Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in Saybrook Colony to train Congregationalist ministers, it is the third-oldest institution of education in the United States. The Collegiate School moved to New Haven in 1716, and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century the school introduced graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools, the undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each schools faculty oversees its curriculum, the universitys assets include an endowment valued at $25.4 billion as of June 2016, the second largest of any U. S. educational institution.
The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States, Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. Almost all faculty teach courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents,19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices,20 living billionaires, and many heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress,57 Nobel laureates,5 Fields Medalists,247 Rhodes Scholars, and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the University. Yale traces its beginnings to An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School, passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9,1701, the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut.
Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregationalist ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, the group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as The Founders. Originally known as the Collegiate School, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, the school moved to Saybrook, and Wethersfield. In 1716 the college moved to New Haven, the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to Yale College, meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale. The 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, philosophy and it had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Lockes works and developed his original theology known as the new divinity
Faribault is a city in Rice County, United States. The population was 23,352 at the 2010 census, Faribault is approximately 50 miles south of Minneapolis and St. Paul. Interstate 35 and Minnesota State Highways 3,21, and 60 are four of the routes in the community. Faribault is situated at the confluence of the Cannon and Straight Rivers in southern Minnesota, Faribault is regarded as one of the most historic communities in Minnesota, with settlement and commercial activity predating Minnesota’s establishment as a U. S. Territory. Prior to 1745, the area was occupied by the Wahpekute band of Dakotah. Shortly thereafter, the tribe was driven south after several clashes with the Ojibwe over territory, the citys namesake, Alexander Faribault, was the son of Jean-Baptiste Faribault, a French-Canadian fur trader and Elizabeth Pelagie Kinzie Haines, a woman of the Dakotah tribe. He is credited with fueling most of the early settlement activity in the beginning in 1826. By 1834, the trading post had grown in popularity and was relocated to the Straight River, one upstream of its junction with the Cannon River.
The young Alexander Faribault used his knowledge of Dakotah language and culture to improve relations with the displaced Wahpekute and this relationship was instrumental in ensuring the success of the trading post and allowing safe travel to the area for settlers. Another source maintains the city is named for Jean-Baptiste Faribault, the Alexander Faribault House was built in 1853 by Alexander Faribault at a cost of $4,000. The house is considered the oldest framed structure in the area, the years following the construction of this first building brought unprecedented growth and economic prosperity for the young settlement. The City of Faribault was platted in 1855 and granted a charter in 1872. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 15.67 square miles,15.32 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles is water. The confluence of the Straight River and the Cannon River is located within city limits, Sakatah Lake State Park and Nerstrand-Big Woods State Park are nearby.
Faribault County, roughly 100 miles to the southwest, is unrelated to the city of Faribault, Interstate Highway 35 runs along the western edge of the city. The city is served by two interchanges and one partial interchange. In approximately 1975, the last portions of Interstate 35 were completed, on that same corridor through town, the White Sands Swimming Pool operated from 1964 to 1977. This swimming area is now the White Sands Dog Park, as well as the trailhead for the Sakatah Singing Hills Trail which runs to Mankato, the site includes parking, restrooms and a shelter
Little Brown Jug (college football trophy)
The Little Brown Jug is an earthenware jug that serves as a trophy awarded to the winner of the game. It is one of the oldest and most played rivalries in American college football, both universities are founding members of the Big Ten Conference. As a result of the Big Ten not playing a complete schedule, Michigan. In 2011, with the initiation of divisional play, Michigan. However, when the conference expanded again three years later, the teams were split into opposite divisions. The conference stated there will be only one protected crossover matchup under the new alignment, Indiana vs. Purdue for the Old Oaken Bucket, Michigan is the current holder of the jug with a 29–26 victory on October 31,2015. Through the end of the 2015 season, Michigan leads the series, the teams met for the first time in 1892 in Minneapolis, with Minnesota prevailing 14–6. Michigan and Minnesota played five games over the next decade. The earthenware jug, originally used by Michigan coach Fielding H. Yost, is painted with the victories of each team, the name most likely originates in the 1869 song of the same name by Joseph Winner.
After Yost took over coaching the Wolverines in 1901, the team went on to win 28 straight games, in the meantime, Minnesota assembled one of the best teams in school history, so Gopher fans were excited about possibly ending the Wolverines streak. When Yost and the team came into Minneapolis for the 1903 game, Yost was somewhat concerned that Gopher fans might contaminate his water supply. Roberts purchased a five-gallon jug for 30¢ from a variety store. Twenty thousand fans watched the matchup between the two teams in an overflowing Northrop Field, Minnesota held the fabled point-a-minute squad to just one touchdown, but hadnt yet managed to score a touchdown of their own. Finally, late in the half, the Gophers reached the endzone to tie the game at 6. As clouds from an impending storm hung overhead, pandemonium struck when Minnesota fans stormed the field in celebration, eventually the game had to be called with two minutes remaining. The Wolverines walked off the field, leaving the jug behind in the room of the University of Minnesota Armory.
The next day custodian Oscar Munson brought the jug to L. J. Cooke, head of the Minnesota athletics department, exactly how Munson came to possess the jug is a bit of a mystery. Some accounts say that Munson purposely stole the jug in the chaos that ended the game, Thomas Roberts, writing in 1956, stated that the jug had served its purpose, so he intentionally left it sitting on the field
1886 college football season
The 1886 college football season had no clear-cut champion, with the Official NCAA Division I Football Records Book listing Princeton and Yale as having been selected national champions. On Thanksgiving Day in Princeton, NJ, undefeated teams from Yale, the game started late due to the absence of a referee, and heavy rain caused the game to be called on account of darkness with Yale leading 4-0 in the second half. Under the rules of the time, the game was declared no contest by the referee. The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6,1886, Vermont was the last state in New England yet to have a football contest
The Minnesota shift was an American football shift maneuver. It was the forerunner to all quick shifts in American football, the intent of the Minnesota shift was to keep the defense off balance and disguise the offenses intended point of attack. To be effective, the shift into the new formation was supposed to be done quickly and the ball snapped immediately afterward. University of Minnesota Golden Gophers coach Dr. Henry L. Williams is credited with its invention in the first decade of the 20th century, the maneuver gained national attention when it was adopted by period powerhouse Yale University in 1910. Williams, an 1891 graduate of Yale, had repeatedly offered to mentor his alma mater in the formation. In 1910, the Elis suffered early season setbacks at the hands of inferior opponents, former Yale end Thomas L. Shevlin, who had served as an assistant coach at Minnesota, taught the team the shift. Yale used the Minnesota shift against both opponents, and beat Princeton, 5–3, and tied Harvard, 0–0.
In 1917, Wisconsin head coach John R. Richards claimed that Chicagos legendary Amos Alonzo Stagg, the following season, Michigan effectively shut down the shift behind good line play
Battle Hymn of the Republic
The Battle Hymn of the Republic, known as Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory outside of the United States, is a song by American writer Julia Ward Howe using the music from the song John Browns Body. Howes more famous lyrics were written in November 1861, and first published in The Atlantic Monthly in February 1862, the song links the judgment of the wicked at the end of the age with the American Civil War. Since that time, it has become a popular and well-known American patriotic song. The Glory, Hallelujah tune was a folk hymn developed in the oral tradition of camp meetings in the southern United States. In the first known version, Canaans Happy Shore, the text includes the verse Oh, Brothers will you meet me /On Canaans happy shore. And chorus There well shout and give him glory /For glory is his own, the tune and variants of these words spread across both the southern and northern United States. At a flag-raising ceremony at Fort Warren, near Boston, Massachusetts on Sunday May 12,1861, Brothers tune and the Glory, Hallelujah chorus, was publicly played perhaps for the first time.
The American Civil War had begun the previous month, in 1890, George Kimball wrote his account of how the 2nd Infantry Battalion of the Massachusetts militia, known as the Tiger Battalion, collectively worked out the lyrics to John Browns Body. Kimball wrote, We had a jovial Scotchman in the battalion, named John Brown. and as he happened to bear the name of the old hero of Harpers Ferry. These ditties underwent various ramifications, until eventually the lines were reached, — John Browns body lies a-mouldering in the grave, and, — Hes gone to be a soldier in the army of the Lord, His souls marching on. These lines seemed to give satisfaction, the idea that Browns soul was marching on receiving recognition at once as having a germ of inspiration in it. They were sung over and over again with a deal of gusto. Some leaders of the battalion, feeling the words were coarse and irreverent, tried to urge the adoption of more fitting lyrics, the lyrics were soon prepared for publication by members of the battalion, together with publisher C. S.
Hall. They selected and polished verses they felt appropriate, and may even have enlisted the services of a poet to help polish. Kimballs battalion was dispatched to Murray, Kentucky early in the Civil War, rufus R. Dawes, in command of Company K of the 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, stated in his memoirs that the man who started the singing was Sergeant John Ticknor of his company. Howes companion at the review, The Reverend James Freeman Clarke, of the writing of the lyrics, Howe remembered, I went to bed that night as usual, and slept, according to my wont, quite soundly. I awoke in the gray of the twilight, and as I lay waiting for the dawn. Having thought out all the stanzas, I said to myself, I must get up and write these verses down, lest I fall asleep again and forget them
Memorial Stadium (University of Minnesota)
Memorial Stadium, known as the Brick House, was an outdoor athletic stadium in the north central United States, on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. It was the home of the Minnesota Golden Gophers football team for 58 seasons, prior to 1924, the Gophers played at Northrop Field. Starting in 1982, the Gophers played their games in the new Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. After 27 seasons indoors, the Gophers returned to campus in 2009 at the new TCF Bank Stadium, a block from the site of Memorial Stadium. Opened on October 14,1924, the stadium was dedicated to the 3,527 students and workers who served in World War I and it sat on approximately 11 acres. While Memorial Stadium was its home, the team won six national championships including three consecutive. The championship years were 1934,1935,1936,1940,1941, the official capacity of the stadium during the 1970s was listed as 56,652. The stadium seated approximately 66,000 people with temporary bleachers. The stadiums attendance record was 66,284, set in 1961 against Purdue on November 18, Memorial Stadium served as the universitys track and field venue, and was an occasional back-up venue for professional football and soccer.
In 1969, the NFLs Minnesota Vikings played a season game on October 5 against the Green Bay Packers at Memorial Stadium. It was due to a conflict with a Minnesota Twins playoff game at Metropolitan Stadium, the Vikings played a pre-season game at Memorial in 1971, its second season with artificial turf. The artificial Tartan Turf was removed after seven seasons and returned to grass in 1977. The Minnesota Kicks soccer team of the NASL played once at Memorial Stadium, the game was moved due to a schedule conflict with the Twins at Met Stadium. Ancel Keys founded the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene underneath Memorial Stadium, here thirty-six conscientious objectors were confined during the yearlong Minnesota Starvation Experiment. Memorial Stadium served as the anchor for Stadium Village, a commercial area at the southeast portion of the Twin Cities campus. Pressured by downtown Minneapolis business interests and athletic boosters, the elected to move out of the stadium to the new Metrodome.
Athletic director Paul Giel cited the advantages of recruiting by playing in a new NFL venue, the attendance was expected to go up in the late fall with protection from harsh weather. The stadium had been neglected by time, and was badly in need of renovation
Minnesota Golden Gophers football
The Minnesota Golden Gophers football program represents the University of Minnesota in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision level. Founded in 1882, the program is one of the oldest in college football, Minnesota has been a member of the Big Ten Conference since its inception in 1896 as the Western Conference. The Golden Gophers claim seven national championships,1904,1934,1935,1936,1940,1941, since 2009, the Gophers have played all their home games at TCF Bank Stadium in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In January 2017, the Gophers fired head coach Tracy Claeys, the Minnesota Golden Gophers college football team played its first game on September 29,1882, a 4–0 victory over Hamline University. Eight years in 1890, the Gophers played host to Wisconsin in a 63–0 victory, with the exception of 1906, the Gophers and Badgers have played each other every year since then. The 124 games played against each other is the most played rivalry in Division I-A college football, students began gathering to play the game recreationally and its popularity grew.
