Fencing, called Olympic fencing, is a sport in which two competitors fight using rapier-style swords, winning points by making contact with their opponent. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics, there are three forms of modern fencing, each using a different style of weapon and different rules, and as such the sport is divided into three competitive scenes, foil, épée, and sabre. Most competitive fencers choose to specialise in one weapon. Competitive fencing is one of five activities which have featured in every one of the modern Olympic Games, the other four being athletics, swimming. Fencing is governed by Fédération Internationale dEscrime, its head office is in Lausanne, Switzerland. The FIE is composed of 145 national federations, each of which is recognised by its countrys Olympic Committee as the representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country. The FIE maintains the current rules used for FIE sanctioned international events, including cups, world championships.
The FIE handles proposals to change the rules the first year after an Olympic year in the annual congress, the US Fencing Association has slightly different rules, but usually adhere to FIE standards. Fencing traces its roots to the development of swordsmanship for duels, the ancestor of modern fencing originated in Spain, where several books on fencing were written. In conquest, the Spanish forces carried fencing around the world, particularly southern Italy, Fencing was mentioned in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor written sometime prior to 1602. The mechanics of modern fencing originated in the 18th century in an Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, the Spanish school of fencing stagnated and was replaced by the Italian and French schools. There, he taught the aristocracy the fashionable art of swordsmanship and his school was run by three generations of his family and dominated the art of European fencing for almost a century. He established the rules of posture and footwork that still govern modern sport fencing.
The first regularized fencing competition was held at the inaugural Grand Military Tournament and Assault at Arms in 1880, held at the Royal Agricultural Hall, the Tournament featured a series of competitions between army officers and soldiers. Each bout was fought for five hits and the foils were pointed with black to aid the judges, the Amateur Gymnastic & Fencing Association drew up an official set of fencing regulations in 1896. Fencing was part of the Olympics Games in the summer of 1896, starting with épée in 1933, side judges were replaced by the Laurent-Pagan electrical scoring apparatus, with an audible tone and a red or green light indicating when a touch landed. Foil was automated in 1956, sabre in 1988, the scoring box reduced the bias in judging, and permitted more accurate scoring of faster actions, lighter touches, and more touches to the back and flank than before. There are three weapons in modern fencing, foil, épée, and sabre, each weapon has its own rules and strategies
Tonkin, spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam. Tonkin is a corruption of Đông Kinh, the name of Hanoi during the Lê Dynasty, Tonkin is known as Bắc Kỳ, meaning Northern Region. The name was used in 1883 for the French colonial Tonkin protectorate and it is south of the Northeast Region of Vietnam, and of Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces of China, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. Located in the delta area of the Red River, Tonkin is rich in rice production. The area was called Văn Lang by Vietnamese ancestors from around 2000−100 BCE, evidence of the earliest established society in northern Vietnam, along with the Đông Sơn culture, was discovered in the Cổ Loa Citadel area, the core of the ancient city of Cổ Loa. Its site is located near the city of Hà Nội and present-day Hanoi. According to Vietnamese myths the first Vietnamese peoples descended from the Dragon Lord Lạc Long Quân, Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ had 100 sons before they decided to part ways.
50 of the children went with their mother to the mountains, the eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hùng kings. The Hùng kings called the country, which was located on the Red River delta in present-day northern Vietnam. The people of Văn Lang were referred to as the Lạc Việt, Lê Lợi, a notable land owner in the Lam Kinh region, had a following of more than 1,000 people before rising up against the Chinese Ming dynasty. Following his victory he mounted the throne and established himself in the city of Thang Long, Thang Long was called Đông Kinh, meaning Eastern Capital. During the 18th and 19th century, Westerners commonly used the name Tonkin to refer to northern Vietnam, ruled by the Trịnh lords was used to refer to Vietnam as a whole). During in the Sino-French War, considered a crucial foothold in Southeast Asia and it was colonized as the French protectorate of Tonkin, and was gradually separated from the French protectorate of Annam, with Vietnam being effectively separated into three parts.
During French colonial rule within French Indochina, Hanoi was the capital of Tonkin protectorate, French colonial administration ruled until 9 March 1945, with 1941-1945 during the World War II Japanese occupation of Vietnam. French administration was allowed by the Japanese as a puppet government, japan briefly took full control of Vietnam in March 1945, as the Empire of Vietnam. Tonkin became a site of the Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during this period, after the end of World War II, French rule returned over French Indochina. Northern Vietnam became a stronghold for the communist Viet Minh, Hanoi was reoccupied by the French and conflict between the Viet Minh and France broke out into the First Indochina War. In 1949 it came under the authority of the State of Vietnam, after the French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in western Tonkin in 1954, the communist nation of North Vietnam was formed, consisting of Tonkin and northern Annam
Jacques Ochs, was a Jewish Belgian artist and épée and foil fencer. Ochs was Jewish, and was born in Nice and his family moved to Liège, Belgium, in 1893. Ochs studied art there at the Royal Academy of Art in Liège and he won the Donnay Prize that year. Afterwards, he continued his studies at the Académie Julian in Paris until 1905, Ochs volunteered for the army in World War I, and was seriously injured in an air attack. In 1920 he became a professor of painting at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Liège, in addition to being a gifted artist, he was an Olympic fencing champion. He was Champion of Belgium in fencing in 1912, Ochs was a member of the Belgian fencing team at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics, and won a gold medal in the team épée event. Ochs competed in 3 individual events, in the individual foil and individual épée, he reached the 2nd round before being eliminated (he finished 39th in foil, and 29th in épée. Ochss final event was individual sabre, but he was eliminated in the 1st round and he at the same time worked at the newspapers Newspaper of Liege, Small Parisian, and the Belgian Nation.
In early April 1938, who was himself Jewish, depicted Hitler on the cover of Pourquoi Pas. with a swastika on his head and a sceptre in the form of a headless Jew. An artist with right-wing tendencies who envied Ochs success informed on him, a month later, on 17 December, Ochs was imprisoned in the Fort Breendonk camp, to the south of Antwerp on the Brussels-Antwerp highway. The camps prisoners suffered starvation, grass eating, hangings, since 20 September, Breendonk had been used as a police internment camp holding mostly political prisoners and foreign Jews before their transport to Germany. Ochs used caricature to document the life there, drawing portraits of his fellow inmates on paper, among them was a portrait of Antwerps shochet. Immediately after his arrival, Breziners hair had been shaved off, Ochs was obliged to obey the demands of the SS, but tried to ease the suffering of his fellow inmates. He would drag out their portrait sittings to provide them with as much rest as possible, a Flemish SS man who had known Ochs previously succeeded in smuggling him out of the camp in February 1942.
This same man was able to smuggle out some of the drawings Ochs had made for Commandant Schmitt. In 1944 Ochs was re-arrested and interned again, along with his sister and he continued to draw and managed to avoid deportation through a medical opinion confirming he had been baptised as a Protestant, and so could not be Jewish. He was liberated from the camp by the British forces, only a small number of the characters he drew survived. After the war, Ochs used his drawings to reconstruct scenes from the camp and he published these in 1947, in a book called Breendonck – Bagnards et Bourreaux
Fashion design is the art of application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, and has varied over time, Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklace. Because of the required to bring a garment onto the market. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing and they consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a range and combinations of materials to work with. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a range of conventional styles. Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one house, as in-house designers.
They may work alone or as part of a team, freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyers label, some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients, other high-end fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-end fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends, most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of mens and childrens fashions for the mass market. Fashion designers work in different ways, some sketch their ideas on paper, while others drape fabric on a dress form. Finally, a garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created.
Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, worths success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. The term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him, while all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design. It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments, the images were shown to clients, which was much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom
A foil is one of the three weapons used in the sport of fencing, all of which are metal. It is flexible, rectangular in section, and weighs under a pound. As with the épée, points are scored by contact with the tip. A foil fencers uniform features the lamé, a vest, electrically wired to record hits in such cases and it is the most commonly used weapon in competition. There are two types of foils, the nonelectric foil—also known as steam or dry—and the electric. The components common to both varieties are the pommel, guard, thumb pad, and blade. The blades of both varieties are capped with a plastic or rubber piece, with a button at the tip in electric blades, lacking the button and associated electrical mechanism, a judge is required to determine the scoring and the victor in a tournaments with nonelectric foils. Nonelectric ones are used for practice. The blade itself is subdivided into 3 regions, the foible, or weak, the last third of the blade near the tip, the medium, and the forte, or strong, the third of the blade near the guard.
Inside of the grip is the tang, which is threaded at the end to allow the pommel to fasten the foil assembly together. When an Italian grip is used, see below, a ricasso extends from under the guard, inside of the grips quillons, into the tang. The guard is fastened to the blade and grip assemblies by the pommel, a type of threaded fastener, beginning with the 1956 Olympics, scoring in foil has been accomplished by means of registering the touch with an electric circuit. A switch at the tip of the foil registers the touch, the electric foil contains a socket underneath the guard that connects to the scoring apparatus via the body cord and a wire that runs down a channel cut into the top of the blade. Electric foil sockets are fixed so that the body cord plugs into the weapon at the fencers wrist, the tip of the electric foil terminates in a button assembly that generally consists of a barrel, plunger and retaining screws. Color-coding is used, white or yellow indicates hits not on the target area.
The modern foil is descended from the weapon for the small-sword. Rapier and even longsword foils are known to have been used, although the foil as a blunted weapon for sword practice goes back to the 16th century, the use as a weapon for sport is more recent. The foil was used in France as a weapon in the middle of the 18th century in order to practise fast
Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel was a French fashion designer and businesswoman. She was the founder and namesake of the Chanel brand, a prolific fashion creator, Chanel extended her influence beyond couture clothing, realising her design aesthetic in jewellery and fragrance. 5, has become an iconic product and she is the only fashion designer listed on TIME magazines list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Chanel designed her iconic interlocked-CC monograph, meaning Coco Chanel, using it since the 1920s, Chanel was known for her lifelong determination and energy which she applied to her professional and social life. She achieved both financial success as a businesswoman and catapulted to prominence in French high society, thanks to the connections she made through her work. These included many artists and craftspeople to whom she became a patron and her social connections appeared to encourage a highly conservative personal outlook. One of Chanels lovers was a German military officer, Hans Gunther von Dincklage, after the war ended, Chanel was interrogated about her relationship with von Dincklage, but she was not charged as a collaborator.
After several years in Switzerland after the war, she returned to Paris, in 2011, Hal Vaughan published a book on Chanel based on newly declassified documents of that era, revealing that she had collaborated with Germans in intelligence activities. One plan in late 1943 was for her to carry an SS separate peace overture to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to end the war and she was Jeannes second child with Albert Chanel, the first, was born less than a year earlier. Albert Chanel was an itinerant street vendor who peddled work clothes and undergarments, living a life, traveling to. The family resided in rundown lodgings, in 1884, he married Jeanne Devolle, persuaded to do so by her family who had united, effectively, to pay Albert to marry her. At birth, Chanels name was entered into the registry as Chasnel. Jeanne was too unwell to attend the registration, and Albert was registered as travelling, with both parents absent, the infants last name was misspelled, probably due to a clerical error.
The couple had five children who survived—two boys and three girls—who lived crowded into a lodging in the town of Brive-la-Gaillarde. When Gabrielle was 12, her mother died of bronchitis at the age of 32 and her father sent his two sons out to work as farm laborers and sent his three daughters to the Corrèze, in central France, to the convent of Aubazine, which ran an orphanage. Its religious order, the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary, was founded to care for the poor and rejected and it was a stark, frugal life, demanding strict discipline. Despite the tragedy of this, being placed in the orphanage may have been the best thing for Coco’s future because it is where she learned to sew. At age eighteen, too old to remain at Aubazine, in her life, Chanel would retell the story of her childhood somewhat differently, she would often include more glamorous accounts, which were generally untrue
Jules François Camille Ferry was a French statesman and republican. He was a promoter of laicism and colonial expansion and he attacked the Second French Empire with great violence, directing his opposition especially against Baron Haussmann, prefect of the Seine department. A series of his articles in Le Temps was republished as The Fantastic Tales of Haussmannlaxupa, in this position he had the difficult task of administering Paris during the siege, and after the Paris Commune was obliged to resign. From 1872 to 1873 he was sent by Adolphe Thiers as minister to Athens, but returned to the chamber as deputy for the Vosges, when the first republican ministry was formed under W. H. A leader of the Opportunist Republicans faction, he was twice premier and he was an active Freemason initiated on July 8,1875, in La Clémante amitiée lodge in Paris the same day as Émile Littré. He became a member of the Alsace-Lorraine Lodge founded in Paris in 1782, two important works are associated with his administration, the non-clerical organization of public education, and the major colonial expansion of France.
Following the republican programme he proposed to destroy the influence of the clergy in the university and he finally succeeded in passing his eponymous laws of 16 June 1881 and 28 March 1882, which made primary education in France free, non-clerical and mandatory. In higher education, the number of professors, called the Republics black hussars because of their Republican support, after the military defeat of France by Prussia in 1870, Ferry formed the idea of acquiring a great colonial empire, principally for the sake of economic exploitation. In a speech before the Chamber of Deputies on 28 July 1885, he declared that it is a right for the superior races and they have the duty to civilize the inferior races. The last endeavor led to a war with Qing dynasty China, although the treaty of peace with the Manchu Empire, in which the Qing dynasty ceded suzerainty of Annam and Tonkin to France, was the work of his ministry, he would never again serve as premier. The desire for a monarchy was strong in France in the years of the Third Republic – Henri.
