1872–73 in English football
The 1872–73 season was the second season of competitive football in England. Football's second season saw the world's first FIFA recognised international match: Scotland v England; the Football Association had initiated'international' matches between English and Scottish players since 1870, under the auspices of the FA. The first official match took place when Queen's Park, a leading Scottish club in football's development, invited the FA to pick an English team to face a Scottish team; the match took place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow on 30 November 1872 and ended in a 0–0 draw in front of around 4,000 spectators. The FA hosted a return match at Kennington Oval, London, on 8 March 1873, which marked the first official meeting of the sides in England, with the English adopting Scotland's 2–2–6 formation. England only retained two of the players who had appeared in the November 1872 match, Ernest Greenhalgh in defence and Charles Chenery, a forward. England selected a side with a strong Wanderers influence, including Leonard Howell, Robert Vidal, Alexander Bonsor, William Kenyon-Slaney and Hubert Heron.
Of these only Heron would play more than two matches for England. The other players selected were Alexander Morten in goal, William Clegg and Royal Engineers Pelham von Donop and Alfred Goodwyn; the limited funds available to the fledgling SFA meant they were only able to finance rail fares to London for eight players, so the team was augmented with three Anglo-Scots who had appeared in the earlier unofficial series, Lord Kinnaird, John Blackburn and Henry Renny-Tailyour. The match ended in a 4–2 victory for England; the Scottish Football Association was formed on 13 March 1873 and took over the running of the Scotland team - helping to further signify that the FA was to become an English, not UK-wide or worldwide, organisation. The FA Cup returned for a second season. Under the rules of the time, the previous year's winners, automatically qualified for the final at Lillie Bridge on 29 March 1873, where they beat the Oxford University 2–0. After this season, the'challenge' rule was scrapped and the current holders had to start in the first round like everybody else.
* England score given first Key H = Home match A = Away match F = Friendly Notes = Number in parentheses is the times that club has won that honour. * indicates new record for competition Comparison of English and Scottish playing styles 1872-73 in Scottish football "England match 1 statistics at TheFA.com". TheFA.com. Archived from the original on 2007-10-29. "England match 2 statistics at TheFA.com". TheFA.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007
Football in England
Association football is the most popular sport in England, where the first modern set of rules for the code were established in 1863, which were a major influence on the development of the modern Laws of the Game. With over 40,000 association football clubs, England has more clubs involved in the code than any other country as well as the world's first club, the world's oldest professional association football club, the oldest national governing body, the first national team, the oldest national knockout competition and the oldest national league. Today England's top domestic league, the Premier League, is one of the most popular and richest sports leagues in the world, with six of the ten richest football clubs in the world as of 2019; the England national football team is one of only eight teams to win the World Cup, in 1966. A total of five English club teams have won the UEFA Champions League. Football was played in England as far back as medieval times; the first written evidence of a football match came in about 1170, when William Fitzstephen wrote of his visit to London, "After dinner all the youths of the city goes out into the fields for the popular game of ball."
He went on to mention that each trade had their own team, "The elders, the fathers, the men of wealth come on horseback to view the contests of their juniors, in their fashion sport with the young men. Kicking ball games are described in England from 1280. In 1314, Edward II the King of England, said about a sport of football and the use of footballs, "certain tumults arising from great footballs in the fields of the public, from which many evils may arise." An account of an kicking "football" game from Nottinghamshire in the fifteenth century bears similarity to association football. By the 16th centuries references to organised teams and goals had appeared. There is evidence for refereed, team football games being played in English schools since at least 1581; the eighteenth-century Gymnastic Society of London is, the world's first football club. The Cambridge rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football.
The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably, Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of the Sheffield & Hallamshire Football Association in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules, his brother, headmaster of the school Reverend Edward Thring, was a proponent of football as an alternative to masturbation, seen as weakening the boys, through football hoped to encourage their development of perceived manly attributes which were present in the sport. These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London.
