Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2015, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and Saint Paul anchor the second-largest economic center in the Midwest, after Chicago. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul. It was once the worlds flour milling capital and a hub for timber, the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Chicago and Seattle, with Minneapolis proper containing Americas fifth-highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies. As an integral link to the economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city. Noted for its music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. The name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the citys first schoolteacher, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, and polis, Dakota Sioux had long been the regions sole residents when French explorers arrived around 1680.
For a time relations were based on fur trading, gradually more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Dakota. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired this territory from France, fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the United States Army, and it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present-day Minneapolis as a town in 1856 on the Mississippis west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago. It joined with the city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, sashes.
Due to the hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s. The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the citys thirty-four flour mills, a father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from the Hungarians by William de la Barre, pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that Minneapolis
City College of New York
The City College of the City University of New York is a public senior college of the City University of New York in New York City. Located on a hill overlooking Harlem in Manhattan, City Colleges 35-acre Collegiate Gothic campus spans Convent Avenue from 130th to 141st Streets and it was initially designed by renowned architect George B. Post, and many of its buildings have achieved landmark status, affectionately known as the Harvard of the proletariat, the college has graduated more Nobel Prize winners than any other public university in the United States. Among these 10 alumni, the latest is a Bronx native, founded in 1847, City College was the first free public institution of higher education in the United States. It is the oldest of CUNYs 24 institutions of higher learning, the City College of New York was founded as the Free Academy of the City of New York in 1847 by wealthy businessman and president of the Board of Education Townsend Harris. A combination prep school and college, it would provide children of immigrants, in 1847, New York State Governor John Young had given permission to the Board of Education to found the Free Academy, which was ratified in a statewide referendum.
Dr. Horace Webster, a West Point graduate, was the first president of the Free Academy. In 1847, a curriculum was adopted which had nine main fields, history, literature, natural philosophy, experimental philosophy and political economy. The Academys first graduation took place in 1853 in Niblos Garden Theatre, even in its early years, the Free Academy showed tolerance for diversity, especially in comparison to its urban neighbor, Columbia College, which was exclusive to the sons of wealthy families. The Free Academy had a framework of tolerance that extended beyond the admission of students from every social stratum, in 1854, Columbias trustees denied Oliver Wolcott Gibbs, a distinguished chemist and scientist, a faculty position because of Gibbss Unitarian religious beliefs. Gibbs was a professor and held an appointment at the Free Academy since 1848, in the history of CCNY, in the early 1900s, President John H. Finley gave the College a more secular orientation by abolishing mandatory chapel attendance.
This change occurred at a time when more Jewish students were enrolling in the College, in 1866, the Free Academy, a mens institution, was renamed the College of the City of New York. In 1929, the College of the City of New York became the City College of New York, the names City College of New York and City College, remain in general use. With the name change in 1866, lavender was chosen as the Colleges color, in 1867, the academic senate, the first student government in the nation, was formed. Having struggled over the issue for ten years, in 1895 the New York State legislature voted to let the College build a new campus. A four-square block site was chosen, located in Manhattanville, within the area which was enclosed by the North Campus Arches, like President Webster, the second president of City College was a West Point graduate. The second president, General Alexander S. Webb, assumed office in 1869, one of the Unions heroes at Gettysburg, General Webb was the commander of the Philadelphia Brigade.
When the Union Army repulsed the Confederates at Cemetery Hill, General Webb played a role in the battle
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, values, reason and language. The term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation, classic philosophical questions include, Is it possible to know anything and to prove it. However, philosophers might pose more practical and concrete questions such as, is it better to be just or unjust. Historically, philosophy encompassed any body of knowledge, from the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, natural philosophy encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newtons 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics, in the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology.
Other investigations closely related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy, for example, is beauty objective or subjective. Are there many scientific methods or just one, is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy. Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors and writers. Traditionally, the term referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science, education. This division is not obsolete but has changed, Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory, metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today, colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval.
Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, in one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as how are we to live, a broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Socrates was an influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
The Minnesota shift was an American football shift maneuver. It was the forerunner to all quick shifts in American football, the intent of the Minnesota shift was to keep the defense off balance and disguise the offenses intended point of attack. To be effective, the shift into the new formation was supposed to be done quickly and the ball snapped immediately afterward. University of Minnesota Golden Gophers coach Dr. Henry L. Williams is credited with its invention in the first decade of the 20th century, the maneuver gained national attention when it was adopted by period powerhouse Yale University in 1910. Williams, an 1891 graduate of Yale, had repeatedly offered to mentor his alma mater in the formation. In 1910, the Elis suffered early season setbacks at the hands of inferior opponents, former Yale end Thomas L. Shevlin, who had served as an assistant coach at Minnesota, taught the team the shift. Yale used the Minnesota shift against both opponents, and beat Princeton, 5–3, and tied Harvard, 0–0.