Once the sport had taken off, it was only a matter of time before a team was formed to play against other schools, early teams were very loosely organized, not requiring all of the players to be students and not having designated coaches. The players on the team started to recruit faculty members who had played football at schools in the East to help organize the team, some years, they played without a coach. Other years, they played with multiple coaches, in total, from 1882 through 1899, the team played 16 seasons of football and had 15 different coaches. As the years went by, the structure started to become more formal. In 1900, the hiring of Dr. Henry L. Williams, the Gophers enjoyed quite a bit of success in the early 20th century, posting winning records from 1900 to 1919. Head coach Henry L. Williams developed the Minnesota shift, a predecessor to quick line shifts, Henry L. Williams led Minnesota to one of the NCAAs longest unbeaten streaks of 35 games, from 1903 to 1905 with 34 wins and 1 tie.
In 1932, Bernie Bierman became the Gopher head coach and led the Gophers to their first dynasty, from 1934 to 1936 the Gophers went on a run of winning three straight National Championships, the last Division I team to accomplish this feat. During the run, Minnesota went unbeaten in 28 straight games,21 of which were consecutive victories, the school record for consecutive victories is 24, which spanned 3 seasons from 1903 to 1905. The Gophers won two national championships in 1940 and 1941. Those two seasons comprised most of an 18-game winning streak that stretched from 1939 to 1942, after some mediocre seasons throughout the remainder of the 1940s and 1950s, the Gophers rose back to prominence in 1960 with their seventh national championship. That national championship followed a 1-8 record in 1958 and 2-7 record in 1959, Minnesota played in bowl games the two following years as well, in 1961 and 1962. The Gophers earned their first berth in the Rose Bowl by winning the 1960 Big Ten title, the following year, Minnesota returned to Pasadena despite a second-place finish in the conference
During the year, Goldy makes over 1000 appearances and is at virtually all home games for University teams, usually wearing the appropriate sporting attire. Minnesota became known as the Gopher State in 1857, the result of a political cartoon ridiculing the $5 million Railroad Loan which helped open up the West, the cartoon portrayed shifty railroad barons as striped gophers pulling a railroad car carrying the Territorial Legislature toward the Slough of Despond. The first U of M yearbook bearing the name Gopher Annual appeared in 1887, Goldy Gopher became a fixture with the Marching Band and Pep Band, as each year a band member was chosen to don the suit for that season. Wherever these two bands performed, Goldy was there to glad-hand with the crowd, hug the little kids, torment the cheerleaders, during the early 1960s, Goldy was actually written into the football pre-game and halftime shows with a specific place to be. Limited visibility from within the suit made it difficult to see out, One benefit during the cold games at Memorial Stadium in November was that Goldy Gopher was one of the few fans that stayed warm.
Each band member who was allowed the joy of being the Gopher developed an individual personality, the style of the gopher suit changed many times through the years, sometimes by chance, sometimes by design. Until the early 1970s, the head was narrow and pointy-nosed, in 1972, Goldy suddenly grew chubby cheeks and a wider, forward-looking face, almost cherubic in appearance. In fact, the gopher of the 1970s and early 1980s was comparable in appearance to a teddy bear, for a brief period in 1985, a fierce-looking “mega-rodent“ appeared, with a barrel chest, clown feet and sinister eyes. This look didnt last long, and Goldy soon again became a lovable, with a propensity for attracting tail-pulling kids, Goldy relied on the band to save him from their clutches. And when the teams cheerleaders or band members managed to “kidnap” the unfortunate rodent. The marketing wing of the Athletic Department officially took charge of Goldy in 1992, the students that portray Goldy maintain anonymity throughout their tenure.
