1883 in art
20 April – Claude Monet moves to the house in Giverny which will be his main residence for the rest of his life. 28 October – Les XX established in Brussels by Octave Maus, L. Wyllie – Toil, Glitter, Grime and Wealth on a Flowing Tide 3 February – Camille Bombois, French naïve painter. 18 February – Jacques Ochs, French artist, épée and foil fencer,12 April Francis Cadell, Scottish Colourist painter Imogen Cunningham, American photographer. 24 June – Jean Metzinger, French painter and art theorist,16 July – Charles Sheeler, American modernist painter and photographer. 31 July – Erich Heckel, German painter and printmaker,19 August – Coco Chanel, French fashion designer. 14 September – Richard Gerstl, Austrian painter and draughtsman,9 November – Charles Demuth, American painter. 4 December – Felice Casorati, Italian painter,24 December – Stojan Aralica, famous Serbian Impressionist painter and academic. 26 December – Maurice Utrillo, French painter, date unknown – Charles Jourdan, French fashion designer
1883 in architecture
The year 1883 in architecture involved some significant events. May 1 - The Examination Schools of the University of Oxford, may 24 - Brooklyn Bridge, designed by John A. Roebling, is completed. May 26 - Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, designed by Konstantin Thon, is dedicated, Albany City Hall in Albany, New York, designed by Henry Hobson Richardson in Richardsonian Romanesque style, is completed. The Home Insurance Building in Chicago designed by William LeBaron Jenney, the Kuhns Building in Dayton, Ohio, is constructed. Hotel Windsor, Australia, designed by Charles Webb, is completed, cane Hill Hospital in Coulsdon, London, is completed. Waddesdon Manor in Buckinghamshire, England, designed by Gabriel-Hippolyte Destailleur, is opened for guests, billings Memorial Library at the University of Vermont in Burlington, designed by Henry Hobson Richardson, is built. Royal Gold Medal - Francis Cranmer Penrose, grand Prix de Rome, architecture, Gaston Redon
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England are one of the two oldest national teams in football, alongside Scotland, whom played in the worlds first international football match in 1872. Englands home ground is Wembley Stadium, London, and the current manager is Gareth Southgate, England contest the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Championship, which alternate biennially. In contesting for the World Cup seventeen times over the past sixty four years, England won the 1966 World Cup, when they hosted the finals, the England national football team is the joint-oldest in the world, it was formed at the same time as Scotland. A representative match between England and Scotland was played on 5 March 1870, having been organised by the Football Association, a return fixture was organised by representatives of Scottish football teams on 30 November 1872. Over the next forty years, England played exclusively with the other three Home Nations—Scotland, Wales and Ireland—in the British Home Championship, to begin with, England had no permanent home stadium. They joined FIFA in 1906 and played their first ever games against countries other than the Home Nations on a tour of Central Europe in 1908, Wembley Stadium was opened in 1923 and became their home ground. The relationship between England and FIFA became strained, and this resulted in their departure from FIFA in 1928 and their first ever defeat on home soil to a foreign team was a 0–2 loss to the Republic of Ireland, on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park. A 6–3 loss in 1953 to Hungary, was their defeat by a foreign team at Wembley. In the return match in Budapest, Hungary won 7–1 and this still stands as Englands worst ever defeat. After the game, a bewildered Syd Owen said, it was like playing men from outer space, in the 1954 FIFA World Cup, England reached the quarter-finals for the first time, and lost 4–2 to reigning champions Uruguay. Although Walter Winterbottom was appointed as Englands first ever manager in 1946. In UEFA Euro 1968, the reached the semi-finals for the first time. England qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico as reigning champions, and reached the quarter-finals, England had been 2–0 up, but were eventually beaten 3–2 after extra time. They failed in qualification for the 1974, leading to Ramseys dismissal, under Ron Greenwood, they managed to qualify for the 1982 FIFA World Cup in Spain, despite not losing a game, they were eliminated in the second group stage. Despite losing to Italy in the third place play-off, the members of the England team were given bronze medals identical to the Italians’, the England team of 1990 were welcomed home as heroes and thousands of people lined the streets, for a spectacular open-top bus parade. However, the team did not win any matches in UEFA Euro 1992, drawing with tournament winners Denmark, the 1990s saw four England managers, each in the role for a relatively brief period. Graham Taylor was Robsons successor, but resigned after England failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup, at UEFA Euro 1996, held in England, Terry Venables led England, equalling their best performance at a European Championship, reaching the semi-finals as they did in 1968