In 1917, Wisconsin head coach John R. Richards claimed that Chicagos legendary Amos Alonzo Stagg, the following season, Michigan effectively shut down the shift behind good line play
Little Brown Jug (college football trophy)
The Little Brown Jug is an earthenware jug that serves as a trophy awarded to the winner of the game. It is one of the oldest and most played rivalries in American college football, both universities are founding members of the Big Ten Conference. As a result of the Big Ten not playing a complete schedule, Michigan. In 2011, with the initiation of divisional play, Michigan. However, when the conference expanded again three years later, the teams were split into opposite divisions. The conference stated there will be only one protected crossover matchup under the new alignment, Indiana vs. Purdue for the Old Oaken Bucket, Michigan is the current holder of the jug with a 29–26 victory on October 31,2015. Through the end of the 2015 season, Michigan leads the series, the teams met for the first time in 1892 in Minneapolis, with Minnesota prevailing 14–6. Michigan and Minnesota played five games over the next decade. The earthenware jug, originally used by Michigan coach Fielding H. Yost, is painted with the victories of each team, the name most likely originates in the 1869 song of the same name by Joseph Winner.
After Yost took over coaching the Wolverines in 1901, the team went on to win 28 straight games, in the meantime, Minnesota assembled one of the best teams in school history, so Gopher fans were excited about possibly ending the Wolverines streak. When Yost and the team came into Minneapolis for the 1903 game, Yost was somewhat concerned that Gopher fans might contaminate his water supply. Roberts purchased a five-gallon jug for 30¢ from a variety store. Twenty thousand fans watched the matchup between the two teams in an overflowing Northrop Field, Minnesota held the fabled point-a-minute squad to just one touchdown, but hadnt yet managed to score a touchdown of their own. Finally, late in the half, the Gophers reached the endzone to tie the game at 6. As clouds from an impending storm hung overhead, pandemonium struck when Minnesota fans stormed the field in celebration, eventually the game had to be called with two minutes remaining. The Wolverines walked off the field, leaving the jug behind in the room of the University of Minnesota Armory.
The next day custodian Oscar Munson brought the jug to L. J. Cooke, head of the Minnesota athletics department, exactly how Munson came to possess the jug is a bit of a mystery. Some accounts say that Munson purposely stole the jug in the chaos that ended the game, Thomas Roberts, writing in 1956, stated that the jug had served its purpose, so he intentionally left it sitting on the field
Northfield is a city in Dakota and Rice counties in the State of Minnesota. The city is mostly in Rice County, with a portion in Dakota County. The population was 20,007 during the 2010 census, Northfield was platted in 1855 by John W. North. Northfield was founded by immigrants from New England known as Yankees as part of a New England colonization of what was the far west, Northfield was an early agricultural center with many wheat and corn farms. The town supported lumber and flour mills powered by the Cannon River, as the wheat frontier moved west, dairy operations and diversified farms replaced the wheat-based agriculture. The region has since moved away from dairy and beef operations, today it produces substantial crops of corn, and soybeans, as well as producing hogs. The local cereal producer Malt-O-Meal is one of the few remnants of Northfields historic wheat boom, the citys motto, Cows and Contentment, reflects the influence of the dairy farms. Since early in its history, Northfield has been a center of higher education and these were people descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s.
These two institutions, which today enroll a total of more than 5,000 students, make Northfield a college town, in the 1970s, completion of Interstate Highway 35 six miles west of Northfield enabled the expansion of the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metro area south of the Minnesota River. The downtown grain elevator accepted its last load of corn in 2000 and was torn down in 2002, residential growth has been rapid since the mid-1990s A new area hospital, which opened in 2003 in the northwest corner of town, is in Dakota County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 8.61 square miles,8.56 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. The peak elevation is about 912 feet, roughly speaking, the town is centered around the Cannon River and rises both to the east and the west away from this bisecting river body. Interstate 35 is six miles west of Northfield, Minnesota State Highways 3,19, and 246 are three of the main routes in Northfield. As of the census of 2010, there were 20,007 people,6,272 households, the population density was 2,337.3 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 6,832 housing units at a density of 798.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88. 8% White,1. 3% African American,0. 2% Native American,3. 5% Asian,4. 0% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 8. 4% of the population. 30. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 26.4 years
Rugby is a type of football developed at Rugby School in Rugby, one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. The two main types of rugby are rugby league and rugby union, although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon the rules of rugby league were modified, resulting in two different forms of rugby. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league, the Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. These games appear to have resembled rugby football, the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barbers shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis, episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union, in 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union, usually called the Northern Union, was formed.
The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs, after the schism, the separate clubs were named rugby league and rugby union. Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, and is dominated by the first tier unions, Australia, France, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Dublin and it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Samoa and Madagascar, and is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, there was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football, during the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were very similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart. Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a level by the Rugby League International Federation.
International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand, in Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup, distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle, play is continued with a play-the-ball, in league, if the team in possession fails to score before a set of six tackles, it surrenders possession