They are recognized as student athletes due to their vigorous schedule and he placed 3rd in 2009 and 2010. Goldy won his first National Championship in 2011, in 2012, Goldy placed 5th, but in 2013, he won the championship again, giving him 2 wins in three years. In 2015 he finished 3rd and in 2016 Goldy finished as runner-up, Goldy was nominated to and made the 2004,2007, and 2010 Capital One All-American Mascot Team. In 2007 he finished second to Zippy from the University of Akron, due to the contributions from students, family and friends, the University of Minnesota’s Student Union was able to fund the creation of an all bronze statue of Goldy the Gopher. This was an issue for some in the University community because of the rising costs of tuition. The goal of the statue, located in the front of Coffman Memorial Union, was to promote school spirit, the University of Minnesota Administration hopes the iconic symbol will help students interact with the spirit and new traditions involving Goldy the Gopher.
The statue is 6 feet,3 inches tall and made of bronze granite, next to the statue is a solid granite M that is 63 inches in width,24 Inches in depth, and 48 inches in height
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2015, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and Saint Paul anchor the second-largest economic center in the Midwest, after Chicago. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul. It was once the worlds flour milling capital and a hub for timber, the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Chicago and Seattle, with Minneapolis proper containing Americas fifth-highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies. As an integral link to the economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city. Noted for its music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. The name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the citys first schoolteacher, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, and polis, Dakota Sioux had long been the regions sole residents when French explorers arrived around 1680.
For a time relations were based on fur trading, gradually more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Dakota. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired this territory from France, fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the United States Army, and it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present-day Minneapolis as a town in 1856 on the Mississippis west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago. It joined with the city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, sashes.
Due to the hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s. The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the citys thirty-four flour mills, a father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from the Hungarians by William de la Barre, pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that Minneapolis
In American football, a T formation is a formation used by the offensive team in which three running backs line up in a row about five yards behind the quarterback, forming the shape of a T. The T formation is said to be the oldest offensive formation in American football and is claimed to have been invented by Walter Camp in 1882. However, as the pass was legalized, the original T became obsolete in favor of formations such as the single wing. Innovations, such as a smaller, more throwing-friendly ball, along with the invention of the snap in the 1930s. The original T formation is used today, but it was successful in the first half of the 20th century. The formation led to a faster-paced, higher-scoring game, Shaughnessy helped the Bears prepare for the game against the Redskins. He has been called The father of the T formation, the T-formation was viewed as a complicated gadget offense by early football coaches. Shaughnessy was as an advisor to Halas in the 1930s athehead coach at the University of Chicago, the T became much more viable in 1933 when passing was legalized anywhere behind the line of scrimmage.
Halas recruited Solly Sherman, the Quarterback for the University of Chicago because of his experience with the T-Formation under Clark Shaughnessy, Solly taught Sid Luckman the system. Sherman, a half back, had torn his meniscus in college. Eventually he played backup to Sid Luckman with the Bears in 1939 and 1940, Sid Luckman went on to win four NFL championships in the 1940s. The last team to run the single-wing in the NFL, the Pittsburgh Steelers, since that time, the T, and all its variants, have dominated offensive football and created the American football now employed throughout the NCAA and NFL. The T is referenced in the Chicago Bears fight song, Bear Down, Chicago Bears, well never forget the way you thrilled the nation, with your T formation. Additionally, two books detail the development of the T with the Bears, the Chicago Bears by Howard Roberts written in 1947, credits several coaches including Ralph Jones and Clark Shaughnessy for upgrading the T and teaching it to a succession of Bears QBs.
The Wow Boys by James W. Johnson written in 2006 tells the story of the Stanford University football season of 1940, the arrival of Shaughnessy and his T offense led to a 10-0 season and a victory in the Rose Bowl over heavily favored University of Nebraska. The Bears thumping of the Washington Redskins 73-0 a few weeks caused a sensation, the T swept college and pro football. The brain trust that created the T was always anchored by Coach Halas, who had the savvy for what worked, while unpopular today, the key innovations of the T still dominate offensive football. The T was the first offense in which the quarterback took the snap from under center, other offenses used the QB primarily as a blocker and the snap usually went to a halfback or tailback