The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Old Carthusians F.C.
Old Carthusians Football Club is an association football club whose players are former pupils of Charterhouse School in Godalming, Surrey, England. The club was established in 1876 and won the FA Cup in 1881, the club currently plays in the Arthurian League and won league and Arthur Dunn Cup doubles in 2006,2008,2009,2011,2013 and 2014. The club was formed from the pupils of Charterhouse School in Godalming, Surrey. Reports in the press of games taking place at the school had appeared since March 1853 and it was one of several clubs formed from the old boys of public schools in England during the 19th century. Other clubs formed in similar circumstances include Old Etonians and Old Westminsters, other former members of the school had previously founded Stoke-on-Trent F. C. in 1867, which would go on to be known as Stoke City. Old Carthusians entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1879–80, at the time of the founding of the Football League in 1888, Old Carthusians was the most southern team to be interested in joining the Northern dominated league, but were never added to the league. Old Carthusians became one of four clubs to win the FA Cup in the first eleven years it was awarded when they won the trophy in 1881. In comparison, while the Carthusians were made up of educated men, the professions of the players among the Olympic side included a dentist, the Athletic News promoted the game as patricians versus plebeians. Prior to the first final, where they defeated Casuals 2–1, an Old Carthusian spokesman said, Penalties are an unpleasant indication that our conduct and honesty are not all it should be. In 1894 they were invited to join the newly formed Southern League along with a number of team including fellow old boys club Old Westminsters, the old boys teams refused to join the new league and tried to convince the 2nd Scots Guards to leave the league as well. As of 2012, the continues to enter the Arthur Dunn Cup. This was a replay of the very first title in 1903, during 2008, the club took part in a tournament featuring several former winners of the FA Cup including Corinthian-Casuals, Royal Engineers and Old Etonians. Along with Wimbledon, and Royal Engineers the Old Carthusians are one of three teams to have ever won both the FA Cup and the FA Amateur Cup. In 2011 the Old Carthusians reached the final of the AFA Senior Cup, however, having been two goals up at half time, they went on to lose the game to the Old Salesians 3–2. Old Carthusians went on to win another two Arthurian League title and Arthur Dunn Cup doubles, the Treble-Double had only been achieved by one team before - Lancing Old Boys in the 1980s. Nine Old Carthusians were capped for England
Old Etonians F.C.
The Old Etonian Association Football Club is an English football club whose players are alumni of Eton College, in Eton, Berkshire. Founded by Lord Kinnaird, they were the last amateur or true blue club to win the FA Cup on 25 March 1882 when they beat Blackburn Rovers 1–0 at The Oval and they lost 2–1 after extra time to another Blackburn club, Blackburn Olympic, the following year. In all, they reached the six times in nine years between 1875 and 1883, winning twice. They also supplied a number of players for the England team, in modern times, Old Etonians are members of the Amateur Football Alliance and field three teams in the Arthurian League. The 1st XI have won the leagues Premier Division title on two occasions, whitfeld scored in a 2–1 victory. Official website Old Etonians at the Football Club History Database
Edward George Wynyard, DSO, OBE was a British Army officer and an English cricketer who played in 3 Tests from 1896 to 1906. He captained Hampshire County Cricket Club between 1896 and 1899, Wynyard was also a successful amateur football player. In 1881, he was a member of the Old Carthusians team that won the FA Cup Final, Wynyard was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 1st Regiment, Warwick Militia in 1881, transferring to regular service with the Kings Liverpool Regiment in May 1883. With the latter he was stationed in India and saw service in the Burma Expedition 1885–87, winning the Distinguished Service Order in the latter year. Promoted captain on 19 March 1890, he transferred again the same year and he was Adjutant of the Oxford University Volunteers in 1899–1900, then instructor at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst until August 1902, when he returned to his regiment. While in charge of cricket at the College, he arranged an officer cadets match against W. G and he revealed his identity minus beard and cap at the teams lunch but no one had seen through the disguise and his realistic imitation of Graces batting style. He finally retired in April 1919 when he was awarded Officer of the Order of the British Empire, Wynyard played cricket for his schools, notably for the XI at St Edwardss School, Oxford. He would become President of Charterhouse Schools Cricket and Football Club from 1913 to 1919, Wynyard played in three Test matches for England, one against Australia in 1896 and two against South Africa in 1905–06. He had to decline a place on the Test tour to Australia because of army duties in 1897–98 and he was invited to captain England on the Test tour to Australia in 1907–08 but declined for family reasons. He played for Hampshire between 1878 and 1908 and captained the county in 1896–99, in 1896 he was the second-highest scoring first-class player in national batting averages with 1,038 runs, average 49.42. In 1899 he was placed