1884 in science
The year 1884 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
- October 14 – George Eastman is granted his first patents for photographic roll film in the United States.
- J. H. van 't Hoff proposes the Arrhenius equation for the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant, and therefore, rate of a chemical reaction.
- Hermann Emil Fischer proposes the structure of purine, a key component in many biomolecules, which he synthesizes in 1898; he also begins work on the chemistry of glucose and related sugars.
- Henry Louis Le Chatelier develops Le Chatelier's principle, which explains the response of dynamic chemical equilibria to external stresses.
- The Paal–Knorr synthesis initially reported independently by German chemists Carl Paal and Ludwig Knorr in 1884 as a method for the preparation of furans, and has been adapted for pyrroles and thiophenes.
- Georg Cantor introduces the Cantor function.
- Gottlob Frege publishes Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik ("The Foundations of Arithmetic") presenting a theory of logicism.
- Edwin Abbott Abbott (as "A Square") publishes Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions, a mathematical novella.
- Dr Takaki Kanehiro of the Imperial Japanese Navy conducts a controlled experiment demonstrating that deficient diet is the cause of beriberi, but mistakenly concludes that sufficient protein alone would prevent it.
- Robert Koch and Friedrich Loeffler formulate Koch's postulates on the causal relationship between microbes and diseases. Loeffler also discovers the causative organism for diphtheria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
- In 1884 in Bombay state of India, Robert Koch resided and researched at Grant Medical College, where he was able to determine the causative agent of cholera, isolating Vibrio cholerae.
- Ophthalmologist Karl Koller announces his use of a local anesthetic (cocaine) in surgery; Jellinek also demonstrates cocaine's effects as an anesthetic on the respiratory system.
- Friedrich Schultze first describes the disorder that will become known as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease.
- Among the papers on brain function published by Vladimir Bekhterev is a study on the formation of the human conception of space.
- Ludwig Boltzmann derives the Stefan–Boltzmann law on blackbody radiant flux from thermodynamic principles.
- February 12 – Lewis Waterman gets his first patent for a capillary feed fountain pen in the United States.
- May 16 – Angelo Moriondo of Turin is granted a patent for an espresso machine.
- June 13 – LaMarcus Adna Thompson opens the "Gravity Pleasure Switchback Railway" at Coney Island, New York City.
- October – Hiram Maxim first demonstrates the Maxim gun, the first self-powered machine gun.
- Fall – Chester H. Pond invents the first electrical self-winding clock.
- Charles Renard and Arthur Constantin Krebs make a fully controllable free-flight in French Army airship La France with an electric motor.
- September 24 – Smeaton's Tower opened to the public on Plymouth Hoe as a monument to the history of civil engineering.
- October 22 – International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.C. fixes the Greenwich meridian as the world's prime meridian.
- Sophie Bryant becomes the first woman in England to be awarded the degree of Doctor of Science, by the University of London. Also in this year, she is the first woman to publish a paper with the London Mathematical Society.
- Sofia Kovalevskaya is appointed "Professor Extraordinarius" in mathematics at Stockholm University and becomes the editor of Acta Mathematica.
- January 26 – Edward Sapir (died 1939), Pomeranian-born anthropological linguist.
- January 28
- March 24 – Chika Kuroda (died 1968), Japanese chemist.
- July 2 – Alfons Maria Jakob (died 1931), German neuropathologist.
- July 4 – Eleanor Williams (died 1963), Australian bacteriologist and serologist.
- February 23 – Casimir Funk (died 1967), Polish biochemist, coiner of the term vitamin.
- August 5 – Ludwik Hirszfeld (died 1954), Polish microbiologist and serologist.
- August 31 – George Sarton (died 1956), Flemish historian of science.
- November 8 – Hermann Rorschach (died 1922), Swiss psychiatrist.
- January 6 – Gregor Mendel (born 1822), Silesian geneticist.
- May 10 – Charles-Adolphe Wurtz (born 1817), Alsatian French chemist.
- May 12 – Robert Angus Smith (born 1817), British atmospheric chemist.
- May 13 – Cyrus McCormick (born 1809), American inventor.
- July 18 – Ferdinand von Hochstetter (born 1829), German geologist.
- July 20 – Sir Caesar Hawkins (born 1798), English surgeon.
- November 11 – Alfred Brehm (born 1829), German zoologist.
- November 25 – Hermann Kolbe (born 1818), German chemist.
- Arrhenius equation – IUPAC Goldbook definition
- "Emil Fischer: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901–1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
- "Henry Louis Le Châtelier". World of Scientific Discovery. Thomson Gale. 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- Scheeffer, Ludwig (1884). "Allgemeine Untersuchungen über Rectification der Curven". Acta Mathematica. 5: 49–82. doi:10.1007/BF02421552.
- Rosenfeld, L. (1997). "Vitamine—vitamin: the early years of discovery". Clin Chem. 43: 680–5. PMID 9105273.
- At a medical congress in Heidelberg, Germany, September 15. Honegger, H.; Hessler, H. (September 1970). "[Discovery of local anesthesia by Karl Koller. I]". Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde (in German). West Germany. 157 (3): 428–38. ISSN 0023-2165. PMID 4922411.
- Enersen, Ole Daniel. "Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease". Whonamedit?. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- Petrunkevitch, Alexander (1920). "Russia's Contribution to Science". Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences. 23: 232.
- U.S. Patent 293,545.
- #33/256. Bollettino delle privative industriali del Regno d’Italia 2nd Series 15 (1884) pp. 635–655.
- McCallum, Iain (1999). Blood Brothers – Hiram and Hudson Maxim: Pioneers of Modern Warfare. London: Chatham Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-86176-096-8.
- Kane, Joseph Nathan (1997). Famous First Facts: A Record of First Happenings, Discoveries and Inventions in the United States (5th ed.). H. W. Wilson. p. 605. ISBN 0824209303.
- Winter, Lumen; Degner, Glenn (1933). Minute Epics of Flight. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. pp. 49–50.
- Moseley, Brian (August 2007). "Smeaton's Tower". The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History. Plymouth Data. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16. Retrieved 2015-02-13.
- Cooke, Roger (1984). The Mathematics of Sonya Kovalevskaya. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-96030-2.