Andover Football Club was an association football club based in Andover, Hampshire, established in 1883. Since the 2007–08 season, Andover had been a member of the Southern League Division One South, the club played at this level for 29 of its 128 years of existence, and played its thousandth game in this league in 2008. In the 2010–11 season, the club finished twenty-first out of twenty-one teams, in a statement announcing the matter, club secretary Graham Cousins expressed a hope that the club could be resurrected to play at a more appropriate level in the future. A new club, Andover Lions F. C. was subsequently formed, Andover Football Club was formed in 1883 and played their first game on 27 October at Strides Field, Weyhill Road, a friendly match against Basingstoke Mechanical Engineers. Three years later moved to the Walled Meadow, where they played their home matches for the next 96 years. During this time, Andover won the Salisbury League eight times, Andover competed in the first Hampshire Senior Cup in 1888, but became involved in controversy after they were knocked out of the competition by Woolston Works. During this match, a Glasgow–based player called J. Kesson played for Woolston in their victory, Andover protested that Kesson should be disqualified on the grounds of residency—although he had played for Woolston Works earlier that season, he had since moved back to Glasgow. Woolstons appeal rested on the fact that Kesson had left some items of clothing at his lodgings in Woolston, the Hampshire FA upheld the appeal, allowing Woolston to progress through to the next round and eventually win the inaugural competition. Andover joined the newly formed Southern League Second Division South West section in 1898 and they won just two of their ten games at this higher level and finished bottom of their six-team division, which also included Cowes, Ryde and Eastleigh. After just one season, they moved back down to county league football along with the majority of teams in that division, until the First World War Andover played in the Hampshire League North Division, and their first major honour came in 1913–14 when they won that division. Competition was suspended during the war, and upon the restart they rejoined the Hampshire League in the North Division before moving to an enlarged County Division in the 1920–21 season. It was while in this division that won their most prestigious title to date. Division One of the Hampshire League was formed at the start of the 1929–30 season, the only slip was in 1936–37 when they were relegated, but they returned the following year after winning promotion from Division Two. The club remained active during the Second World War, winning the Hampshire League title in 1944–45, Andover had a certain degree of success in county cup competitions during this period. They reached the final of the Hampshire Senior Cup twice, in 1931 and 1933, losing to Winchester City and they also won the Russell Cotes Cup four times and reached the final a further three times. Andover continued playing in Division One of the Hampshire League after the war and they had success during the period between 1948 and 1951, winning two more Hampshire League championships as well as winning the Hampshire Senior Cup for the first two times in the clubs history. In 1960–61, Andover won the Russell Cotes Cup for the time, while the reserves were champions of Division Two. The following year saw the first team win their eighth Hampshire League championship and retain the Russell Cotes Cup, ian Henderson broke his own goalscoring record set the previous year, scoring 62 goals
Ashington Association Football Club is a football club based in Ashington, Northumberland, England. They are currently members of the Northern League Division One and play at Woodhorn Lane and they were a founding member of the Football League Third Division North in 1921 and are the northernmost team to have played in the Football League. The club were founder members of the Northern Premier League in 1968 and have been in the Northern League since 1970. The club was established in 1883 and began entering the FA Cup in 1887 and they joined the Northern Alliance at the start of the 1892–93 season when the league was expanded to twelve clubs. However, the league was reduced to ten club the following season, the club then ceased activities, but were brought back following a large meeting, joining the East Northumberland League in 1895. They went on to win the title in 1897–98. Ashington applied to rejoin the Northern Alliance in 1901, but were rejected, however, the following season they were elected back into the league, finishing second in the vote to admit three clubs. They won the league in 1913–14 and moved up to the North Eastern League, when football resumed after World War I the club rejoined the North Eastern League, where they remained until being elected into the new Third Division North of the Football League in 1921. After all the applications had been considered by the League, Ashington were one of fourteen clubs marked out for admission in a single bloc, which they duly were. In 1926–27 the club recorded its best performance in the FA Cup, reaching the third round, after finishing bottom of the division in 1928–29 the club lost their bid for re-election, receiving only 14 votes to the 24 received by non-League York City. Ashington subsequently dropped into Division Two of the North Eastern League as Division One had no spaces, with only two clubs eligible for promotion, Ashington appeared to have missed out after finishing third. However, runners-up White-le-Head declined the opportunity of promotion, allowing Ashington to move up to Division One, alongside several other former North Eastern League clubs, Ashington switched to the Midland League. In 1960 they were members of the Northern Counties League. The North Eastern League was re-established in 1962, but lasted two seasons. Ashington spent the 1964–65 season in the Wearside League before joining the North Regional League and they remained in the league for three seasons, before becoming founder members of the Northern Premier League in 1968. In the first season of the league, the club finished third-from-bottom and they spent a single season back in the Northern Alliance, before joining the Northern League in 1970. In 1973–74 they reached the semi-finals of the last-ever FA Amateur Cup, in 1981 a second division was added to the league, with Ashington remaining in Division One. However, after finishing second-from-bottom in 1983–84 they were relegated to Division Two, in 2000–01 they won Division Two, earning promotion to Division One
Belper Town F.C.
Belper Town Football Club is a football club based in Belper, Derbyshire, England. They are currently members of the Northern Premier League Division One South, the club are nicknamed the Nailers due to the towns nail-making industry. The club were formed in 1883 and reached the first round of the FA Cup in 1887–88. They were founder members of the Derbyshire Senior League in 1890, in 1911 they were founder members of the Notts & Derbyshire League, but left the league at the end of the 1910–11 season. The club reformed in 1951 and joined Division One of the Central Alliance, taking over the fixtures of Mansfield Town A, in 1956 the league was restructured, with Belper placed in Division One North. They finished as runners-up in 1956–57 and were champions in 1958–59, when the Midland League was re-established in 1961, Belper joined the league. They finished bottom of the league in 1969–70, after it was split into two divisions, Belper were placed in the Premier Division, of which they finished bottom in 1978–79. However, they were not relegated, and went on to win the Premier Division, in 1982 the league merged with the Yorkshire League to form the Northern Counties East League, with Belper placed in the Premier Division. They won the Premier Division in 1984–85 and the Presidents Cup in 1995–96, the following season they finished as runners-up in the Premier Division and were promoted to Division One of the Northern Premier League. When Division One was split in 2007, the club were placed in Division One South, after finishing as runners-up in 2008–09 they qualified for the promotion play-offs. Although they beat Rushall Olympic 1–0 in the semi-finals, they lost the final 1–0 to Stocksbridge Park Steels, a third-place finish in 2012–13 led to another play-off campaign, which resulted in them losing 4–2 to Stamford in the semi-finals. However, after finishing fourth the season, they defeated Leek Town 2–0 in the semi-finals. The clubs first season in the Premier Division saw them bottom of the table. The club originally played at the Acorn Ground, before moving to Christchurch Meadow in 1951, taking over from a junior team, Field Head. The ground initially had a stand on the northern side of the pitch. Parts of it were reused to build a new stand on the opposite side, the club bought the freehold to the ground in 1986 for £6,000. New dressing rooms were built in 1999 and new 500-seat stand opened in 2003, the ground also has a covered stand, the Reg Walker Stand, with a capacity of 300. The record attendance of 3,200 was set for a match against Ilkeston Town in 1955. C, players Belper Town F. C. managers Official website
Buckingham Town F.C.
Buckingham Town Football Club is a football club based in Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, England. The club are members of the United Counties League Division One. The club were established in 1883, playing their first match was against Banury United and they won the Aylesbury & District League in 1902–03 and 1936–37 and the North Bucks League in 1924–25, 1928–29, 1933–34, 1935–36, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1948–49 and 1949–50. They were founder members of the Hellenic League in 1953, and they won the Aylesbury & District League again in 1967–68. Buckingham joined Division One of the South Midlands League in 1971 and their first season in the league saw them finish second, earning promotion to Division One. After finishing as Division One runners-up in 1975–76, the secured a second successive promotion. In 1985–86 Buckingham won the Premier Division again and were promoted to the Midland Division of the Southern League, after being transferred to the Southern Division in 1988, they won the division in 1990–91, but were not promoted as their ground failed to meet the standards required. They were moved back to the Midland Division in 1994, however, after finishing bottom of the division in 1996–97, they were relegated back to the Premier Division of the United Counties League. The 2006–07 season saw them bottom of the Premier Division. The club played at Ford Meadow from 1883 until being evicted at the end of the 2010–11 season and they then played at the Winslow Centre in Winslow for the 2011–12 season, before moving to Manor Fields in Milton Keynes. C. Players Buckingham Town F. C. managers Official website
Bognor Regis Town F.C.