A committed republican, Ferry proceeded to a purge by dismissing many known monarchists from top positions in the magistrature and civil. He played with political dynamite that eventually destroyed his success, Ferry believed in not confronting Wilhelmine Germany by threats of a future war of revenge. Most French politicians in the middle and right saw it as a duty to one day lead France again against Germany to reclaim Alsace-Lorraine. But Ferry realized that Germany was too powerful, and it made sense to cooperate with Otto von Bismarck. A sensible policy – but hardly popular, Bismarck was constantly nervous about the situation with France. Although he had despised the ineptness of the French under Napoleon III, for all his abilities regarding manipulating events, could not afford to anger the Prussian military. He got the two provinces, but he realized it would eventually have severe future repercussions
Gabriel-Maximilien Leuvielle, better known by the stage name Max Linder, was a French actor, screenwriter and comedian of the silent film era. His onscreen persona Max was one of the first recognizable recurring characters in film and he has been cited as the first international movie star. Born in Cavernes, France to Catholic parents, Linder grew up with a passion for the theatre and he soon received awards for his performances and continued to pursue a career in the legitimate theatre. He became a player with the Bordeaux Théâtre des Arts from 1901 to 1904, performing in plays by Molière, Pierre Corneille. From the summer of 1905, Linder appeared in comedy films for Pathé. His first major role was in the Georges Méliès-like fantasy film The Legend of Punching. Starting with The Skaters Debut in 1907, the character one of the first identifiable motion-picture characters who appeared in successive situation comedies. By 1911, Linder was co-directing his own films as well as writing the scripts, Linder enlisted at the outbreak of the First World War, and worked at first as a dispatch driver and entertainer.
During his service, he was injured several times, and the experiences reportedly had an effect on him both physically and mentally. It was during this time he suffered his first outbreak of chronic depression, Linder was born Gabriel-Maximilien Leuvielle near Saint-Loubès, Gironde. His parents were wealthy vineyard owners and expected Linder to take over the family business, but Linder grew up with a passion for the theatre and was enthralled by the traveling theater and circus performances that occasionally visited his town. He wrote that nothing was more distasteful to me than the thought of a life among the grapes, in 1899, Linder enrolled in the Bordeaux Conservatorie and quickly won awards for first prize in comedy and second prize in tragedy. At the same time that he was performing in serious dramatic theater, le Bargy encouraged Linder to audition for the Paris Conservatorie in 1904. Linder was rejected and began appearing in less prestigious theaters such as the Olympia Theater, by 1905, he had adopted his stage name of Max Linder and used it in several theatrical performances.
Also during this period, Linder applied for work at Pathé Frères in Vincennes at the suggestion of film director Louis Gasnier and began appearing in bit parts. Linder continued to appear on the stage for the two years and was not a significant film star at first. Come and act in front of my cameras, and I will help make it, from 1905 to 1907, Linder appeared in dozens of short comedy films for Pathé, usually in a supporting role. His first noticeably larger film role was in The Young Mans first outing in 1905 and he appeared in Georges Méliès-like fantasy films such as Serpentine Dances and The Legend of Punching, his first leading role
Battle of Gia Cuc
In defiance of the instructions of his superiors, Rivière stormed the citadel of Hanoi on 25 April 1882. Although Rivière subsequently returned the citadel to Vietnamese control, his recourse to force was greeted with alarm in both Vietnam and China, the Vietnamese bid for Chinese support. Vietnam had long been a state of China, and China agreed to arm and support the Black Flags. The Qing court sent a signal to the French that China would not allow Tonkin to fall under French control. In the summer of 1882 troops of the Chinese Yunnan and Guangxi Armies crossed the border into Tonkin, occupying Lang Son, Bac Ninh, Hung Hoa, both negotiators were criticized for giving too much away, and the deal soon unravelled. It was never ratified in China, and in France Jules Ferrys incoming administration disavowed the agreement in March 1883, Rivière was disgusted at the deal cut by Bourée, and in early 1883 decided to force the issue. He had recently sent a battalion of marine infantry from France. French casualties were 4 men wounded, the Vietnamese may have lost as many as 1,000 dead and wounded.
One of the factors in the Vietnamese defeat was the absence of pressure on the French from Liu Yongfu. Liu was supposed to attack Hanoi from the west while Prince Hoang descended from the north, the two men were on the coolest of terms, and Liu made only a feint attack on the French-held Royal Palace. This attack was beaten off by the French garrison. Meanwhile, the failure of cooperation between Prince Hoang and Liu Yongfu alarmed the Chinese, the senior Chinese civil mandarin Tang Jingsong reconciled the two men in April 1883, and persuaded Liu Yongfu to take the field against the French with the Black Flag Army. The result, in May 1883, was the disastrous French defeat at the Battle of Paper Bridge, in which both Rivière and Berthe de Villers were killed