The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games. A match between Sheffield and Hallam F. C. on 29 December 1862 was one of the first matches to be recorded in a newspaper. With the modern passing game believed to have been innovated in London and with England being home to the oldest football clubs in the world dating from at least 1857, the world's oldest football trophy, the Youdan Cup, the first national competition, the FA Cup founded in 1871, the first association football league as well as England having the first national football team that hosted the world's first international football match, a 1–1 draw with Scotland on 5 March 1870 at The Oval in London, England is considered the home of the game of football. On 8 March 1873, the England national team's 4–2 win over Scotland at the Oval was the first victory in international football; the late nineteenth century was dominated by the growing split between the amateur and professional teams, aligned along a North-South divide.
Northern clubs were keen to adopt professionalism as workers could not afford to play on an amateur basis, while Southern clubs by the large part stuck by traditional "Corinthian" values of amateurism. In 1885 the FA legalised professionalism, when Aston Villa director William McGregor organised a meeting of representatives of England's leading clubs, this led to the formation of the Football League in 1888. Preston North End were inaugural winners in 1888–89, were the first club to complete the double of both winning the league and the FA Cup. Aston Villa repeated the feat in 1896–97; the League expanded over the next 25 years as football boomed in England, from one division of twelve clubs in 1888, to two divisions by the 1892–93 season, with a total of 28 clubs and with the gradual addition of more clubs, a total of 40 by 1905–06. It remained at 40 until the league was suspended after the 1914–15 season with the outbreak of World War I. During this time clubs from the North and Midlands dominated, with Aston Villa, The Wednesday and Newcastle United all winning three
For the original Cathkin Park ground, see Cathkin Park. Cathkin Park is a municipal park in Scotland; the park is maintained by the city's parks department, it is a public place where football is still played. The park contains the site of the second Hampden Park home to the football clubs Queen's Park and Third Lanark; the original Hampden Park is just to the west, as the course of the original Cathcart Road is now in Queen's Park Rec. The park contained a football stadium, which had played host to organised football since 1884, it was known as Hampden Park and was rented by Queen's Park between 1884 and 1903. When Queen's Park moved to the third Hampden Park, Third Lanark took over the lease, they renamed it New Cathkin Park (as they had played at another stadium named Cathkin Park just to the east of Dixon Halls on the east side of the Cathcart Road. This is where the first major Anglo-Scottish club competition, the British League Cup final, took place in 1902, which Celtic won against Rangers 3–2 after extra time.
Third Lanark's last match at Cathkin took place on 25 April 1967, when they played out a 3–3 draw against Queen of the South. Jimmy Davidson scored one goal for Queens and Brian McMurdo two, including the last senior football goal at the Park. A Glasgow Challenge Cup Final was played at Cathkin on 13 May 1967 between two Junior sides, Cambuslang Rangers and Rutherglen Glencairn; the final goal to be scored at Cathkin came from Cambuslang Rangers forward Peter Coleman after 17 minutes. The stadium subsequently fell into disrepair and most of the fabric was removed; the remains of the terraces from 3 sides of the ground can be seen in the park. However, a reformed Third Lanark team, which plays in the Greater Glasgow Amateur League plays in the park, as do Hampden AFC and boys team the Jimmy Johnstone Academy. In 2017, Third Lanark A. F. C. announced a £5 million plan to return to Cathkin and redevelop the ground, with an all-weather pitch, a 2000-seat stand and community facilities for football and cricket.