with a greater 1,281 runs at 41.32. Besides the M. C. C. on whose committee he served in 1920–24, he was member of the Free Foresters, and represented the South African Cricket Association in England in 1908. Wynyard was in the association football XI at Charterhouse in 1876. In the latter game he was described as a glorious three-quarter, fast and strong, had he not gone into the army, he would have reached the top in the rugger world. He was more active playing for the old boys club Old Carthusians, C. W. Alcock described him as a heavy forward, charging and dribbling well, always middles splendidly and good forward, plenty of dash, makes himself obnoxious to the opposing backs. He centred the Old Carthusians team at the FA Cup Final at Kennington Oval on 9 April 1881, earlier in the first half he attempted to score with a header. He twice played for the Corinthians in 1893, scoring five goals and he also appeared in representative matches for London. Wynyard won the European international toboggan championship at Davos, Switzerland in 1894 and it was while in the area he rescued a peasant from drowning in a lake on 9 December 1893, earning the award in 1895 of the medal of the Royal Humane Society
John Rawlinson (footballer and MP)
In the 1882 FA Cup Final, however, he was goalkeeper for the Old Etonians in the final against Blackburn Rovers. His solitary appearance for England came on 18 February 1882 against Ireland, as goalkeeper, he had little to do as the England forwards ran riot, scoring thirteen goals without reply. In 1882 he became a member of the committee for the Corinthians and he was also a member of the Wanderers club. C. W. Alcock described Rawlinson as an excellent goalkeeper, cool and sure, though he was said to be almost too casual at times. At university Rawlinson was a Prizeman in Common Law and achieved degrees of 1st Class Law Tripos in 1882, LL. B. in 1883, LL. M. in 1887, and honorary LL. D. from the same university in 1920. He qualified as a barrister and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1884, becoming a QC in 1897 and he was a member of the General Council of the Bar from its inception in 1894 and later served as Vice-Chairman. He was appointed recorder of Cambridge in 1896, and in 1901 became a county Justice of the Peace for Cambridgeshire, in 1895 he legally represented the Treasury at the government official inquiry into the Jameson Raid in South Africa. He was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Cambridge University in 1906 and he was co-author with his father of Rawlinsons Municipal Corporations Acts, which became a standard work on the local government laws and went into ten editions. He was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1923, Rawlinson died, unmarried, at his chambers in 5 Crown Office Row, Temple, London, after ten days illness with pleurisy at the age of 65, and was buried at Brookwood Cemetery, Woking, Surrey
Arthur Kinnaird, 11th Lord Kinnaird
Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird, 11th Lord Kinnaird KT was a principal of The Football Association and a leading footballer. Kinnairds father, Arthur Kinnaird, 10th Lord Kinnaird, was a banker, Kinnaird born in London and was educated at Cheam School, Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating BA in 1869. He worked in the bank, becoming a director of Ransom. This bank later merged with others in 1896 to become Barclays Bank of which he was a board director until his death. As a player, Kinnaird had a remarkable record, having played in the second FA Cup final in 1873, he took part in a further eight – an unmatched total of nine finals in all. He was on the side three times with Wanderers and twice with the Old Etonians and celebrated his fifth Cup Final victory by standing on his head in front of the pavilion. In the course of his career as a Cup Final player, Kinnaird played in every position, in fact the confusion appears to have been caused by the haphazard match reporting typical of the earliest days of the Association game. He first played football while at Cheam School and was captain of the team in 1859, aged 12. He continued to play football at Eton College, winning the House Cup in 1861 with Joyness House and he first played association football early in 1866. He was renowned as perhaps the toughest tackler of his day, a friend is said to have responded, You must not worry, madam. If he does, it not be his own. Posterity has awarded Arthur Kinnaird the reputation of being fond of hacking, i. e. deliberately kicking his opponents. This at length caused a protest from the captain of the Harrovians, alcock and Morton Peto Betts were sufficiently disabled to be unable to play for England in the first official international, two weeks later. Sportswriters and fellow internationals queued to pay tribute to Kinnairds skill as a footballer both during and after his career, of course, he had the voice and manner of an educated man of distinction. He was a leader, and above all things, a type of Christian. As a player, in any position, was an examplar of manly robust football and he popularised the game by his activity as a footballer among every class. He was at much at home with the boys of the Polytechnic, London, nevertheless, he was fair, above board, and was prepared to receive all the knocks that came his way without a trace of resentment. As an administrator, Kinnaird was an FA committeeman at the age of 21 and he became treasurer 9 years later and president 13 years after that, replacing Major Francis Marindin in 1890
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker