1881 Chios earthquake
The 1881 Chios earthquake occurred at 11,30 UTC on 3 April. It caused severe damage on the island of Chios and affected Çeşme, the earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.3 and there were an estimated 7,866 casualties. The devastation from the earthquake was the last of the three catastrophes that affected the island of Chios in the 19th century, the Aegean Sea is an area of mainly extensional tectonics caused by the subduction of the African Plate beneath Aegean Sea Plate. The town of Chios was devastated, causing casualties, partly due to the narrowness of the streets. In the rest of the island,25 out of the 64 villages were destroyed with another 17 badly damaged, in both Çeşme and Alaçatı about 40% of the houses were destroyed. The number of casualties on the Turkish mainland was low, possibly due to most of the inhabitants leaving their houses to watch the passage of the passenger ship Aya Evangelistra from the shore. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the part of Chios where intensities reached IX on the Mercalli intensity scale.
Isoseismal maps show an elongation west to east with an area of intensity VIII affecting the end of the Karaburun Peninsula of the Turkish mainland. Vertical movements of up to 2.5 m were observed, magnitudes ranging from Mw =6.5 to Ms=7.3 have been estimated for this event. A minor tsunami was reported, based on the presence of sand in a garden in Chios. There were many aftershocks, the most damaging being on 5 April,11 April,12 April,13 April,18 April,20 May,9 June and 26 August. After the earthquake many of the inhabitants of Chios left the island and this followed the trend set by the other two catastrophes of the 19th century that devastated the island, the massacre of Chios in 1822 and the failure of the orange crop in 1833. Together these events left most of Chios in a state of poverty, List of earthquakes in Greece List of historical earthquakes
1894 Istanbul earthquake
The 1894 Istanbul earthquake occurred in the Çınarcık basin or Gulf of Izmit in the Sea of Marmara on 10 July at 12, 24pm. The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.0 on the surface wave magnitude scale. At least an estimated 1,349 people were killed in towns around the Gulf of Izmit such as Yalova and Adapazarı, the main shock caused a tsunami 1.5 metres high. The Sea of Marmara is a basin formed at a releasing bend in the North Anatolian Fault. This local zone of extension occurs where this boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate steps northwards to the west of Izmit from the Izmit Fault to the Ganos Fault. The pattern of faults within the Sea of Marmara basin is complex, to the west, the fault trends west-east and is pure strike-slip in type. To the east, the fault is NW-SE trending and show evidence of both normal and strike-slip motion, movement on the Gulf of Izmit section of the fault, which bounds the Çınarcık Basin, is the most likely cause of the 1894 event. Other possible causes are movement on the Princes Islands segment of the fault, the quake killed 990 people in the area around Yalova and Sapanca,83 in Adapazarı and 276 in Istanbul.
List of earthquakes in Turkey List of historical earthquakes
1903 Manzikert earthquake
The 1903 Manzikert earthquake struck Manzikert of nowadays Muş Province in eastern Turkey on 28 April. Registering a surface wave magnitude of 7.0, the earthquake originated from an active seismic zone. It killed 3,500 people and 20,000 animals, destroyed 12,000 homes, to this day, Turkey is threatened by major earthquakes – more than 100 earthquakes over 7.0 have taken place in the countrys known history. The country of Turkey is situated on a highly active section of the Eurasian Plate boundary, the country is mainly mountainous, approximately 85 percent of the country is at an elevation of 450 m or more. The entire country lies within a zone of deformation known as the Alpide belt. This zone of continental collision reaches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Himalaya Mountains and beyond and it has formed due to convergent movement between the Arabian and Indian continental plates and the Eurasian plate. To the east of the junction of two faults, the Arabian Plate is in direct collision with the Eurasian Plate.
This area is characterised by thrust faulting and was the area in which the 1903 event occurred, among the worlds deadliest earthquakes, the earthquake caused 3,500 direct fatalities. 20,000 animals were killed in the region of Manzikert-Patnos. Damage to a lesser extent reached Erzurum and Bitlis, on August 6, additional damage took place and people were injured when an aftershock rocked the same region. Major earthquakes have taken place in the country as early as 411 B. C. In the 20th century,58 major destructive earthquakes took place – in total, they have killed more than 100,000 people, injured 150,000, more than 100 earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater have taken place in the country historically. List of earthquakes in 1903 List of earthquakes in Turkey
AD 17 Lydia earthquake
The AD17 Lydia earthquake caused the destruction of at least twelve cities in the region of Lydia in the Roman province of Asia in Asia Minor. The earthquake was recorded by the Roman historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder, Pliny called it the greatest earthquake in human memory. The city of Sardis, the capital of the Lydian Empire, was the most affected. Of these, Pergamon and Kibyra are not mentioned by Tacitus, the record of damage at both Ephesus and Kibyra may refer instead to an earthquake in AD23. In Pergamon the Heroon of Diodoros Pasparos was remodelled after the earthquake, there are very few extant details for this earthquake. It is known that it occurred during the night, in AD17, a variety of epicenters have been used in catalogues, near Ephesus in the NGDC database, at Sardis in the CFTI4MED database and near Magnesia in the IISEE catalogue. The Roman Emperor, agreed to all taxes due from Sardis. He further sent Sardis ten million sesterces and appointed Marcus Aletius, two additional figures were added later, representing Kibyra and Ephesus as they had received aid from Tiberius.
A copy of this statue, with the transferred to a frieze around the base, was erected in Puteoli where it can still be seen. A statue was raised in Tiberius honour at Sardis in AD43, another incomplete inscription, found at Sardis, is thought to have been a copy of a formal document from the cities to the emperor expressing their gratitude. The surviving part includes signatories from representatives of eight of the cities, commemorative coins were struck in AD 22–23 in Rome, showing Tiberius with the inscription CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS or cities of Asia restored. Provincial coins were struck, including one from the city of Magnesia. Some of the changed their names in honour of the emperor. Hierapolis became Hierocaesarea, Kibyra added Caesarea after its name, Philadelphia was renamed Neocaesarea, List of earthquakes in Turkey List of historical earthquakes
Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea,7 kilometres off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Çeşme Strait, Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios town, locals refer to Chios town as Chora. Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped,50 kilometres long north to south,29 kilometres at its widest. The terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island, the two largest of these mountains and Epos, are situated in the north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of peaks, known as Provatas. Chios can be divided into five regions, Midway up the east coast lie the main centers, the main town of Chios.
Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the main harbour. The town was damaged by an earthquake in 1881. North of Chios Town lies the suburb of Vrontados, which claims to be the birthplace of Homer. The suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is supported by a site known traditionally as Teachers Rock. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria lie a number of historic villages including Armolia, Myrmighi. Along the east coast are the villages of Kataraktis and to the south Nenita. Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, the monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822.
It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake, in 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni was converted to a convent
An aftershock is a smaller earthquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake, in the same area of the main shock. If an aftershock is larger than the shock, the aftershock is redesignated as the main shock. Aftershocks are formed as the crust around the fault plane adjusts to the effects of the main shock. Typically, aftershocks are found up to an equal to the rupture length away from the fault plane. The pattern of aftershocks helps confirm the size of area that slipped during the main shock, Aftershocks rates and magnitudes follow several well-established empirical laws. The frequency of aftershocks decreases roughly with the reciprocal of time after the main shock and this empirical relation was first described by Fusakichi Omori in 1894 and is known as Omoris law. It is expressed as n = k where k and c are constants, a modified version of Omoris law, now commonly used, was proposed by Utsu in 1961. N = k p p is a third constant which modifies the decay rate. According to these equations, the rate of aftershocks decreases quickly with time, the rate of aftershocks is proportional to the inverse of time since the mainshock and this relationship can be used to estimate the probability of future aftershock occurrence.
These patterns describe only the behavior of aftershocks, the actual times and locations of the aftershocks are stochastic. N =10 a − b M Where, N is the number of greater or equal to M M is magnitude a and b are constants In summary, there are more small aftershocks. Aftershocks are dangerous because they are unpredictable, can be of a large magnitude. An aftershock sequence is deemed to have ended when the rate of seismicity drops back to a background level, i. e. no further decay in the number of events with time can be detected. Land movement around the New Madrid is reported to be no more than 0.2 mm a year, Aftershocks on the San Andreas are now believed to top out at 10 years while earthquakes in New Madrid are considered aftershocks nearly 200 years after the 1812 New Madrid earthquake. Some scientists have tried to use foreshocks to help predict upcoming earthquakes, on the East Pacific Rise however, transform faults show quite predictable foreshock behaviour before the main seismic event.
Reviews of data of past events and their foreshocks showed that they have a low number of aftershocks, seismologists use tools such as the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence model to study cascading aftershocks. Following a large earthquake and aftershocks, many people have reported feeling phantom earthquakes when in fact no earthquake was taking place and this condition, known as earthquake sickness is thought to be related to motion sickness, and usually goes away as seismic activity tails off. Earthquake Aftershocks Not What They Seemed at Live Science
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker