have attempted a reconstruction of the Scottish tradition of violin and big fiddle. Notable recorded examples include Iain Fraser and Christine Hanson, Amelia Kaminski and Christine Hansons Bonnie Lasses and Alasdair Fraser and Natalie Haas Fire and Grace. In Hungary, a three stringed viola variant with a bridge, called the kontra or háromhúros brácsa makes up part of a traditional rhythm section in Hungarian folk music
6. Music of Norway – Norway is a rather sparsely populated country in Europe, but even so its music and its musical life are as complex as those of most other countries. Much has been learned about music in Norway from physical artifacts found during archaeological digs. These include instruments such as the lur, viking and medieval sagas also describe musical activity, as do the accounts of priests and pilgrims from all over Europe coming to visit St Olafs grave in Trondheim. In the later part of the 19th century, Norway experienced economic growth leading to greater industrialization and urbanization, more music was established in the cities, and opera performances and symphony concerts were considered to be of high standards. In this era both prominent composers and performers combined the European traditions with Norwegian tones, the import of music and musicians for dance and entertainment increased, and this continued in the 20th century, even more so when gramophone records and radio became common. In the last half of the 20th century, Norway, like other countries in the world. Before 1840, there were limited sources of folk music in Norway. Originally these historical attainments were believed to have a distinct Christian influence, as research continued, there was also mythical and fairy tale connections to the folk music. Overall the purpose of music was for entertainment and dancing. Norwegian folk music may be divided into two categories, instrumental and vocal, as a rule instrumental folk music is dance music. Norwegian folk dances are dances and usually performed by couples, although there are a number of solo dances as well. Norway has very little of the ceremonial dance characteristic of other cultures, dance melodies may be broken down into two types, two-beat and three-beat dances. The former are called halling, gangar or rull, whereas the latter are springar or springleik, Traditional dances are normally referred to as bygdedans. These dances, sometimes called courting dances were often connected to the important events of life, weddings, funerals. Folk music in Norway falls in another 2 main categories based in the populations from which they spring, North Germanic. Traditional Sami music is centered around a vocal style called joik. Originally, joik referred to one of several Sami singing styles. Its sound is comparable to the chanting of some American Aboriginal cultures
7. Psalmodicon – The psalmodicon is typically a single-stringed musical instrument, developed in Scandinavia for simplifying music in churches and schools, and providing an alternative to the fiddle for sacred music. The instrument could be plucked or bowed, beginning in the early 19th century, it was adopted by many rural churches in Scandinavia, later, immigrants brought the instrument to the United States. At the time, many congregations could not afford organs, dance instruments were considered inappropriate for sacred settings, so violins were not allowed. The psalmodikon, on the hand, was inexpensive to build, was not used for dancing, took up little space. Its slow, melodic quality worked well with the hymns of the period, examples of older printed music from these churches often have numbers written over the words, corresponding to numbers painted on the fret board of the psalmodikon. This system, known as siffernotskrift, allowed players who could not read musical notation to accompany hymns. As churches saved money for organs, however, psalmodikons became less common, by the late 20th century, in later years, however, the instrument was reintroduced by multi-instrumentalist folk musicians. The instrument consists of a box, upon which is a chromatic fret board with up to around 25 semitone positions. It has one to three strings of metal or of gut, some earlier variants included metal strings that were not touched. The measure of one Swedish instrument from 1869 is 878 millimeter, over a sawtooth shaped fret board, it originally had three metal strings, of which two were removed to facilitate the learning process. Advanced models could be fitted with strings on both sides of the fret board, up to twelve strings that individually could be mechanically subdued. Though some books attribute the invention to the Swedish priest Johan Dillner from Medelpad, others note that he promoted, rather than invented. He published a book of siffernotskrift for hymns in 1830, there is some scholarly consensus that the instrument first developed in Denmark around 1820, and spread from there. In the 1830s and 1840s, the Norwegian music educator Lars Roverud traveled widely in Norway popularising the instrument for training students, the instrument is also known in Lithuania as manikarka, a two string variant developed within Latvian folk music, and became the ģīga. In Estonia it is known as the moldpill or mollpill, among its alternate spellings is the Norwegian salmodikon or salmedunken. In Finland the instrument is known as virsikantele, tromba marina Monochord Ole H. Bremnes. Forlaget Habet,1998 Ardith K. Melloh, grandfathers Songbooks, Or, The Psalmodikon in America