Historic Environment Scotland. "Glasgow, Myrtle Park, Cathkin Park, Third Lanark Football Ground". Canmore. Video of the remaining terraces May 2011
1888 FA Cup Final
The 1888 FA Cup Final was contested by West Bromwich Albion and Preston North End at the Kennington Oval. Preston were strong favourites for the Cup, having set a record which still stands today by beating Hyde 26–0 in the first round, were so confident of overcoming West Bromwich Albion in the final that they asked to be photographed with the trophy before the game; the FA president Major Francis Marindin turned them down and said: "Hadn't you better win it first?" They didn't get their photo after the game either. So lacking in confidence were their West Bromwich opponents that when offered bets on the outcome of the game by the Preston players, they all refused, no matter how great the odds. West Brom won 2 -- 1, with their goals scored by Jem Bayliss. Fred Dewhurst scored Preston's effort. John Goodall recalled many years how, at the final whistle, he stood motionless in the centre circle for many minutes unable to comprehend the result; the refereeing of the game by Major Francis Marindin was questioned by many observers who felt that he had shown bias towards Albion's all English eleven.
At one point during the game he stopped play just as Preston were about to score to award a free kick to Albion despite no Albion player having made an appeal, as was required by the rules of the game at that time. Cambridge University captain Tinsley Lindley commented to defeated Preston player Jack Ross "Well Jack, you cannot expect to win when playing against eleven men and the devil." The Preston players however cited their own pre match routine for their defeat. Bob Holmes recalled "We could not get warm again; the invincibles entered the Kennington Oval field that day in a pitiful state. We were daft." At this time the boat race was considered a greater sporting event than the cup final. By contrast, Albion captain, Billy Bassett stated "Jack Ross lost his cool that day; that was the key. I managed to keep my cool and the cooler I kept, the rasher Ross got." Bassett recalled that it was Ross' rashness that cost his side the winning goal as he charged at Bassett and ended up somersaulting clean over him.
As he picked himself up he watched. Bassett however was complimentary of his opponents when, years he stated "I have seen all the best sides in Football but I have never seen a side that compared to Preston North End at their best. We beat them but I do not pretend for a moment that we deserved to beat them." In 2015 what was believed to be one of a small number of surviving copies of the programme from the Final, which sold for a penny, was put up for auction. The programme had at one time been owned by West Bromwich Albion director Harold Ely. At auction it achieved a sale price of £20,000. Line-ups Match report at www.fa-cupfinals.co.uk
Ireland national football team (1882–1950)
The Ireland national football team represented Ireland in association football from 1882 until 1950. It was organised by the Irish Football Association, is the fourth oldest international team in the world, it played in the British Home Championship against England and Wales. Though vying with Wales to avoid the wooden spoon, Ireland did win the Championship in 1914, shared it with England and Scotland in 1903. After the partition of Ireland in the 1920s, although the IFA's administration of club football was restricted to Northern Ireland, the IFA national team continued to select players from the whole of Ireland until 1950, did not adopt the name "Northern Ireland" until 1954 in FIFA competition, the 1970s in the British Home Championship. In 1924, a separate international team, organised by the Football Association of Ireland, fielded a team called Ireland, which now represents the Republic of Ireland. On 18 February 1882, two years after the founding of the Irish FA, Ireland made their international debut against England, losing 0–13 in a friendly played at Bloomfield Park in Belfast, becoming the fourth international side to take the field.
This result remains the record win for the record defeat for an Ireland team. The Irish line-up that day included Samuel Johnston, who at the age of 15 years and 154 days became the youngest international debutant, a record until Aníbal Zapicán Falco played for Uruguay in 1908 at the age of 15 years and nine days. On 25 February 1882 Ireland played their second international against Wales at the Racecourse Ground, Wrexham and an equaliser from Johnston became Ireland's first goal, although Ireland went on to lose 1–7, the goal saw Johnston became the youngest international goalscorer. In 1884 Ireland lost all three games. Ireland did not win their first game until 13 March 1887, a 4–1 win over Wales in Belfast. Between their debut and this game, they had a run of 14 defeats and 1 draw, the longest run without a win in the 19th century. Despite the end of this run, heavy defeats continued to blight Ireland's record, including 3 March 1888 when they lost 0–11 to Wales, on 23 February 1901 when they lost 0–11 to Scotland.
These losses, together with the initial loss to England still constitute the record wins held by each of the other home nation teams. However, there were some brighter moments: on 7 February 1891 an Ireland team featuring Jack Reynolds and four-goal hero Olphert Stanfield defeated Wales 7–2, providing Ireland with their second win. Reynolds international performances attracted the interest of West Bromwich Albion who signed him in March 1891, however it was discovered that Reynolds was English. On 3 March 1894 at the Solitude Ground in Belfast, after thirteen attempts Ireland avoided defeat to England, the team that included Fred Spiksley and Reynolds, who had since switched allegiances, Ireland gained a 2–2 draw. Goals from Stanfield and W. K. Gibson inspired Ireland to come back from 2–0 down to gain a 2–2 draw. Lacking the strength in depth enjoyed by England and Scotland, Irish internationals of this era started younger and their careers lasted longer than their English or Scottish contemporaries.
As a result, Ireland fielded both oldest national teams during the 19th century. Samuel Johnston had led the way in the early 1880s. On 27 February 1886 Shaw Gillespie, at the age of 18, became the youngest goalkeeper of the 19th century. Both Olphert Stanfield and W. K. Gibson were only 17. Another 17-year-old debutant was George Gaukrodger. In Johnston and Gaukrodger, Ireland had three of the four youngest goalscorers in the 19th century. Stanfield would go on to win 30 caps for Ireland, making him the most capped international of the century. Ireland's greatest success on the football field came when they won the 1913–14 British Home Championship; however the foundations for that success had been laid over a decade earlier when Ireland had pioneered the use of national team coaches. The first time in the history of modern football that a national team had a coach was on 20 February 1897 when Billy Crone was in charge of the Ireland team that lost 6–0 to England, again for the wins against Wales on 19 February 1898, on 4 March 1899, Ireland was coached by Hugh McAteer, on 24 February 1900 Robert Torrans coached Ireland for the game against Wales.
In 1914 McAteer would return to coach Ireland to their greatest success. In 1899 the IFA changed its rules governing the selection of non-resident players. Before the Ireland team selected its players from the Irish League, in particular the four Belfast-based clubs, Distillery and Linfield. On 4 March 1899 for the game against Wales, McAteer included four Irish players based in England; the change in policy produced dividends as Ireland won 1–0. Three weeks on 25 March one of these four players, Archie Goodall, aged 34 years and 279 days, became the oldest player to score at international level during the 19th century when he scored in a 1–9 defeat to Scotland. Goodall remained a regular at centre-half for Ireland until he was 40. On 28 March 1903, aged of 38 years and 283 days, he scored the opening goal in a 2–0 win against Wales and became the oldest goalscorer in Ireland's history; the goal helped an Ireland team, that included Jack Kirwan, Billy Scott, Billy McCracken and Robert Milne, clinch a share in the 1902–03 British Home Championship.
Until the competition had been monopolised by England and Scotland. However, in 1903, before goal difference was applied, Ireland forced a three way share. Despite losing their opening game 0–4 to England, th
Wales national football team
The Wales national football team represents Wales in international football. It is controlled by the Football Association of Wales, the governing body for football in Wales and the third-oldest national football association in the world. Although part of the United Kingdom, Wales has always had a representative side that plays in major professional tournaments, though not in the Olympic Games, as the International Olympic Committee has always recognised United Kingdom representative sides. During their history, Wales have qualified for two major international tournaments, they reached the quarter-finals of the 1958 FIFA World Cup and reached the semi-finals of UEFA Euro 2016. Wales progressed through UEFA Euro 1976 qualifying to the quarter-final, played on a home and away leg basis, but they did not feature in the finals tournament. At all levels, including the youth teams, the Welsh national team draws players from clubs in the English football league system; the main professional Welsh clubs play in the English leagues, with some full-time and part-time professional clubs playing in the Welsh football league system.
