1883 in Wales
- Prince of Wales — Albert Edward
- Princess of Wales — Alexandra
- Archdruid of the National Eisteddfod of Wales — Clwydfardd
- 27 January — In the same storm, the James Gray is wrecked on Tusker Rocks, Porthcawl, and the Agnes Jack off Port Eynon. The Mumbles lifeboat puts out, and 5 of its crew are drowned in the rescue attempt, in which Jessie Ace and Margaret Wright assist.
- 1 February — Five miners are killed in an accident at the Lewis Merthyr Colliery.
- 25 June — Six miners are killed in an accident at the New Duffryn Colliery, Rhymney.
- July — The steamship Rishanglys leaves three seamen, who are believed to be suffering from cholera, on the island of Flat Holm; one of them subsequently dies.
- 21 August — Five miners are killed in an accident at the Gelli Colliery, Gelli, Glamorgan.
- 24 October — Cardiff University opens (under the name of University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire).
- 31 October — 18 people are drowned when the German barque Alhambra sinks off Holyhead.
- 13 November — Merthyr Tydfil-born Samuel Griffith becomes Premier of Queensland for the first time.
- c. November? — Closure of Point of Ayr lighthouse.
- Peak year for zinc production in Wales.
- Welsh-Canadian artist Robert Harris is commissioned to paint the Meeting of the Delegates of British North America.
Arts and literature
- Chair — withheld
- Crown — Anna Walter Thomas
- Rhoda Broughton — Belinda
- Amy Dillwyn — A Burglary; or Unconscious Influence
- John Jones (Myrddin Fardd) — Adgof Uwch Anghof
- Robert Owen - Pilgrimage to Rome
- Robert Williams (Trebor Mai) — Gwaith Barddonol Trebor Mai (posthumously published)
- Treorchy Male Voice Choir formed.
- Football — Wrexham win the Welsh Cup for the second time in its six-year history.
- Rugby union
- 6 January — Harry Uzzell, Wales international rugby union captain (died 1960)
- 23 March — William Evans, Wales dual code international rugby player (died 1946)
- 30 April — David John de Lloyd, composer (died 1948)
- 7 May — Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley, newspaper magnate (died 1968)
- 28 May — Clough Williams-Ellis, architect (died 1978)
- 12 June — Margaret Mackworth, 2nd Viscountess Rhondda, suffragette (died 1958)
- 8 August — Iesu Grist Price, son of William Price (died 1884)
- 13 September — Percy Thomas, architect (died 1969)
- 14 October — Dick Thomas, Wales international rugby player (died 1916)
- 23 November — James 'Tuan' Jones, Wales and British Lion rugby player (died 1964)
- 13 December – Sir Frederick Rees, Welsh historian and academic
- date unknown
- 25 January — John Elias Davies, harpist, 35
- 29 January — John Owen (Owain Alaw), composer, 61
- 28 May — Hugh Jones, Principal of Llangollen Baptist College, 51
- 8 November — William Rees (Gwilym Hiraethog), poet, 81
- date unknown - John Batchelor, businessman and politician, 63
- Guy, John (1984). "Saving Flat Holm's Cholera Hospital". Exploring Local History (8): 244–246.