8. Waltz – The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in triple time, performed primarily in closed position. There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, the French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner, the peasants of Bavaria, Tyrol, and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler, also known as the Schleifer, a dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia, Austria, and Bavaria. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, The people were dancing mad. The ladies of Vienna are particularly celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire, there is a waltz in the second act finale of the opera Una Cosa Rara written by Martin y Soler in 1786. Solers waltz was marked Andante con moto, or at a pace with motion, but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a known as Langaus, became a sliding step. In the 19th century, the word primarily indicated that the dance was a one, one would waltz in the polka to indicate rotating rather than going straight forward without turning. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each measure, making it sound as if the third is late. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss often played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, according to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the Kings German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill and it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador. Diarist Thomas Raikes later recounted that No event ever produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813, in the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Come, its time to be going home, the waltz, and especially its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including many folk and it incorporated hesitations and was danced to fast music. A hesitation is basically a halt on the foot during the full waltz measure
9. Magnus Brostrup Landstad – Magnus Brostrup Landstad was a Norwegian parish priest and provost, psalmist and poet who published the first collection of authentic Norwegian traditional ballads in 1853. Although criticized at the time for the use of unscientific methods, Landstad was born in the village of Måsøy in Finnmark, Norway. He was one of ten born to the parish priest Hans Landstad. His father Hans Landstad was a minister, who first worked in Øksnes in 1806, then relocated to Vinje in 1811, Landstad received a theology degree in 1827, and worked after that as the resident chaplain in Gausdal for six years. After that he worked in parishes in Telemark and Østfold before he became the minister of Sandar in Vestfold in 1859. His single greatest achievement was the Landstad hymnal and he included about 50 of his own hymns in it and completed the editing in 1861. Later revisions were used in Norwegian parishes until 1985, the current official church hymnal contains a number of his hymns as well as his translations of foreign-language hymns. He married Wilhelmine Margrete Marie Lassen in 1828 and they were the parents of twelve children, of whom six died in early childhood. He died in 1880 in Kristiania and he was a cousin of the priest and local historian Hans Peter Schnitler Krag and was a great-grandfather of the writer Magny Landstad. Kristiania, J. W. Cappelens Forlag,1871 Utstilling om Landstad, Karin Helene Hognestad, UBiT
10. Hardanger fiddle – A Hardanger fiddle is a traditional stringed instrument used originally to play the music of Norway. In modern designs, this type of fiddle is very similar to the violin, though with eight or nine strings and thinner wood. Four of the strings are strung and played like a violin, while the rest, aptly named understrings or sympathetic strings, the Hardingfele is used mainly in the southwest part of Norway, whereas the ordinary violin is found elsewhere. The Hardingfele is used for dancing, accompanied by rhythmic loud foot stomping and it was also traditional for the fiddler to lead the bridal procession to the church. Sometimes pieces of bone are used to decorate the pegs and the edges of the instrument, the earliest known example of the hardingfele is from 1651, made by Ole Jonsen Jaastad in Hardanger, Norway. Originally, the instrument had a rounder, narrower body, around the year 1850, the modern layout with a body much like the violin became the norm. Specifically, the Hardingfele is a D instrument, meaning that the Hardingfeles written C corresponds to D on a non-transposing instrument, the notes given below for tunings are therefore relative to the Hardingfeles written A, not to a concert A. The understrings are tuned to vibrate according to the main tuning, for example, when the main strings are tuned A-D-A-E, the understrings are tuned B-D-E-F♯-A. The tuning largely depends on the region in which the instrument is being played, in Norway, more than 20 different tunings are recorded. Most hardanger tunes are played in a common tuning, the hardanger fiddle can also be played in low bass, the word bass referring to the lowest string, the normal violin tuning. In certain regions the Gorrolaus tuning is sometimes used, another tuning is called troll tuning. Legend has it that the fiddler learned fanitullen tunes from the devil and this tuning limits the melodic range of the tunes and is therefore sparsely used. The technique of bowing a Hardingfele also differs from that used with a violin and its a smoother, bouncier style of bowing, with a lighter touch. The player usually bows on two of the strings at a time, and sometimes three. This is made easy by the flatness of the bridge. The strings of the fiddle are slimmer than those of the violin, the Hardingfele has had a long history with the Christian church. Well known early fiddle maker Isak Botnen is said to have learned some of his craft from church lay leader and school master Lars Klark, as well as the methods for varnishing from pastor Dedrik Muus. In many folktales the devil is associated with the Hardingfele, in many good players were said to have been taught to play by the devil