Wales played its first competitive match on 25 March 1876 against Scotland in Glasgow, making it the third oldest international football team in the world. Although the Scots won the first fixture 4–0, a return match was planned in Wales the following year, so it was that the first international football match on Welsh soil took place at The Racecourse Ground, Wrexham, on 5 March 1877. Scotland took the spoils winning 2–0. Wales' first match against England came in 1879, a 2–1 defeat at the Kennington Oval, in 1882, Wales faced Ireland for the first time, winning 7–1 in Wrexham; the associations of the four Home Nations met in Manchester on 6 December 1882 to set down a set of worldwide rules. This meeting saw the establishment of the International Football Association Board to approve changes to the rules, a task the four associations still perform to this day; the 1883–84 season saw the formation of the British Home Championship, a tournament, played annually between England, Scotland and Wales, until 1983–84.
Wales were champions on 12 occasions, winning outright seven times whilst sharing the title five times. The FAW became members of FIFA, world football's governing body, in 1906, but the relationship between FIFA and the British associations was fraught and the British nations withdrew from FIFA in 1928 in a dispute over payments to amateur players; as a result, Wales did not enter the first three FIFA World Cups. In 1932, Wales played host to the Republic of Ireland, the first time they played against a side from outside the four home nations. One year Wales played a match outside the United Kingdom for the first time when they travelled to Paris to play France national football team in a match drawn 1–1. After World War II, along with the other three home nations, rejoined FIFA in 1946 and took part in the qualifying rounds for the 1950 World Cup, the 1949–50 Home Championships being designated as a qualifying group; the top two teams were to qualify for the finals in Brazil. The 1950s were a golden age for Welsh football with stars such as Ivor Allchurch, Cliff Jones, Alf Sherwood, Jack Kelsey, Trevor Ford, Ronnie Burgess, Terry Medwin and John Charles.
Wales made its only World Cup finals tournament appearance in the 1958 edition in Sweden. However, their path to qualification was unusual. Having finished second to Czechoslovakia in qualifying Group 4, the golden generation of Welsh football managed by Jimmy Murphy seemed to have missed out on qualification, but the politics of the Middle East subsequently intervened. In the Asian/African qualifying zone and Sudan had refused to play against Israel following the Suez crisis, while Indonesia had insisted on meeting Israel on neutral ground; as a result, FIFA proclaimed Israel winners of their respective group. However, FIFA did not want a team to qualify for the World Cup finals without playing a match, so lots were drawn of all the second-placed teams in UEFA. Belgium were drawn out first but refused to participate, so Wales was drawn out and awarded a two-legged play-off match against Israel with a place in Sweden for the winners. Having defeated Israel 2–0 at the Ramat Gan Stadium and 2–0 at Ninian Park, Wales went through to a World Cup finals tournament for the first—and only—time.
The strong Welsh squad made their mark in Sweden, drawing all the matches in their group against Hungary and Sweden before defeating Hungary in a play-off match to reach the quarter-finals against Brazil. However, Wales' chances of victory against Brazil were hampered by an injury to John Charles that ruled him out of the match. Wales lost; the goal made Brazil went on to win the tournament. Wales' remarkable campaign in Sweden was the subject of the best-selling book When Pele Broke Our Hearts: Wales and the 1958 World Cup, published on the 40th anniversary of the World Cup and was the inspiration for a Bafta Cymru-nominated documentary. Wales had never qualified for the finals tournament of the UEFA European Championship since its inception in 1960. However, in 1976, the team managed by Mike Smith reached the last eight of the competition, having finished top of qualifying Group 2 ahead of Hungary and Luxembourg. Prior to 1980, only four countries qualified for the finals tournament, Wales were drawn to play against the winners of Group 3—Yugoslavia—on a home and away basis match.
Wales lost the first leg 2–0 in Zagreb and were eliminated from
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the three major professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Nations League and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee and therefore the national team does not compete in the Olympic Games; the majority of Scotland's home matches are played at Hampden Park. Scotland is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside England, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872. Scotland has a long-standing rivalry with England, whom they played annually from 1872 until 1989; the teams have met only seven times since most in June 2017. Scotland have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice, but have never progressed beyond the first group stage of a finals tournament.