Bognor Regis Town Football Club are an English football club based in Bognor Regis, West Sussex. The club is an FA Chartered Standard Community club affiliated to the Sussex County Football Association and they currently compete in the Isthmian League Premier Division as of the 2016-17 season. Bognor F. C. were founded in 1883 and the club became founding members of the West Sussex Football League in 1896, joining the Senior Division. They won the championship of this league for five years in the early 1920s. Just one year later, however, they joined the Sussex County League where they were to remain until 1972, the club became Bognor Regis F. C. in 1929 after King George V added the suffix Regis to the seaside resort. The club won the Sussex County Division One championship in the 1948–49 season, at the end of that season, they added Town to their name so as not to be confused with the local rugby club. At the end of the 1969–70 season they were relegated, the club won the Division One championship title the following season and were promoted to Division One South of the Southern League. In 1972–73 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, in 1976 Jack Pearce became manager at the age of just 26, and went on to hold the position until 2007. In 1981 the club were transferred to Division One of the Isthmian League, in 1984–85 they reached the first round of the FA Cup again, beating Swansea City 3–1 in a replay after a 1–1 draw at the Vetch Field. In the second round they lost 5–2 at Reading and they reached the second round again the following season, beating Enfield in the first round, before losing 6–1 at Gillingham. They went on to reach the first round again in 1986–87, in 1988–89 they beat Football League opposition again, defeating Exeter City 2–1, before losing to Cambridge United. In 1991–92 Bognor finished in the zone, but were reprieved after Dagenham. However, the season they finished bottom of the Premier Division. In 1995–96 they reached the round of the FA Cup for a fourth time. In 2002–03 they finished second in Division One South, and were promoted back to the Premier Division, after finishing tenth the following year, the club were placed in the newly established Conference South. They were relegated back to the Isthmian League Premier Division at the end of the 2008–09 season, season 2010–11 saw the club compete in the Isthmian League Division One South and they missed out on promotion back to the Premier Division by the tightest of margins. As a result, they found themselves having to participate in the end-of-season play-offs, in 2011–12 they again finished second in Division One South. They won the end-of-season play-offs, defeating Godalming Town in a thrilling semi-final, before beating Dulwich Hamlet 1–0 in the final, the 2013-14 season started slowly with just one point from the opening four matches
Bristol Rovers F.C.
Bristol Rovers Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Bristol, England. They compete in League One, the tier of English football. The team play their matches at Memorial Stadium, in Horfield, a suburb of Bristol. The club was founded in 1883 as Black Arabs F. C. and were known as Eastville Rovers. The clubs official nickname is The Pirates, reflecting the history of Bristol. According to a survey conducted in December 2003, Cardiff City and Swindon Town are considered their second, Rovers were admitted to the Football League in 1920 and have played there ever since, apart from spending the 2014–15 season in the Conference Premier. Their highest finishing positions were in 1956 and 1959, on both occasions ending the season in 6th place in Division Two, then the tier of English football. Rovers were Football League Trophy finalists in 1990 and 2007, the club was formed following a meeting at the Eastville Restaurant in Bristol in September 1883. It was initially called Black Arabs F. C. after the Arabs rugby team and this name only lasted for the 1883–84 season, and in a bid to draw more fans from the local area the club was renamed Eastville Rovers in 1884. The club played friendly games until the 1887–88 season, when it took part in the Gloucestershire Cup for the first time. In 1892 the club became a member of the Bristol and District League. In 1897 Eastville Rovers joined the Birmingham and District League, at the beginning of the 1897–98 season, the club turned professional and changed its name to Bristol Eastville Rovers, and on 17 February 1899 the name was officially changed to Bristol Rovers. In 1899 Bristol Rovers joined the newly formed Southern League, where remained until 1920. For the 1920–21 season, the Southern League teams were moved into the new Division Three of the Football League and they remained in this division for over 30 years, before winning the league, and promotion in the 1952–53 season. The club has been relegated six times—in 1961–62, 1980–81, 1992–93, 2000–01, 2010–11 and most recently at the end of the 2013–14 season. The highest position in the football ladder achieved by Rovers at the end of season is sixth place in the tier, which they did twice, once in 1955–56. The closest they came to the top flight was in 1955–56, the lowest league position achieved by the club is twenty-third out of twenty-four teams in the fourth tier, which has occurred twice. This position was matched at the end of the 2013–14 season and they returned to the league at the end of their first Conference season, with a penalty shootout victory over Grimsby Town in the play-off final
Coventry City F.C.
Coventry City Football Club is a professional football club in Coventry, West Midlands, England, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. Coventry City formed as Singers F. C. in 1883 and they won their only major trophy in 1987 when they beat Tottenham Hotspur 3–2 to win the FA Cup. They are one of five clubs to have ever won the FA Cup and FA Youth Cup in the same season. They returned to Wembley in April 2017, beating Oxford United 2-1 to win the English Football League Trophy. Following eleven seasons in the second-tier Football League Championship, Coventry were relegated to Football League One in 2012, Coventry have qualified for European competitions twice. In the 1970–71 season, they competed in the European Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, despite beating Bayern Munich 2–1 in their home leg, they had lost 1–6 in the first leg in Munich to go out of the competition. They were unable to compete in the 1987–88 UEFA Cup Winners Cup due to the ban on English clubs at that time, from 1899 to 2005, Coventry City played at Highfield Road. A return to the Ricoh Arena was announced on 21 August 2014 by the club after a one-year absence,1883 – The club is founded by employees of Singer, the cycle firm, with William Stanley one of the leading lights. 1898 – The clubs name is changed from Singers F. C. to Coventry City,1899 – The club move to Highfield Road following stints at Dowells Field and Stoke Road. 1901 – The club suffer their worst ever defeat with an 11–2 loss against Worcester-based Berwick Rangers in the round of the FA Cup. 1919 – The club are voted into the Football League, where they have remained ever since,1928 – In February, and with Coventry struggling near the foot of Division Three South, the clubs worst ever attendance is recorded. Only 2,059 turn up for the match against Crystal Palace,1932 – Centre-forward Clarrie Bourton heads the Football League scoring lists with 49 goals. The following season he scored 40 goals,1934 – City record their biggest ever victory a 9–0 league drubbing of Bristol City. 1936 – Coventry City win the Third Division South championship after a final day 2–1 victory over Torquay United. 1958 – Goalkeeper Alf Wood becomes the oldest player to start a game for the club and he played against Plymouth Argyle in the FA Cup aged 43 years and 207 days. 1961 – Former Fulham player and PFA chairman Jimmy Hill is appointed following an embarrassing FA Cup defeat at home to non-league Kings Lynn. 1964 – Jimmy Hill guides Coventry to promotion from Division Three as champions after a final day 1–0 victory over Colchester United,1967 – Coventry City promoted as Second Division champions to the top flight for the first time in their history. This made manager and BBC Sport presenter Jimmy Hill a legend at the club, Coventrys record attendance was also set in this year – officially recorded as 51,455, against Wolverhampton Wanderers, the team that finished a close second to Coventry at the top of the table
Darlington 1883 is an English football club that plays at Blackwell Meadows, Darlington. This policy had previously applied to other collapsing clubs, such as Chester City FC. Darlington applied to join the Northern League as a new club, a deadline imposed by the FA meant the board was unable to wait for the results of a poll of supporters, so the name Darlington 1883 was chosen. The company Darlington 1883 Limited was incorporated on 18 Jan 2012 by owners of Darlington Football Club and this company then went on to purchase the assets of Darlington F. C. on 3 May 2012 when a CVA could not be agreed with creditors. Darlington Football Club itself was founded in 1883, and became a football club in 1908. The club became a member of the Football League in 1920, in which it competed until 1989, in the 1989–90 season and from 2010 to 2012, Darlington played in the Football Conference. The club was taken over by Darlington1883, a group of local fans. Darlington1883 failed to arrange a CVA, and as such on 21 June 2012 Darlington F. C. ceased to exist, an appeal against the FA decision was inevitably rejected, confirming that the new club would not be able to play as Darlington F. C. On 25 June 2012 the new registration of a new club. In March 2013 it was confirmed that the Darlington Football Club Community Interest Company and this made the club 100% fan and community owned, with 26% owned by the Darlington 1883 Supporters Club and 22% by 22 individual fans. Following a successful first season in the Northern League Division One, Darlington 1883 were crowned champions with a haul of 122 points. As a result, Darlington 1883 were promoted to the Northern Premier League Division One North, even though Darlington 1883 are a new club, they are committed to paying the former clubs debt including a recent payment of £53,000 to HMRC. Darlington played in the Northern Premier League Division One North for the 2013–14 season, in the 2013–14 season, Darlington finished 2nd and qualified for the playoffs, where they were beaten in the semifinal by Ramsbottom United. Ramsbottom went on to win the final and achieve promotion, in the 2014–15 season, Darlington again finished 2nd and on 2 May 2015 they won the playoff final 2–0 against Bamber Bridge to win promotion to the Northern Premier League Premier Division. In the 2015–16 season, Darlington clinched the Northern Premier League Premier Division title on 21 April 2016 after beating Whitby Town 7–1 to seal promotion to the National League North. Norman Stephens and some of the staff were retained by Darlington who took Hordens place in the Wearside League. They played their first game under the new name on 6 October in a 1–0 away defeat to Boldon C. A, plans had originally been laid down to move to Shildon Football Club, but Heritage Park was eventually chosen as Darlingtons first official home. Heritage Park is south-west of Bishop Auckland, the attendance was exactly 3,000 at Blackwell Meadows
Gloucester City A.F.C.
The club was established in 1883 as Gloucester, they became Gloucester City in 1902, but were briefly known as Gloucester YMCA from 1910 to 1925, before returning to their previous name. The club has competed in the Conference North since 2009, having been promoted from the Southern Premier League at the end of the 2008–09 season and it spent a record 70 years within the Southern Football League from 1939 until 2009. The club secured promotion after a Playoff final win against Farnborough, in July 2007, the club was considerably affected by the Gloucestershire floods with their Meadow Park stadium under eight feet of water. The floods have meant the club has been in exile away from Gloucester since 2007, the current team manager is Tim Harris. The club is affiliated to the Gloucestershire County FA, the club was formed on 5 March 1883 as Gloucester, but the first recorded match came during 1883–84 when a scratch team representing Cheltenham played a match against the new Gloucester side. Gloucesters first competitive game in October 1889 was a Gloucestershire FA Junior Challenge Cup 1st Round tie beating Clifton Association Reserves 10–0 at Buddings Field, the club became members of the Bristol and District League which subsequently became the Western League. During this era the club was noted as The Gloucestrians and The Citizens in local media, after the end of the First World War in 1918 most of the players who had been with City joined Gloucester YMCA. By 1925 they had assumed the name of Gloucester City once more and had become members of the Gloucestershire Northern Senior League. In 1939 the club played in the Southern Football League for the very first time, albeit in a wartime competition. After the war City rejoined the Southern League and went on to become the Leagues longest serving members. For three consecutive seasons, 1948–51, the reached the First Round of the FA Cup, each time losing to Football League opponents, Mansfield Town, Norwich City. It took until the 1955–56 season for Gloucester to taste their first success in the Southern League. A famous Southern League Cup final win against Yeovil Town in which City had lost the first leg 4–1, only to beat Yeovil 5–1 in the second leg, won the club their first major honour. In 1964 the club moved again, from Longlevens to the massive Horton Road stadium, closer to the centre of Gloucester. Although Gloucester City were promoted to the Southern Football League Premier Division in the 1968–69 season, in the 1981–82 season a sixth-place finish was enough to clinch a place in the reformed Premier Division. They were also runners-up in the League Cup, going down 1–2 to Wealdstone, despite Kim Casey scoring 40 goals, the club were relegated to the Midland Division in 1984–85, after 3 seasons in the Premier Division. In 1986 the club moved once more, this time to Meadow Park, the Horton Road ground became a housing estate which now boasts the names of City legends, Myers Road, Etheridge Place and Coltman Close amongst others. Former Aston Villa and Wales player Brian Godfrey was appointed manager in 1988, the next big achievement of the Godfrey years was the famous FA Cup run in 1989–90 which has still not been matched
Stockport County F.C.
Stockport County Football Club is a semi-professional football club in Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. Formed in 1883 as Heaton Norris Rovers, the team adopted their name in 1890 after the County Borough of Stockport and they have played at Edgeley Park since 1902, traditionally in blue and white, and are nicknamed The Hatters after the towns former hat-making industry. Stockport County joined the Football League in 1900 and competed in it continuously from 1905 to 2011, however, instability on and off the pitch eventually led to Stockport falling back to the lower divisions. The club started the 2011–12 season in the Conference National, having been relegated from Football League Two for the first time in their history at the end of 2010–11, at the end of 2012–13, Stockport were relegated to the Conference North. Stockport County was formed in 1883 as Heaton Norris Rovers by members of the Wycliffe Congregational Church, the club adopted The Hatters as their nickname, owing to Stockports history as the centre of the Victorian hat-making industry, a nickname that is shared with Luton Town. Stockport played in the Lancashire League until 1900, when they gained admission to the Football League Second Division, Stockports first Football League match was against Leicester Fosse which ended in a 2–2 draw. Stockport left their Green Lane home in 1902 and moved to Edgeley Park where they currently reside, the club finished in the bottom three for their first four seasons, and at the end of 1903–04 they failed to gain re-election. They spent one year in the Lancashire Combination and the Midland League, at the end of the season, they were re-admitted to the Football League after being re-elected through the Midland League. In their first season back in the Football League, Stockport reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, however, Stockport finished the league in 10th position that season. Stockport remained in Division 2 of the Football League for seven years until 1912–13 when they again had to seek re-election, Stockport gained 22 votes and was therefore re-elected. Albert Williams was presented with the seven days later before the home game with Lincoln City. This title win began a remarkable coincidence which has occurred in each of Stockports title winning seasons where Lincoln City have been the last opponents in each of those seasons. Joe OKane, who joined Stockport the previous season, was a factor in the clubs promotion although he left the club at the end of the season. Once Stockport returned to Division 2, they struggled and survived an automatic relegation by one point, the 1923–24 season saw Stockport County finish 13th, one place above Manchester United. This is the time in history Stockport has achieved better than Manchester United. During this campaign Stockport goalkeeper Harry Hardy was called up to play for the England national team and he is the only player to be capped at full level by England while on Stockports books. Two seasons later Stockport returned to the division after finishing bottom of the league. Stockport closed out the 1920s in Division Three North with a 3rd-placed finish in 1927–28, Joe Smith was Stockports and the divisions leading goalscorer in this particular season contributing to 38 of Stockports 89 goals
Thame United F.C.
Thame United Football Club are a football club based in Thame, Oxfordshire, England. They were established in 1883 and joined the Hellenic League in 1959, the club currently competes in the Hellenic League Premier Division. Thame United were formed in 1883, making one of Oxfordshires oldest clubs. They spent their early years playing in local Oxfordshire leagues, in 1959 they stepped up to the Hellenic League, where they were league champions in 1961–62 and 1969–70 and runners-up on three other occasions. In 1988 the decision was taken to switch to the South Midlands League, in three seasons in this league United finished runners-up twice and then claimed the league title in 1990–91, which saw them promoted to the Isthmian League Division Three. Two promotions followed in succession, putting the club in Division One in 1995. In October 2003 the club reached the 4th qualifying round of the FA Cup for the first time in their history, since then they have reached this point in the competition twice, losing 1–0 to Hornchurch and 5–0 to Forest Green. In 2004, due to reorganisation, United switched to the Southern League Division One West. In 2005 severe financial difficulties hit the club, with bailiffs seizing assets to offset unpaid VAT bills, and the landlord of their Windmill Road stadium serving them with notice of eviction. The club managed to limp to the end of the playing at the ground of neighbours Aylesbury United. During the summer of 2006, Aylesbury were also evicted from their ground, leaving Thame homeless once again, because of this, they were relegated to the Hellenic Football League Division 1 East for the 2007–08 season. In October 2007 it was announced that the plans to move to a multi-million pound venue at Church Farm in the North of Thame. They hoped to begin playing in their new stadium by the 2009–10 season, after the stadium was completed, a game to celebrate the clubs new stadium was played against Football League Two side Oxford United in January 2011. Thame lost 3–1 with the new ASM Stadiums first record attendance of 1,382, at the end of the 2016-17 season, the club was promoted to the Southern League Division One Central. Thame United play their games at The ASM Stadium located at Meadow View Park. From the 2015–16 season, Aylesbury United signed a deal to groundshare with Thame United. The 20 acre site is home to a number of local youth and community teams,7 pitches including multiple artificial turf training pitches, club bar. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Netherlands national football team
The Netherlands national football team represents the Netherlands in international football. It is controlled by the Royal Netherlands Football Association, the body for football in the Netherlands. The team is referred to as Het Nederlands Elftal and Oranje. Like the country itself, the team is sometimes referred to as Holland. The Dutch hold the record for playing the most World Cup finals without winning the tournament. They finished second in the 1974,1978 and 2010 World Cups, losing to West Germany, Argentina and Spain respectively, the Netherlands played their first international match in Antwerp against Belgium on 30 April 1905. The players were selected by a commission from the Dutch football association. After 90 minutes, the score was 1–1, but because the match was for a trophy, the Netherlands made their first appearance at the World Cup final tournament in 1934. After a second appearance in 1938 they did not appear in another World Cup until 1974, the 1970s saw the invention of Total Football, pioneered by Ajax and led by playmaker Johan Cruyff and national team coach Rinus Michels. The Dutch made significant strides, qualifying for two World Cup finals in the decade. The captain of the Brazilian team that won the 1970 FIFA World Cup, Carlos Alberto, went on to say, since then everything looks more or less the same to me. Their carousel style of play was amazing to watch and marvellous for the game, in 1974, the Netherlands beat both Brazil and Argentina in the second group stage, reaching the final for the first time in their history. However, the team lost to West Germany in the final in Munich, however, a converted penalty by Paul Breitner and the winner from Gerd Müller led to a victory for the Germans. By comparison, Euro 76 was a disappointment, the Netherlands lost in the semi-finals to Czechoslovakia, as much because of infighting within the squad and the coach George Knobel, as well as the skill of the eventual winners. In 1978, the Netherlands again reached the final of a World Cup, only to be beaten by the hosts and this side played without Johan Cruijff, Willem van Hanegem, and Jan van Beveren, who refused to participate in the World Cup. It still contained Johan Neeskens, Johnny Rep, Arie Haan, Ruud Krol, Wim Jansen, Jan Jongbloed, Wim Suurbier, the Netherlands were less impressive in the group stages. They qualified as runners-up, after a draw with Peru and a loss to Scotland, in the second group phase, however, the Netherlands topped a group including Italy and West Germany, setting up a final with Argentina. However, the Dutch finished as runners up for the second World Cup in a row as they ultimately lost 3–1 after two extra time goals from Argentina, Rensenbrink hit the Argentinian post in the last minute of normal time, with the score 1–1