The last major tournament they qualified for was the 1998 World Cup. The team have achieved some noteworthy results, such as beating the 1966 FIFA World Cup winners England 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in 1967. Archie Gemmill scored what has been described as one of the greatest World Cup goals in a 3–2 win during the 1978 World Cup against the Netherlands, who reached the final of the tournament. In their qualifying group for UEFA Euro 2008, Scotland defeated 2006 World Cup runners-up France 1–0 in both fixtures. Scotland supporters are collectively known as the Tartan Army; the Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has made more than 50 appearances for Scotland. Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986. Dalglish scored shares the record for most goals scored with Denis Law. Scotland and England are the oldest national football teams in the world. Teams representing the two sides first competed at the Oval in five matches between 1870 and 1872.
The two countries contested the first official international football match, at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland, on 30 November 1872. The match ended in a goalless draw. All eleven players who represented Scotland that day played for Glasgow amateur club Queen's Park. Over the next forty years, Scotland played matches against the other three Home Nations—England and Ireland; the British Home Championship began in 1883. The encounters against England were fierce and a rivalry developed. Scotland lost just two of their first 43 international matches, it was not until a 2–0 home defeat by Ireland in 1903 that Scotland lost a match to a team other than England. This run of success meant that Scotland would have topped the Elo ratings, which were calculated in 1998, between 1876 and 1904. Scotland won the British Home Championship outright on 24 occasions, shared the title 17 times with at least one other team. A noteworthy victory for Scotland before the Second World War was the 5–1 victory over England in 1928, which led to that Scotland side being known as the "Wembley Wizards".
Scotland played their first match outside the British Isles in 1929. Scotland continued to contest regular friendly matches against European opposition and enjoyed wins against Germany and France before losing to the Austrian "Wunderteam" and Italy in 1931. Scotland, like the other Home Nations, did not enter the three FIFA World Cups held during the 1930s; this was because the four associations had been excluded from FIFA due to a disagreement regarding the status of amateur players. The four associations, including Scotland, returned to the FIFA fold after the Second World War. A match between a United Kingdom team and a "Rest of the World" team was played at Hampden Park in 1947 to celebrate this reconciliation; the readmission of the Scottish Football Association to FIFA meant that Scotland were now eligible to enter the 1950 FIFA World Cup. FIFA advised that places would be awarded to the top two teams in the 1950 British Home Championship, but the SFA announced that Scotland would only attend the finals if Scotland won the competition.
Scotland won their first two matches, but a 1–0 home defeat by England meant that the Scots finished as runners-up. This meant that the Scots had qualified by right for the World Cup, but had not met the demand of the SFA to win the Championship; the SFA stood by this proclamation, despite pleas to the contrary by the Scotland players, supported by England captain Billy Wright and the other England players. The SFA instead sent the Scots on a tour of North America; the same qualification rules were in place for the 1954 FIFA World Cup, with the 1954 British Home Championship acting as a qualifying group. Scotland again finished second, but this time the SFA allowed a team to participate in the Finals, held in Switzerland. To quote the SFA website, "The preparation was atrocious"; the SFA only sent 13 players to the finals though FIFA allowed 22-man squads. Despite this self-imposed hardship in terms of players, the SFA dignitaries travelled in numbers, accompanied by their wives. Scotland lost 1–0 against Austria in their first game in the finals, which prompted the team manager Andy Beattie to resign hours before the game against Uruguay.
Uruguay were reigning champions and had never before lost a game at the World Cup finals, they defeated Scotland 7–0. The 1958 FIFA World Cup finals saw Scotland draw their first game against Yugoslavia 1–1, but they lost to Paraguay and France and went out at the first stage. Matt Busby had been due to manage the team at the World Cup, but the severe injuries he suffered in the Munich air disaster