Football Club Dordrecht is a football club from the city of Dordrecht in the Netherlands, currently playing in the Eerste Divisie. Founded on 16 August 1883 as Dordrechtsche Football Club, it became a club in 1954 upon the introduction of professional football to the Netherlands. The next significant event was in 1972, at time the professional. The amateur branch remained DFC Dordrecht, while its professional counterpart became simply FC Dordrecht, following their reorganisation in 1979, the club was promoted to the Eredivisie in 1983. This however was not to last and was followed by a relegation back to the Eerste Divisie. They went back up to the Eredivisie in 1988/1989 season, in 1990, another investor gave the club its third name of Dordrecht90. The club just missed promotion to the Eredivisie in 1991, but was admitted when Dordrecht90 surprisingly merged with neighbouring Schiedamse Voetbal Vereniging of Schiedam. The club used the name of SVV/Dordrecht90 for two seasons, but in 1993, the SVV was dropped and the club was renamed Dordrecht90. Finally in 2002, the club was renamed, to the name it bore from 1972 to 1979, FC Dordrecht. For a number of years it was one of the clubs with the lowest average attendance of all Dutch professional teams, undoubtedly the most famous player to wear a Dordrecht shirt was Johan Cruijff, who played 3 friendly matches for the club in January 1981. As of 28 November 2016 For recent transfers, see List of Dutch football transfers summer 2016 Note, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official website FC Dordrecht forum Fansite
Professionalism in association football
Association football is the worlds most popular sport, and is worth US$600 billion worldwide. By the end of the 20th century it was played by over 250 million players in over 200 countries, Football has the highest global television audience in sport. The sport had amateur origins and evolved into the professional competition. Association football was first codified in 1863, with the formation of the Football Association in England, at this time the sport was played mainly by public schools, or teams with public school roots, and amateurism was the norm. This remained the case until the 1880s, when teams began to vie for supremacy. Blackburn Olympic, a team composed mainly of workers, won the 1883 FA Cup Final. They were the first working-class team to win the competition since its inception in 1870, though professionalism was not permitted, Olympic arranged jobs for their players, and supplemented their income with additional payments, a common occurrence among Lancashire clubs. The differences between the amateur idealists from southern England and the increasingly professionalised teams from northern industrial towns came to a head in 1884. After Preston North End won an FA Cup match against Upton Park and this sparked a series of events which threatened to split the FA. Preston withdrew from the competition, and fellow Lancashire clubs Burnley, eighteen months later the FA relented, and in July 1885 professionalism was formally legalised in England. Though English clubs employed professionals, the Scottish Football Association continued to forbid the practice, consequently, many Scottish players migrated southward. At first the FA put residential restrictions in place to prevent this, in the inaugural season of the Football League, champions Preston North End fielded ten Scottish professionals. The Scottish FA lifted its ban on professionalism in 1893, whereupon 560 players were registered as professionals and this table details the year in which professionalism was introduced, country by country. See also Professional sports#Association football The Rise of the Professional Footballer
Geography of association football
The following article gives a list of association football confederations, sub-confederations and associations around the world. The sports international governing body is FIFA, but those not affiliated to FIFA are also included in this article. In the Americas, leagues are organised as either multi-stage tournaments or separate Apertura and Clausura stages. The football associations listed in this section are members of FIFA-affiliated confederations, all UEFA associations are affiliated with FIFA. All CONMEBOL associations are affiliated with FIFA, the football associations in this section represent fully or partially recognized sovereign states or dependent territories, but are not part of FIFA or a FIFA confederation. Beneath the national level, governance of football may be divided up into regional or territorial associations, other non-national associations represent stateless populations, diasporas or micronations. Details of these are listed at non-FIFA international football